Week 1 Reading Ch. 1- Psychology 202
Week 1 Reading Ch. 1- Psychology 202 PSY 202
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janiel Celeena Santos on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Measelle J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Week 1 Reading Chapter 1 9515 130 11 What is Psychoegg Psychology The study of mental activity and behavior Mind mental activity that involves perceptual experiences sights smells tastes sounds and touch Behavior Examines the actions of a being Psychological Science Teaches Critical Thinking Critical Thinking To analyze and question data or information by using good supported evidence oz Separate the believable from the incredible oz Learn how to be an amiable skeptic a combination of openness and wariness oz To strengthen one39s own beliefs one needs to critique them 60 Keep an open mind and practice in healthy questioning o Is my belief true 0 Why do I believe it o What evidence is there to support it o Is there new scienti c evidence to support or disprove my beliefs How do People Typically Think There are some common errors that people will make when trying to make conclusions about an event or analyzing it There are several different biases that people will encounter 0 Ignoring evidence People tend to lean towards evidence that supports their own personal beliefs and look for aws in studies that contradict their own ideas oz IUdClinCl Source Credibilitv Where does the information come from Is it credible and reliable 0 Misunderstandind Statistics Going with one39s gut For example if a coin is ipped ve times and four of those ve were heads one would believe that for the next ip betting tails would be in their favor 60 Relationships That Don t Exist Believing that two events that happen at the same time are somehow related ex Wearing a lch sweater to make one s favorite sports team win oz Relative Comparisons Based on how a piece of information is presented determines how someone perceives it Information that is presented in a positive manner is more appealing than something presented negatively Ex Saying you have an 18 chance of contracting an illness vs saying you have an 82 of not contracting an illness kt Hindsight Coming up with explanations for an event despite that it could distort evidence Once the outcome is known one changes and reinterprets evidence to t the outcome oz SelfServino Bias By being motivated to feeling good about themselves people blind themselves to aws and blame others for their failures oz Mental Shortcuts Mental heuristics are used to make some decisions yet some can lead to bad judgements and biased conclusions 12 Scienti c Foundations of Psvchologl Nature vs Nurture oz Is the psychology of a person beliefs values rules and norms determined biologically or through an education culture and experience oz How does Nature shape behavior the brain and mind How does Nurture do the same Mind vs Bodv oz Is the mind and body separate or distinct oz Scholars believed an immortal soul is what separates humans from animals oz This belief led to the rise of Dual5m by Rene Descartes 16005 Dual5m The belief that the mind and body are separate but intertwined Things such as memory and imagination were managed by the body yet the soul and rational mind was separate from the body s physical actions Rise of lntrosoection lohn Stuart Mill Believed Psychology should leave the realm of philosophy and speculation and become a science of experiment and observation 1879 Wilhelm Wundt Established the rst psychology laboratory and institute Used a method called reaction time to determine how fast people could react to an event or task allowing him to infer how long it took for a mental event to happen lntrospection the examination of one s mental experiences that has a subject to analyze and discuss their thoughts oz General problem Experience is subjective From lntrosoection to Structuralism Edward Titchener Student of Wundt and used the theory of introspection to pioneer the theory of Structuralism Structuralism Consciousness can be broken down into basic components ex Periodic table composed of the elements Believed that consciousness could be measured for its quality clarity intensity and duration William lames A proponent of Structuralism argued that the mind was a stream of consciousness that could not be paused and studied Functionalism to him was the best way to study the mind Functionalism studying how the mind operates and helps humans adapt to environmental factors 60 Charles Darwin major in uence on the theory of Functionalism oz 1859 introduced the evolutionary theory Gestalt Psvcholoov and Context Max Wertheimer Founder of Gestalt Theory later expanded upon by Wolfgang Kohler Gestalt Theory The entire personal experience is not the summation of basic elements The whole is different from the sum of its parts The perception of things is subjective and depended on the context given Freud and Unconscious Con icts Siqmund Freud Father of Psychoanalytic theory Very in uential psychologist in the 20th century oz Believed that behavior was determined by mental processes that were not on the conscious awareness level of the mind the Unconscious oz Pioneered Psychoanalysis 0 Believed in Free Association allowing a patient to speak freely at therapeutic sessions to eventually reveal the unconscious con icts that attribute to psychological problems Unconscious Where mental processes operate below the conscious awareness level of the mind Many unconscious con icts arise from childhood experiences that the person blocks from memory Psychoanalysis Attempts to bring unconscious contents to the conscious level to be revealed Behaviorism oz Psychologists made discoveries that behavior was in uenced by consequences kt Behaviorism was prominent until the 19605 Behaviorism Highlights the role of environmental factors in making observable behaviors Cognitive Approaches Emphasized Mental Activity Cognitive Psychology Study of the mental functions like intelligence thinking language memory and decisionmaking oz Arose in the 19805 Cognitive Neuroscience Focus on neural mechanisms of the brain that have to do With kt Thought kt Learning kt Memory Social Psychology and the Shaping of Behavior Social Psycho00v Study of others in uence one s thoughts actions and feelings Personality Psycho00v Study of the characteristic thoughts feelings and heavier in people and how they change in different social situations 60 Social psychologists have highlighted that the following shape behavior 0 People 0 Forces 0 Certain situations Science and Psvcholooical Treatments oz Disease and mental disorders in uenced by 0 Nature Biological factors 0 Nurture Environmental factors oz No cure for psychological diseases only treatments 13 The Latest Developments in Psychology Biology in Explaining Psychology kt Biological level of study 0 Focus Brain systems genetics neurochemistry o What is studied Neuroanatomy Brain Imaging Heritability Etc oz Progression of the study of brain chemistry and patterns that occur kt Mapping of human genome has been in uential in brain studies 0 Analyzing behavioral and disease Evolutionary Thinking oz Evolution of the brain has been key to solving reproductive issue sand survival oz Shaped by environmental pressures faced by our ancestors Culture Provides Adaptive Solutions oz Societal and cultural norms dictate the behavior of people in different contexts oz A need to live in groups oz Different behaviors are triggered by how one was raised and in what culture he or she is a part of 60 Globalization key to how societies have changed in interacting with one another Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis oz 4 main levels of analysis used in psychology 0 Biology 0 Individual 0 Social 0 Cultural Level Focus What is Studied Biological kt Brain Systems Neuroanatomy Brain kt Neurochemistry Imaging Heritability drug oz Genetics studies twin and adoption studies Individual Personality Gender oz Individual Developmental age differences groups movements kt Perceptionbehavio actions seeinghearing r memory decision to Cognition making thinking Social Relationships Groups oz Interpersonal In uence Workspace Behavior Attitudes Stereotypes oz SociaI Cognition Cultural Beliefs Values Ethnicity oz Thoughts SymboIs oz Actions oz SocietalCultural oz Actions oz SocietalCultural Behaviors