PSY 335 Week 5 Notes
PSY 335 Week 5 Notes PSY 335
Popular in Psychology of Childhood
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bria Harris on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 335 at Syracuse University taught by W. Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Childhood in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
PSY 335 Psychology of Childhood Week 5 Lecture Notes September 29th and October 1St Theories of Cognitive Development Why Developmental Theories 1 Provide a framework for understanding phenomena 2 Raise crucial question about human nature 3 Motivate new research studies that lead to better understanding of children Piaget s Theory Assumption 1 From birth onward kids are mentally active as well as physically Constructivist Child as a scientist Assumption 2 Children learn many important lessons on their own rather than depending on instruction from adults or older children Assumption 3 Children are intrinsically motivated to learn amp don t need rewards from adults to do so Nature vs Nurture Believed nature amp nurture interacted to produce cognitive development Adaptation tendency to respond to the demands of the environment that allow you to meet your goals Organization tendency to integrate observations into coherent knowledge ContinuityDiscontinuity Learning is Continuous Assimilation Integrating reality into one s own view Accommodation One s view changes to better match reality Equilibration Balance Clearer schemas Eg Camel vs lumpy horse child thinks a camel is some form of a horse so they call it a lumpy horse later learn it is a camel that is different from a horse But there are discontinuous changes Discontinuous aspects of Piaget s theory are distinct hierarchical stages Central properties of Piaget s theory 0 Qualitative o Broad applicability across topics amp contexts 0 Brief transitions 0 Invariant sequence Hypothesized that kids progress though 4 stages of cognitive development each building on the previous one Piaget s Stage Theory 4 Stages Sensorimotor birth 2 years Preoperational 2 7 years Concrete Operational 7 12 years old Formal Operational 12 years amp up 99 Ntquot Sensorimotor Stage Early sensorimotor activity represents and early type of intelligence Substage 1 During the 1St month infants begin to modify their re exes to make them more adaptive Substage 2 1 4 months infants begin to organize separate re exes into larger behaviors most of which are centered on their body Substage 3 4 8 months infants become increasingly interested in the world around them Object permanence Prior to 8 months infants lack knowledge that objects contribute to exist even when out of view Substage 4 8 12 months by the end of the 1St year infants will search for objects rather than act as if they had vanished suggesting infants can mentally represent the objects existence even when they did not see them A NOT B Error Even if you hide something in a different spot they ll go to the 1St spot they saw it Substage 5 12 18 months toddlers begin actively amp avidly exploring the potential uses to which objects can be put Substage 6 18 24 months infants become able to form enduring mental representations Deferred imitation infants are able to repeat others behavior minutes hours or days after it occurs Eg Video of little girl putting forehead on toy to make it light up imitating man was still able to complete this task hours later Overview 1 Infants activities originally center on their own bodies amp then begin to include the world around them 2 Early goals are concrete shaking a rattle amp listening to the sounds while later goals are more abstract varying heights of dropping a spoon 3 Are increasingly able to form mental representations Out of sight out of mind remembering amp being able to replicate a person s actions days later Preoperational Stage Mix of impressive cognitive acquisitions amp equally impressive limitations Symbolic representation use 1 object to stand for another Egocentrism limitation tendency to perceive the world solely from one s own POV eg 3 mountain task Centration limitation tendency to focus on a single perceptually striking feature of an object or an event eg confusing letters b and d balance scale Lack conservation concept changing the appearance of objects doesn t change their key properties Concrete Operational Stage Beginning at 7 children begin to reason logically about concrete features of the world However thinking systematically remains every difficult as does reasoning about hypothetical situations Eg Sally is Taller than Molly Iackie is taller than Sally Who is the tallest Kids under 12 have difficulty doing this Inhelder s Pendulum Problem Task Compare motions of longer amp shorter strings with lighter and heavier weights to determine the in uence of weight string length amp dropping point on time it takes for the pendulum to swing back and forth Formal Operational Stage Cognitive development culminates in the ability to think abstractly amp reason hypothetically Imagine alternative worlds amp reason systematically about all possible outcomes of a situation In contrast to other stages this stage isn t universal Piaget s Theory Strengths Provides good overview with numerous observations of what kids thinking is at different points in development Offers plausible amp appealing perspective on kids nature Surveys a broad spectrum of developments amp covers the entire age span Piaget s Theory Weaknesses Model depicts kids thinking as more consistent than it is Infants amp young children are more cognitively competent than Piaget recognized Understates contribution of the social world to cognitive development Theory is vague about cognitive processes that give rise to kids thinking amp about the mechanisms that produce cognitive growth Cognitive Development Part 2 Information Processing Theories Review Piaget s 4 stages of cognitive development 1 Sensorimotor 2 Preoperational 3 Concrete Operational 4 Formal Operational Assimilation vs Accommodation Assimilation integrating reality into one s own view Accommodation one s view changes to better match reality View of Children Nature Structures amp process Structure hardware attention amp memory Process software planning perceiving imagining conceptualizing problemsolving Children undergo continuous cognitive change Cognitive development Increasing execution of basic processes Expand memory Acquire new strategies and knowledge Children as Problem Solvers Kids have a range of ways they can solve amp approach problems Cognitive exibility o Assessed by DCCS Teach kids rules ofa game eg putting all red cards together put all tracks together regardless of color tend to follow 1St rule Central Developmental Issues IP interplay between nature amp nurture Emphasis on how change occurs Development of Memory Components of memory system Sensory memory Shortterm memory working memory Longterm memory Sensory Memory fraction of a second capacity constant over development Working Memory limited in capacity amp duration increasing over development 7 2 Long term Memory unlimited capacity indefinitely contents increase enormously over development Explanations of Memory Development Basic Processes Associating events Recognizing familiar objects Recalling facts and procedures Generalizing Encoding Processing Speed Strategies Content Knowledge Encoding People encode what draws their attention but they miss a lot Processing Speed Increasing over childhood What does that mean Children are slowerhave slower processing speed than adults increasing age increasing speed How does it happen Biological maturation amp experience 0 Myelination Increasing myelination increasing speed of making connections 0 Increased connectivity eg Facebook friends when you 1St join FB you have little friends but as time goes on amp you join more clubs amp meet more people the of friends you have increases Sources of Learning and Memory Development Processing Speed Mental Strategies Strategies as major source development Between the ages of 5 8 Rehearsal Selective Attention Chunking Content Knowledge Developmental of Processing Solving Children are active problem solvers Overlapping waves theory Children have multiple ways strategies to solve problems Increase age skills develop become more efficient in problem solving IP in a Nutshell Child as a computer Increase amount of tools content amp knowledge Development seen as increasing in efficiency of tools Occurs through myelination amp connectivity Sociocultural Theories Sociocultural Approaches Focus on social context Guided participation social scaffolding Cultural Tools Views of Children s Nature Vygostsky Importance of the social context amp relationship between speech amp thought Development is continuous Vygostky s Theory Children as social beings Development as continuous with change as quantitative We are unique because we are inclined to teach other amp learn from each other Vygostsky viewed thought as internalized speech Children start out talking out loud to themselves which evolves into private speech amp that s what thought is Children as Teachers amp Learners Tomasello humans are unique because Teach other humans Attend to amp learn from such teaching Children As Products of Their Culture Processes same in all societies Content varies from culture to culture Central Developmental Issues Change occurs through social interaction Intersubjectivity amp social scaffolding important in change Intersubjectivity Mutual understanding during communication Ioint attention video of 3 children normal child child with Down syndrome and child with autism
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