Islam and Medieval Society 9-28/10-2
Islam and Medieval Society 9-28/10-2 HIST 1010 - 001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaytlyn Notetaker on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Donna Jean Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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The Rise of Islam September 28 2015 I Arabian Peninsula before Islam II Muhammad Early life Revelations Hijra 622 Conversations i Bedouin ii Qu39ran iii Mecca iv Medina v Umma Unwgt Arabian Peninsula was the birthplace of Islam and much of it was desert and dif cult to inhabit so populations were mainly in the cities of Mecca and Medina People stayed along the coast and much were Bedouins who were nomads There was a fair amount of long standing tribal wars and there is absolutely no unity The prophet Muhammed was orphaned at 6 and an uncle who was a merchant reared him there were a lot of merchants here and there were local and traveling merchants and he was a traveling merchant and rears Muhammed to be a merchant Travelled north to Palestine Jerusalem and Damascus It is here up north where he encounters Christians and Jews He conducts a business in Mecca and at about age 40 he has a series of revelations he was very spiritual and would go to the wilderness and meditate The basis of Quran was his written down revelations based off the monotheism like Christianity and Jews These are revealed by Arch angel Gabriel and became holy book of Islam He tried to convert fellow citizens of Mecca following the revelations and this is problematic The powers of Mecca didn39t approve and Mecca was already somewhat a holy city because of a shrine they made a lot of money with and the new religion would mess with pro ts In 422 he was forced to ee Mecca and this was the hijra He went to Medina and converted Medina to Islam and he also becomes a military leader the cities were great trade rivals so Mecca was attacking the incoming caravans into Medina Muhammad planned and won conquering Mecca militarily and he proceeded to convert Mecca As he converts he creates the umma or Islamic community He created a community of believers and he is uniting people for the rst time in the Arabian Peninsula Also believed in the equality of believers in the eye of God III Doctrines A Five Tenets 1 Oneness of God 2 Muhammed as Prophet 3 Qur39an as word of God 4 Belief in angels 5 Life after death B Five Pillars 1 Profession of faith 2 Daily prayer 3 Charity 4 Fasting during Ramadan 5 i minarets One of the things that contributed to Islam is that it39s so straightforward and clear not so many heresies like early Christianity There are 5 basic tenets which include rst and foremost the oneness of God very monotheistic This draws on the traditions of Christianity and Jews For Muhammed and Muslims the god they worship is the same god of the Christians and Jews AllahGod in English There is no trinity no various manifestations and Muhammed was his prophet not a god gure or gods incarnate and not the only prophet like Abraham and Jesus but Muhammed was the last and greatest The Qur39an is the word of God through the arch angel Gabriel to Muhammad They also believe in angels The last Tenet is the belief of life after death eternal reward He believed in last judgment and those who led a good life would go to heaven the ones who didn39t would suffer forever You can lead a bad life and sincerely change and x it and be able to later get to a heaven It was totally clear what the good Muslim needed to do very clear cut and straight forward These are the 5 pillars one is accepting of faith The next is daily prayer 5 times a day A minaret is on a mosque very beautiful and all have the minarets which are towerlike structures where people are called to prayer from Charity is very important a religious duty This can be private or a tax levied by government Observance of Ramadan which is a holy month in Islam calendar lunar calendar which commemorates revelation of Qur an to Muhammed and fasting is how it39s done can39t eat or drink until sundown The pilgrimage or the hajj is asked for if at all possible nancially etc that every good lslam make it to the Kaaba in Mecca The Kaaba is a cube shaped shrine where people go to pray this commemorates the story of Abraham Mosque is the center of umma There technically isn39t a clergy like you have in Christianity there are leaders but no clergy They are to help educate and guide there is also a code of conduct known as sharrah lV Early Caliphs and Expansion Abu Bakr Sunnis vs Shi39ites Claims to universal religion and expansion Umayyad dynasty Abbasid dynasty i All ii Mu39awiyah iii jihad W909 It39s crazy how far and wide Islam spread in a century Muhammed was last and greatest of prophets but there were caliphs who were religious leaders who lead movement religiously and politically and even militarily They are successors to Muhammad administratively The very important is Abu Bakr who is the rst and only in position 2 years before he dies this was crucial because when Muhammad died looked like Islam was going to fall apart almost instantaneously This is where Abu Bakr steps in and struggles to bring unity and umma back and succeeds he saved lslam Other followed successions of caliphs Another major rift happened which is between Sunni and Shi ites There are two major branches of Islam which are Sunni and Shi39ites the vast majority being Sunni This happens a couple decades after Muhammed and when there are leadership issues when Ali assumes position of caliph who was son in law and cousin of Muhammed he said he was meant to be caliph but Mu39awiyah challenged this family vs family who were very wealthy There was a civil war between these two and Ali was assassinated lslam started spreading dramatically after this event What they39re really spreading is Arabic political control or Arabic empire due to great military The Arab armies were so used to desert they could glide across on horses and camels like it were water They are rst and foremost creating an Arabic empire They aren39t forcing conversion but religion spreads and they39re happy to help teach People aren39t being forced people can choose to believe in whatever remaining in your own belief they were taxed but that is it What also happens is dynasties of caliphs emerge as hereditary dynasty father to son The rst dynasty of caliphs early in 7th century was family of Umayyad They had a huge hand in spreading up to Spain and all over and they made their capital Damascus where they control for about 100 years until people started rebelling they were ignoring spiritual side Next was Abbasid dynasty who move their capitol to Baghdad which is when Arabian night stories developed They promote culture and economy of region promote manufacturing and goods to sell to other parts of the world They bring the empire to a peak culturally and economically When the Umayyad s lost power to Abbasids they didn39t lose power of Spain stayed under Umayyad all the way to 1492 Islamic Societies and Culture l Society Cosmopolitan Social mobility equality of all believers Literacy Tolerance Status of women i Peoples of the Book ii Harem iii Purdah iv Polygamy v Patriarchy W909 A prominent characteristic part of society after the Arabs make huge changes is that it is very cosmopolitan a culture and society that comes in contact with many others very open to other cultures and societies This area is a crossroad a way of access and very receptive to different in uences that they learn and gain from This is a society that was distinguished by the degree of social mobility but it is still very hierarchical but it is not rigid and caste like social mobility is possible because of the Muslim belief of the equality of all believers D all are equal in the eyes of god This made the religion popular The economy is merchant based which is important because they were the super merchants and traders of the world As a result it tends to allow a society of social mobility because of so much wealth This society had the highest literacy rates in the world aka 20 for men less for women which was incredible because in Europe at this time the literate people could physically be counted This is a society that was distinguished by its level of tolerance and tolerance of other religions If you were a Christian Jew or Zoroastrian you could continue to practice your faith though you would have to pay a tax Jews and Christians were important in Islamic culture and were known as Peoples of the Book The bible itself was important to Muslims because it was a precursor to the Qu39ran The status of women wasn39t so straightforward The status of women in the early days of the script of Islam improved brie y Muhammed had daughters and he did things resulting in an up in female status he banned female infanticide for example and he allowed his daughters to have a say in who they marry lslam also promoted the education of women lslam wanted to educate people because they wanted people to read the Qu39ran for themselves so women were taught too Status began to deteriorate after the hundred year period This is an extremely patriarchal society that practiced polygamy or having multiple spouses Muhammed said a man could have up to 4 wives if they could support the 4 and their children This was never good for the status of women Polygamy or possibility of it dovetailed with the fact that this is a society of merchants and social mobility which results in wanted to dress the part of being higher up and in the Arab world polygamy became a huge status symbol which is a symbol of your social status Merchants became rich and they had multiple wives as status symbols because it is very expensive These wives were only his only for him to see have etc other men can39t even look at them and they do this by vailing them or purdah and if you39re really wealthy can create a harem which is a place where you keep all of your women not just your wives This is a very secluded and closedwalled off area and this is another status symbol Purdah and Harem where really bad for women they39re property and status symbols This doesn39t come from the religion itself There is nothing in the Qu39ran about vailing women so where does it come from It came from cultures that predated lslam so it was a borrowed tradition ll Culture A Preservation of the Greeks B Science C Philosophy i lbn Sina Avicenna Islam was best in science math and philosophy this was a golden age for the Islam39s This is because of the presentation of the Greeks they loved Aristotle and in Greek math and science like Pythagoras and Euclid They created libraries of this stuff and translated it to Arabic This is a big deal because it shapes Arabic intellectual tradition and Aristotle is a part of Islam lbn Sina is a doctor and philosopher and is hugely important in preserving Aristotle in the modern world so they saved Aristotle and kept him alive and brought him to the western world In science they39re big thing was their medical knowledge and practices which Ibn Sina was also a huge force in Ibn Sina began to write of tuberculosis contagious nature They also knew the bubonic plague was contagious how it spread Europe thought it was evil spirits and they also knew you could get sick from bad water or soil their knowledge of optics was super advanced and they even developed the hypodermic needle In math they had huge contributions in algebra and trigonometry They took the geometry of the Greeks and brought it together and blended it was a tradition of India where they got the concept of zero as well as the decimal system and the number system we call Arabic numerals Philosophically they wrestled with the issue of reconciling faith with logicreason early on Arab philosophers found the two to be separate things to answer the same question III Islam A India 1 Spread 2 Conversion patterns B SE Asia i Mahmud of Ghazni ii Muhammed of Ghur iii Su s su sm Spread to India and SE Asia In 8th century Arab merchants established on west coast of India to do business buy and sell goods In the process some of the ships were attacked by pirates and they responded miIitarin and they carved out a military supported area in India The Turks had converted to Islam and in 11th century one of their rulers Mahmud of Ghazni raided India really badstealing because what they nd is in Hindu temples there are status of gods and goddesses in gold In 12th century Muhammad of Ghur started annexing a chunk of northern India Lower cIass Hindus Iiked IsIam because of the equality of all believers held massive appeals to these people The other group that converted was Buddhists the older form because they were deteriorating and it became unsatisfying so Islam was very appealing for its sympathy and straightforwardness There are more converts in northern India and nowadays Pakistan In SE Asia there are major conversions especially in Spice Islands where traders would get spices to sell all over This is a huge commercial contact place between East and West Arab merchants spread Islam and anchored in Spice Islands People are aware of Islam through contact and want to know more about the religion so it spreads and secondly su sm mystics is a huge vehicle of Islam A mystic has communication with God it39s a style of religious practice and Su s were Muslims who seeked to teach people to communicate with God through prayer they were basically missionaries Medieval Society I Feudalism A Viking Invasions B Need for local and rapid defense C Changes in warfare D Infeudation E Social implications I Magyars ii Charles Martel iii Tours iv Stirrup v Lords and vassals vi comitatus Feudalism relied on man to man relationships This is huge in the middle ages and makes European nobility Vikings go into Scandinavia and attack nowadays England Scotland and France The Vikings travelled on menacing ships They would go inland by rivers fast They would go to shore murder rape and pillage then go back to sea and they would do this so fast it stunned everyone The Germanics AngloSaxons franks etc need to think about defense more rapid defense for sure they always did infantry Each locality needs to be prepared and need their own soldiers and units that can physically move fast so a century early Frankish leader Charles Martel commanded troops 732 CE and in Tour he defeated the Muslims by using cavalry and stirrup which created stabilization especially while wielding weapons and this also allows you to stand as well as more deadly blows through use of the horse From now on European infantry is based on mounted soldiers They also needed small armies at local levels lnfeudalism quotcome ght for l and I will support youquot Fief land generally organized around a village of peasants Comitatus which is the agreement between a lord and his subservients is how infeudalism came about The higher up who gets an army together is the Lord and his knights are Vassals who learn horseback and have a code of conduct their honor rests on this and they owe him 3040 days a year of offensive service and 365 days of defensive service and in turn they would be supported This de nes the medieval way very local This has huge social implications because It creates an aristocracy a nobility They are a privileged leisured elite Once peasants are vassals they become a part of the elite Franks do the same and give out parts of land to already power individuals to produce armies Feudalism is a way of ghting and now a way of government because they started governing peasants through tax protection and justice just on their own small efs ll Manorialism A The Manor B Serfs i Three eld system Manorialism is how you exploit the land economically and shapes lives of peasants more than anything else The Manor was exploited by the three eld system Typically you39d have a village where the peasants live you have a Manor House where the wealthy owner of the ef Everything planted and did was a result of a villagecommunity decision There was one common pasture where everyone put their livestock and it was hard to control them very primitive Each eld is designated by planting by season as well as a FALLOW land which isn39t being planted on There is a strip which is reserved for the Manor House owner and a strip or two for each peasant and what they plant has to be agreed on by the village this was a very inef cient way of farming These peasants were serfs which are people bound by the land and are forced to work so many days a week for the Manor this is a form of servitude and bondage but keep families together unlike slavery lll Towns Improvement in Agriculture Revival of trade Development of towns Guild system Status of townspeople i Burg ii Suburnfaubourg W909 By 10th or 11th century town life makes a comeback after so much destruction earlier There is a very very tiny agricultural revolution aka they were making small surpluses to sell down the road and this is a revival of trade They towns trade between the people and they want to stop wondering around and selling so they begin to settle in one place and people come to them to conduct business because the times are too violent and dangerous to roam around A quotburgquot is a place with a medieval wall around This could be built around an old roman town a church etc and they settle in these burgs because it39s safer and people begin to start settling here and then the merchants start settling outside the wall in a suburb Within these towns the people39s lives were based on a guild system which were unions and organizations of how people practiced a certain craft and they started to manufacture things manufacturing unions Textiles were huge and towns had their own guilds they have their own monopoly and you can39t sell unless you39re in that guild after training 7 years to be a master at the craft of weaving and you have to produce a master textile to show you39re good enough Guilds dominated the towns Towns come back and residents are free in towns