Chapter 6 notes from textbook
Chapter 6 notes from textbook Psychology 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noelle Holden on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 101 at Towson University taught by Dr. Girio-Herrera in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Chapter 6 Learning 61 Learning from the First Days of Life Habituation 611 Paying Attention and Learning to Ignore Orienting Reflexes and Habituation occurs when we stop what we are doing to orient our sense organs in the direction of unexpected stimuli the decrease in responding to a stimulus as it is repeated over and over ensures that we do not waste our time and energy focusing on irrelevant stimuli 612 Possible Benefits of Habituation Protecting the Brain Habituation may serve to protect our brains from overstimulation When migraine sufferers are taught to increase their levels of habituation to environmental stimuli they tend to experience fewer migraine attacks These types of studies suggest that one function of habituation may be to protect our nervous system from sensory overload 613 Dishabituation Dishabituation occurs when an organism begins to respond more intensely to a stimulus to which it has previously habituated Once a new stimulus arises you have to check it out but will most likely habituate to it Not only does the change in quality of the stimulus cause dishabituation but so does the passage of time Ex If a worker takes a lunch break from hammering you might briefly dishabituate to the hammering This would not last long and once the hammering begins again you would reenter habituation 614 Practical Applications of Habituation One practical application is the use of habituation training for people who experience chronic motion sickness or vertigo Physical therapists have used habituation techniques to help people overcome chronic motion sickness 62 Classical Conditioning Learning through the Association of Stimuli Ivan Pavlov investigating the role that salivation plays in digestion during his experiment he sometimes noticed that the dogs began to salivate even before the food was presented to them sometimes the sight of the food dish or the sound of the approaching experimenter was enough to produce salivation Pavlov reasoned that the dog had learned to associate certain cues or stimuli with the presentation of food the dog had become conditioned to respond to the footsteps the same way that it responded to the food by salivating He began to investigate the learning process itself paired different stimuli with food to see which could be conditioned to produce the reflexive response of salivation sounded a buzzer before presenting the dog with food and repeated it the trial several times measuring the amount of saliva produced by the dog the dog began to salivate after hearing the buzzer even when food was not presented after the buzzer was sounded 621 The Elements of Classical Conditioning learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus that reliably causes an unconditioned response and because of this association the neutral stimulus loses its neutrality and takes on the same power as the unconditioned stimulus to cause the response Process of learning that Pavlov discovered is referred to as classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning Process that produces a conditioned response Unconditioned stimulus and response stimulus that naturally causes the reflexive response the response evoked from the unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned refers to the fact that the association between the stimulus and the response is not learned The Neutral Stimulus does not naturally elicit the unconditioned response Pavlov s case neutral stimulus was the buzzer Has no power to naturally cause the unconditioned response Pairing the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus Pavlov repeatedly sounded the buzzer neutral stimulus prior to presenting the dog with the food unconditioned stimulus through the repetition the neutral stimulus loses its neutrality the buzzer is no longer neutral and has become a conditioned stimulus that has the power to produce the conditioned response of salivation 622 Factors Affecting Classical Conditioning Relationship in Time Contiguity refers to the degree to which the NSCS and US occur close together in time if the interval between the presentation of the NSCS and the US is too long the two stimuli will not be associated the longer the interval the weaker the learning another aspect is relative placement of the NSCS and the US in time does the NSCS precede or follow the US delayed conditioning produces the strongest conditioning and backward conditioning produces the weakest conditioning Consistency and Reliability Contingency refers to the degree to which the NSCS reliably signals that the US is going to be presented resulting in the NSCS becoming associated with the CS Ex lf Pavlov had sometimes fed the dogs after sounding the buzzer and other times did not feed the dog after sounding the buzzer conditioning would have been weakened 623 Real World Applications of Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning occurs frequently in everyday life classical conditioning occurs on top of preexisting classical conditioning Classical Conditioning of Emotional Responses Watson s Albert Experiment can also occur in everyday life Stimulus Generalization occurs when stimuli that are similar to the CS have the same power to elicit the CR even though they have never been paired with the US Seen in the Little Albert experiment Albert along with fear of the rat also exhibited fear of dogs rabbits a fur coat and a fake white Santa Claus beard the conditioned response occurs in response to a particular conditioned stimulus but does not occur in response to other stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus Classical Conditioning of Physiological Responses Taste Aversion eating your favorite food then vomiting and after that the sight smell or even the idea of that particular food makes you feel nauseous often occurs with only one pairing of the NSCS and the US the interval between the NSCS and the US can be very long 624 Extinction of Classically Conditioned Responses removal of the conditioned response extinction can be brought about by presenting the conditioned stimulus to the participant without presenting the unconditioned stimulus learning curve can occur at any point during extinction and may be likely if a response is extinguished immediately after it is originally learned 63 Operant Conditioning Learning from the Consequences of Our Actions learning from the consequences of our behavior 631 EL Thorndike s Law of Effect conducted experiments on operant conditioning in New York mostly worked with cats in specially constructed puzzle boxes Unlocking the Puzzle of Learning states that in a given situation behaviors that lead to positive satisfying consequences will be strengthened such that the next time the situation occurs the behavior is more likely to be repeated Random Actions and Reinforcement means that the rewarded behavior will become more likely in the future Positive and Negative Reinforcement behavior leads to the addition of something pleasant to the organism s environment behavior is rewarded by the removal of something unpleasant from the organism s environment an unpleasant consequence that leads to a decrease in behavior when a behavior results in the addition of something unpleasant to the organism s environment the behavior leads to the removal of something unpleasant from the organism s environment 632 BF Skinner and the Experimental Study of Operant Conditioning more commonly associated with the scientific study of operant conditioning wanted to emphasize that in classical conditioning the organism does not actively choose to operate on the environment to produce some consequence rather the response is forced from the animal wanted to emphasize that in operant conditioning the animal makes a choice to respond to its environment in a certain way a chamber large enough to house a small animal contains a lever or bar that the animal can press when the rat presses the lever or bar it receives a pellet of food from the feeding device attached to the chamber 633 Acquisition and Extinction Extinction occurs because the behavior is no longer reinforced in operant conditioning withholding the reinforcement that maintains the behavior causes the extinction of that behavior you work harder in an attempt to obtain reward immediately after your boss withholds your pay 634 Schedules of Reinforcement the timing and the consistency of the reinforcement each and every instance of the desired behavior is rewarded not very helpful when using operant conditioning to modify behavior schedules of reinforcement that reinforce behavior only some of the time ratio schedules are based on the number of responses interval schedules are based on the timing of the responses Ration Schedules of Reinforcement set number of responses must be emitted before a reward is given lead to very high response rates the exact number of responses that are required to receive a reward varies around some average yield higher rates of response and even slower rates of extinction than fixed ratio schedules Interval Schedules of Reinforcement organism is rewarded for the first instance of the desired response after which a set interval of time must pass before any other instances of the response will be rewarded once the organism has received its reward for an interval it usually stops responding for most of the remainder of the interval length of the interval varies 635 Discrimination and Generalization in operant conditioning occurs when the organism learns to distinguish among similar stimulus situations and to offer a particular response only in those specific situations in which reinforcement will be forthcoming occurs when the same operant behavior is emitted in response to different but similar stimuli they do not always lead to positive outcomes 636 Shaping New Behaviors a novel behavior is slowly conditioned by reinforcing successive approximations of the final desired behavior 637 Decisions the must be made when using Operant Conditioning Punishment doesn t teach the correct behavior in a given situation Harsh punishment especially physical punishment teaches aggressive behavior Harsh punishment is often ineffective at producing behavior change Harsh punishment often leads to negative emotional reactions Practical alternatives to physical punishment 1 Tell the child what the appropriate behavior is and then reinforce that behavior 2 Minimize situations that tempt the child to engage in bad behavior 3 Use a punishment that really is punishing If the child does not find the punishment aversive it will fail to control the behavior 4 Punishment must occur immediately after the bad behavior occurs 5 Punishment must occur each and every time the bad behavior occurs 6 Remain calm while you are punishing a child to ensure you don t abuse the child Primary and Secondary Reinforcers one that is directly reinforcing rewarding only because they lead to primary reinforcers ex money reinforces desired behavior with a token of some sort that can later be cashed in for primary reinforcers ex poker chip or gold star advantages allow for immediate reinforcement with a token effective when trying to simultaneously modify a number of behaviors in a group of people disadvantage they often place the behavior on a continuous schedule of reinforcement 638 The Role of Cognition in Learning the only aspect of living things that can and should be studied scientifically is behavior how to solve the dilemma learning that cannot be directly observed through behavior mental representation 64 Observational Learning or Modeling Learning by Watching Others observe others and imitate their behavior
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