Chapter 8 and 11 Notes
Chapter 8 and 11 Notes BIOL 2601 - 01
Popular in General Biology
BIOL 2601 - 01
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Suzanne Notetaker on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2601 - 01 at Youngstown State University taught by Dr. Asch in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Youngstown State University.
Reviews for Chapter 8 and 11 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/02/15
Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis energy within light and used to make sugar carbs CO2 reduced H20 oxidized Endergonic needs a lot of energy from light Photosynthesis Powers the Biosphere Biosphere regions on surface of earth and atmosphere where living organisms exist Energy cycle cells use organic molecules for energy and plants replenish those molecules using photosynthesis Plants also produce oxygen Trophic Levels Heterotroph must eat food to sustain life Autotroph make organic molecules from inorganic sources Photoautotroph use light as source of energy Chloroplasts organelle in plants and algae that carries out photosynthesis Green pigment chlorophyll Majority of Photosynthesis occurs internally of leaves mesophyll CO2 enters and 02 exit leaf through pores stomata Anatomy Along with an inner and outer membrane a third membrane thylakoid membrane contains pigment molecules Granum stack of thylakoids Stroma uid filled region between thylakoid membrane and inner membrane Two Stages of Photosynthesis 1 Light reactions photosystems use light energy in thylakoid membranes produce ATP NADPH and 02 2 Calvin Cycle opposite of glycolysis in stroma uses ATP and NADPH to incorporate CO2 into carb Light Energy Type of electromagnetic radiation travel as waves Plants can use most of Visible light spectrum Photons light particles short wavelength more energy Photosynthetic Pigments absorb some light energy and re ect others Absorption boosts electrons to higher energy levels Wavelength of light that a pigment absorbs depends on amount of energy needed Different pigments absorb light at many different wavelengths Absorption vs Action Spectrum Absorption spectrumwavelengths absorbed by different pigments Action spectrumrate of photosynthesis at specific wavelengths Not good in green light best in blue and red Stage 1 of Photosynthesis Photosystems I and II Energy intermediate molecules produced from captured light energy that can be transferred to other molecules for cellular work Thylakoid Membranes Complexes 1 Photosystem II 1St step in photosynthesis a Excited electrons travels from PSII to PSI b 1St Component Lightharvesting complex absorbs photons and energy transferred via resonance energy transfer c 2nd Component Reaction Center Oxidizes water e39 transferred to pigment P680 generates 02 and H d Release energy in ETC e Energy used to make H electrochemical gradient 2 Photosystem I discovered first a Primary role make NADPH b H and NADP contributes to H gradient by depleting H from stroma c H gradient generated three ways H in thylakoid lumen splitting of water H by ETC pumping H into lumen H in stroma NADPH formation d Gradient makes ATP via ATP Synthase i Phosphorylation ii Driven by ow of H from lumen to stroma Three Chemical Products 1 Oxygen 02 2 NADPH 3 ATP Called a Noncyclic Pathway 1 Electrons begin at PSII transfer to NADPH final electron acceptor 2 Produces equal amounts of ATP and NADPH Cyclic Electron Flow Cyclic photophosphorylation 1 Releases energy to transport H drive ATP synthesis 2 Produces only ATP 3 PSI electrons excited release energy and return to PSI Stage 2 of Photosynthesis Calvin Cycle Anabolic Uses massive input of energy to incorporate C02 into carbs energy storage For every 6C02 incorporated 18 ATP and NADPH must be used Product is glyceraldehyde3phosphate G3P Phases Glycolysis in reverse 1 Carbon Fixation a C02 incorporated into RuBP using rubisco b Reaction product 6 Carbon that splits into two 3phophoglycerate molecules 3PG 2 Reduction and Carbohydrate Production a ATP used to convert 3PG into 13bisphosphoglycerate 13BPG b NADPH reduce it to glyceraldehyde3phosphate G3P 3 Regeneration of RuBP a 10 G3P converted into 6 RuBP using 6 ATP b Other 2 G3P used to make glucose and other sugars Variations in Photosynthesis 1 Light intensity 2 Temperature 3 Water availability Photorespiration Rubisco RuBP carboxylase can be used as oxygenase Adds 02 to RuBP eventually releasing C02 Favored When C02 low and 02 high C4 Plants Minimize respiration Make oxaloacetate in first step of carbon fixation HatchSlack Pathway Leaves have twocell layer organization 1 Mesophyll cells C02 enters Via stomata and 4 carbon compound formed 2 Bundlesheath cells 4 carbon molecule transferred and releases steady supply of C02 Which is Better C3 or C4 Warm dry climates 9 C4 Cooler climates 9 C3 90 of plants CAM Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plants C4 plants separate processes using time 1 2 3 Open stomata at night C02 enters and converted to malate Close during day to conserve water a Malate broken down into C02 to drive CalVin cycle Oxaloacetate converted to malate Chapter 11 Nucleic Acid Structure DNA Replication and Chromosome Structure Four criteria necessary for genetic material 1 Information 2 Replication 3 Transmission 4 Variation DNA EXPERIMENTS l Grif th s bacterial transformation working with Streptococcus pneumoniae Two strains 1 Secrete capsules look smooth and infections fatal to mice 2 Do not secrete capsules look rough and infections not fatal to mice Inj ected heatkilled type S they survive MiX live R With heatkilled S Transformation Transformation Principle 2 Figuring out What was Transforming Principle Avery MacLeod and McCarty Only purified DNA transformed type S could transform type R Added DNase RNase and proteases only removed DNA no transformation RNase and proteases no effect Conclusion DNA is the genetic material 3 Hershey and Chase Bacteriophage Viruses that prey on bacteria phage coat made of protein DNA found inside capsid phage head Tag each component phage with a radioactive label 35S proteins liquidproteins outside cell 32P DNA most remained with cellsnucleic acid enter the cell Conclusion DNA is the genetic material Nucleic Acid Structure Levels of DNA Structure Nucleotidesbuilding blocks of DNA and RNA Stranda linear polymer strand of DNA and RNA Double helixtwo strands of DNA ChromosomesDNA associated with different array of proteins Genomecomplete genetic material U PP P DNA Nucleotides Three Components 1 Phosphate group 2 Pentose sugar Deoxyribose 3 Nitrogenous base a Purines double ring bigger Adenine A Guanine G b Pyrimidines single ring Cytosine C Thymine T RNA Nucleotides Three Components 1 Phosphate group 2 Pentose sugar Ribose 3 Nitrogenous base a Purines Adenine A Guanine G b Pyrimidines Cytosine C Uracil U Nucleotide Numbering System Sugar carbons l to 5 Base attached to 1 carbon on sugar Phosphate attached to 5 carbon on sugar Strands Phosphodiester bond phosphate group links two sugars Backbone formed from phosphates and sugars bases project away Written 5 to 3 Solving the structure of DNA 1 Basepairing Charfgoff amount of adenine A amount of thymine T amount of cytosine C amount of guanine G 2 BallandStick Model Watson and Crick a Doublestranded helix b Basepairing 3 Xray diffraction result Franklin suggested helical structure with uniform diameter Features of DNA 1 Complementary Double Antiparallel strands One strand 5 to 3 other strand 3 to 5 2 Righthanded helix 3 Sugarphosphate backbone 4 Based on the inside 5 Stabilized by Hbonding 6 Specific basepairing 7 10 ntshelical turn Grooves in DNA 1 Major proteins bind to affect gene expression 2 Minor narrower DNA Replication Newlymade strands Daughter strands Original strands Parental strands Models 1 Semiconservative Model Original First round I Second round double helix of replication of replication ownx 39 C C I f l t divIQ OhAW RVOKJ Parental strand Daughter strand Image from Biology Authors Brooker Widmaier Graham and Stiling Copyright The McGraWHill Companies Inc a Meselson and Stahl experiment differentiate among replication mechanisms GreW E coli in medium With 15N parental strands then switch to medium With 14N daughter strands collecting samples after each generation Conclusion Semiconservative DNA replication b End result two new double helices With same base sequence as original 2 Conservative Model 3 Dispersive Model DNA polymerase Covalently links nucleotides Deoxvnucleoside triphosphate Free nucleotides With 3 phosphate groups Break covalent bonds to release pyrophosphate 2 phosphates and provides energy to connect nucleotides Molecular Structure of Eukarvotic Chromosomes Typically may be hundreds of millions of base pairs long Chromosome unit of genetic material Chromosomes composed of chromatin DNAprotein complex