Chapter 9 Notes
Chapter 9 Notes PSYC 225
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 225 at Northern Illinois University taught by Elizabeth Rusnak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development: Child-Adult in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Physical amp Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood Ch9 Height and Weight Growth Weight Doubles from age 6 to 11 Weigh about 11 pounds more than 40 years ago Height About 2 3 inches each year Girls retain more fatty tissue than boys African American boys and girls grow faster than Caucasians By age 6 African American girls have more muscle and bone mass Mexican American girls have a higher percentage of body fat Nutrition and Sleep Children need about 2400 calories per day Penty of grains fruits and vegetables High levels of complex carbohydrates Less than 10 percent from saturated fat Children age 9 need approximately 10 hours a night age 13 need only 9 hours Seep problems during these years are common in the United States Partialy due to children setting their own bedtime and having TVs in their rooms lnsufficient sleep is associated with a variety of adjustment problems Motor Development and Physical Play Motor skills continue to improve Compared to the early 19805 schoolage children in the United States spend less time each week on sports and other outdoor activities More time is spent on schooling and homework in addition to television 1214 hours and computer activities RecessTime Play Games tend to be informal and spontaneous Boys are more physical Girls favor games with verbal expression hopscotch and jump rope Activities promote growth in agility and social competence and foster adjustment to school RoughandTumble Play Vigorous play involving wrestling hitting and chasing often accompanied by laughing and screaming Occurs in 10 of free play in early grades Peaks in middle childhood Universa seen more in boys Evoutionariy adaptive Sports and Other Physical Activities Approximately 40 of 9 to 13year olds participate in organized athletics Baseball softball soccer or basketball Almost 80 participated in unorganized physical activity Bicycling and shooting baskets Regular physical activity has immediate and longterm health bene ts Weight control Lower blood sugar mproved cardiorespiratory functioning Enhanced selfesteem and wellbeing Piagetian Approach The Concrete Operational Child Concrete Operations age 712 Third stage of cognitive development Chidren develop logical but not abstract thinking Cognition Advances Spatial Relationships and Causality Better understanding of spatial relationships Cearer idea of distance and how long it takes to travel a distance Remember routes and landmarks more easily Experience plays a part Abiity to use maps and models and communicate spatial information improves with age Cognitive Advances Categorization Seriation Ability to order items along a dimension Ex weight or color Achieved by age 7 or 8 Transitive Inference Understanding the relationship between two objects by knowing the relationship of each to a third object Ex Ifa gt band bgtcthena gtc Cass Inclusion Understanding of the relationship between a whole and its parts Ex Bouquet of 10 owers 7 roses and 3 carnations are there more roses or more owers Not until 7 or 8 and sometimes later do children correctly answer the question Evidence of rudimentary awareness of class inclusion in 3 yearolds Depends on the task the cues and their familiarity with the categories Cognition Advances Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning Logica reasoning that moves from particular observations about members of a class to a general conclusion about that class Only type of reasoning according to Piaget concrete operational children use Deductive Reasoning Logica reasoning that moves from a general premise about a class to a conclusion about a particular member or members of the class Piaget believed this ability did not develop until adolescence Galotti Komatsu amp Voelz 1997 Gave 16 inductive and deductive reasoning problems to 16 kindergarteners 17 second graders 16 fourth graders 17 sixth graders quotAll poggops wear blue boots Tombor is a poggop Does Tombor wear blue bootsquot deduche quotTombor is a poggop Tombor wears blue boots Do all poggops wear blue bootsquot inductive Second graders but not kindergarteners were able to answer both kinds of problems correctly Cognitive Advances Conservation Concreteoperationa children can answer conservation problems in their heads They can understand dentity Reversibility Decentering Conservation of substance is mastered by about age 7 or 8 Conservation of weight by age 9 or 10 Conservation of volume is not until age 12 Vocabulary Grammar and Syntax Chidren use increasingly precise verbs Similes and metaphors become increasingly common Passive voice is still rare Understanding of rules of syntax becomes more sophisticated Look at the meaning of a sentence as a whole Sentence structure becomes more elaborate Use subordinate clauses Causes beginning without however or although are not common until early adolescence Pragmatics Knowledge about Communication Pragmatics Set of linguistic rules that govern the use of language for communication lncudes conversational and narrative skills Major area of linguistic growth during school years Good conversationalists ask questions before introducing a topic assesses familiarity Wide individual differences in such skills Gender differences Boys tended to use more controlling statements and to utter more negative interruptions Girls phrased their remarks in a more tentative conciliatory way Most 6year olds can retell the plot of a short book movie or television show Beginning to describe motives and causal links By second grade stories become longer and more complex Fictiona tales have conventional beginnings and endings Word use is more varied but characters do not show growth or change and plots are not fully developed Older children set the stage with information about the setting and characters and they clearly indicate changes of time and place Construct more complex episodes but with less unnecessary detail Focus more on characters motives and thoughts and how to resolve problems in the plot SecondLanguage Learning In 2007 21 of US children 517 years old spoke another language at home Usualy Spanish 11 of the public school population are English language learners Engishlmmersion Approach lnstruction is presented only in English Bilingual Education System of teaching nonEnglishspeaking children in their native language while they learn English and later switching to allEnglish instruction Encourages children to become bilingual and to feel pride in their cultural identity Engishlmmersion The sooner children are exposed to English and the more time they spend speaking it the better theylearnit Stunts children s cognitive growth Bilingual Chidren progress faster academically in their native language and make a smoother transition to allEnglish classrooms Resea rch indicates they typically outperform those in all English programs on tests of English pro ciency TwoWay DualLanguage Learning Approach in which English speakers and non English speakers learn together in their own and each other s languages According to some research more successful than immersion or bilingual Reinforces selfesteem and improves school performance Added advantage that English speakers learn a foreign language Becoming Literate Reading and Writing Decoding Process of phonetic analysis by which a printed word is converted to spoken form before retrieval from longterm memory Visualy Based Retrieval Process of retrieving the sound of a printed word when seeing the word as a whole Phonetic CodeEmphasis Approach Approach to teaching reading which emphasizes decoding of unfamiliar words WhoeLanguage Approach Approach to teaching reading that emphasizes visual retrieval and use of contextual clues WhoeLanguage Approach Children learn to read with better comprehension and more enjoyment if they experience written language from the outset as a way to gain information and express ideas and feelings Features real literature and openended student initiated activities Research has found little support for its claims Metacognition Awareness of one s own mental processes Thinking about thinking Heps children monitor their understanding of what they read and enables them to develop strategies to x problems Children with reading dif culties are not doomed to reading failure 30 of lowlevel readers showed steady improvement toward average reading skills from 2rml to 4th grade Writing skills go hand in hand with the development of reading Older preschoolers use letters numbers and letterlike shapes as symbols to represent words or parts of words Spelling can be quite inventive Writing is dif cult for young children Requires the child to judge independently whether the communicative goal has been met Has to keep in mind other constraints Spelling Punctuation Grammar Capitalization Entering First Grade Children need to be involved in what is going on in class lnterest attention and active participation are positively associated with Achievement test scores Teachers marks from rst grade through at least fourth grade First graders at risk of failing progressed as much as their low risk peers when teachers offered strong instructional and emotional support In uences on School Achievement Self Ef cacy Beliefs Students high in selfef cacy believe they can master schoolwork and regulate their learning are more likely to succeed than those who do not believe in their abilities Sefreguated learners set challenging goals and use appropriate strategies to achieve them Try hard persist despite dif culties and seek help when necessary Students who do not believe in their ability to succeed tend to become frustrated and depressed In uences on School Achievement Gender Girls tend to do better in school than boys Receive higher grades on average in every subject Are less likely to repeat grades Have fewer school problems Outperform in national reading and writing assessments Do better on timed tests Boys do signi cantly better on science and math tests that are not closely related to material taught in school In uences on School Achievement Parenting Practices Parents of highachieving children create an environment for learning Children whose parents are involved in their schools do better in school Parenting styles may affect motivation and thus schoolsuccess Authoritative parents had highachieving fth graders Authoritarian and permissive parents had lower achieving children In uences on School Achievement Socioeconomic Status Achievement gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged students widened during the rst 4 years of schooling Summer vacation contributes to this gap Differences in the home environment and summer learning experiences Home environment can help children overcome effects of SES Social Capital Family and community resources on which a person can draw Can improve children s academic achievement and behavior In uences on School Achievement Peer Acceptance Chidren who are liked and accepted by peers tend to do better in school Chidren rated by teachers as not being liked had Poorer academic selfconcepts More symptoms of anxiety or depression Lower reading and math grades In uences on School Achievement Class Size Small class size may be a key factor in achievement especially in early grades Research is mixed Casses with 25 students or less tend to be more social and interactive and enable higher quality instruction and emotional support Students in these classes tend to score higher on standardized achievement tests and beginning reading skills Children with Learning Problems Intellectual Disability Intelectua Disability Signi canty subnormal cognitive functioning Cognitive disability or mental retardation Indicated by an IQ of 70 or less coupled with a de ciency in ageappropriate adaptive behavior appearing before age 18 Seen in less than 1 of US children Most bene t from schooling lntervention programs have helped those with mild or moderate disabilities to hold jobs live in the community and function in society Children with Learning Problems Learning Disorders Two most common are learning disability and attention de cithyperactivity disorder ADHD About 5 of children have learning disabilities 5 have ADHD and 4 have both Children with Learning Problems Learning Disabilities Learning Disabilities LDs Disorders that interfere with speci c aspects of learning and school achievement Have nearaverage or higherthanaverage intelligence but have trouble processing sensory information Tend to be Less taskoriented More easily distracted Less wellorganized Less likely to use memory strategies Dysexia Developmenta disorder in which reading achievement is substantially lower than predicted IQ or age Most commonly diagnosed LD 4 out of 5 children with LD Tends to run in families Due to a neurological defect that disrupts recognition of speech sounds Several genes contribute to this disruption Children with Learning Problems AttentionDe cit Hyperactivity Disorder AttentionDe citHyperactivity Disorder ADHD Syndrome characterized by persistent inattention and distractibility impulsivity lower tolerance for frustration and inappropriate over activity Most common mental disorder of childhood Affects an estimated 211 of schoolage children worldwide Rate of ADHD has increased about 3 per year between 1997 and 2006 Some children are inattentive but not hyperactive others show the reverse Brains of children with ADHD grown in a normal pattern but with different areas thickening and then thinning at different times delayed by about 3 years in some regions
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