Chapter 10 Notes
Chapter 10 Notes PSYC 225
Popular in Lifespan Development: Child-Adult
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 225 at Northern Illinois University taught by Elizabeth Rusnak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development: Child-Adult in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Psychosocial Development During Middle Childhood Ch 10 SelfConcept Development Representational Systems The third stage in development of selfde nition Characterized by breadth balance and the integration of the assessment of various aspects of the self Evident by age 7 or 8 Emotional Growth and Prosocial Behavior By age 7 or 8 children are aware of feeling shame p deand gth Understand the difference between shame and guilt Emotions affect their opinions of themselves Understand con icting emotions Ex Love your brother but he gets on your nerves and makes you mad Aware of culture s rules for acceptable emotional expression Learn to behave accordingly Parents disapproval or punishment of negative emotions anger and fear may lead to impaired social adjustment Emotiona selfregulation involves effortful control of emotions attention and behavior Low Effortful Control Children become visibly angry or frustrated when interrupted or prevented from doing something May predict later behavioral problems High Effortful Control Children can sti e the impulse to show negative emotion at inappropriate times Effortful control may be temperamentally based but generally increases with age Chidren become more empathic and more inclined to prosocial behavior Empathy appears to be quothard wiredquot in normal children Associated with prefrontal activation in children as young as 6 years of age Decety Michalaska Akitsuki amp Lahey 2009 Parts of the brains of 7 to 12yearolds were activated when shown pictures of people in pain Children with high selfesteem tend to be more willing to volunteer to help the less fortunate Vounteering bolsters selfesteem Prosocial children Act appropriately in social situations Are relatively free from negative emotion Cope with problems constructively Empathy prosocial development and social skills are fostered by parents who Acknowledge children s feelings of distress Hep children solve the root of the problem The Child in the Family Spend more time visiting and socializing with peers Spend more time at school and on studies and less time at family meals But the home and family remain an important part of most children s lives Family Atmosphere Kaczynski Lindahl Malik amp Laurenceau 2006 Examined the effects of a loving and supportive or con ict ridden atmosphere Marital con ict was associated with ineffective parenting Children exposed to discord and poor parenting showed high levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors lnternaizing Behaviors Behaviors by which emotional problems are turned inward Anxiety or depression Externalizing Behaviors Behaviors by which a child acts out emotional dif culties Aggression or hostility Family Atmosphere Parenting Issues Control of behavior gradually shifts from parents to child Coregulation Transitiona stage in the control of behavior in which parents exercise general supervision and children exercise momentto moment selfregulation Affects the way parents handle discipline More likely to use inductive reasoning Less likely to use physical punishment How parents and children resolve con icts may be more important than the outcomes Constructive con ict can help children See the need for rules and standards Learn what issues are worth arguing about Learn what strategies can be effective As children become preadolescents the quality of family problem solving often deteriorates Family Atmosphere Effects of Parents Work Most studies have focused on employed mothers The more satis ed a mother is with her employment status the more effective she is as a parent lmpact of mother s work depends on many factors Child s age sex temperament and personality Type of work Why she s working Her partner The family s SES The type of child care the child receives How well parents keep track of their children may be more important than whether the mother works In 2009 66 of US mothers worked Frequent use of child care arrangements Many younger children are supervised by relatives Many receive several types of outof school care Good afterschool programs have relatively low enrollment low childstaff ratios and well educated staff Chidren in organized afterschool programs with exible programming and a positive emotional climate tend to adjust better and do better in school A minority of schoolage children and early adolescents are in selfcare Family Structure Has changed dramatically Used to be the vast majority of children grew up in families with two married parents Today 2 out of 3 children live with two married biological adoptive or stepparents Represents a dramatic decline About 10 of twoparent families are stepfamilies Nearly 4 are cohabitating families Chidren tend to do better in families with two continuously married parents Even better when parents are happily married These children experience A higher standard of living More effective parenting More cooperative coparenting Coser relationships with both parents especially fathers Fewer stressful events Parents relationship quality of parenting and ability to create a favorable family atmosphere may affect adjustment more than marital status Famiy instability may be more harmful than family structure Fomby amp Cherlin 2007 Studied 5 to 14year olds Chidren who experienced several family transitions were more likely to have behavior problems and to engage in delinquent behavior Father s frequent and positive involvement is directly related to child s wellbeing and physical cognitive and social development 26 of US children live in households with no father Family Structure When Parents Divorce US has one of the highest divorce rates in the world Annual divorces has tripled since 1960 Stable at about 35 per 1000 people More than 1 million children are involved in divorces each year When Parents Divorce Adjusting to Divorce Divorce is stressful Marital con ict parental separation and possible remarriagesecond divorce can be stressful for the child Stressful for the parent as well which may affect parenting Children s emotional or behavioral problems may re ect the level of parental con ict before the divorce Strohschein 2005 Longitudinal study of almost 11000 Canadian children Children whose parents later divorced showed more anxiety depression or antisocial behavior However if con ict is chronic overt or destructive children may be as well or better off after a divorce Child s adjustment to divorce depends in part on age maturity gender temperament and psychosocial adjustment before the divorce Children whose parents divorce are at a higher risk for negative outcomes Most show good adjustment Younger children tend to suffer more behavioral problems Older children are at a higher risk for academic and social outcomes When Parents Divorce Custody Visitation and CoParenting Children do better after divorce if The custodial parent is Warm supportive and authoritative Monitors the child s activities Hods ageappropriate expectations Parenta con ict subsides The nonresident parent maintains close contact and involvement Mother usually gets custody Paternal custody is a growing trend Chidren adjust better when father pays child support Many children say losing contact with a father is one of the most painful results of divorce Quality of the relationship and the level of parental con ict are more important than frequency of contact Chidren who have close relationships with authoritative nonresident fathers tend to do better in school and are less likely to have behavior problems Sobolweski amp King 2005 Study of 354 divorced families Cooperative coparenting active consultation between a mother and a nonresident father on parenting decisions led to more frequent contact between father and child More frequent contact between father and child led to better fatherchild relationships and more responsive fathering Cooperative parenting is not the norm Joint Custody Custody shared by both parents Can be advantageous if the parents can cooperate joint legacustody Share the right and responsibility to make decisions regarding the child s welfare joint physicacustody Child lives parttime with each parent Children in joint custody are better adjusted and have higher selfesteem and better family relationships than children in sole custody When Parents Divorce LongTerm Effects Most children of divorce adjust reasonably well Anxiety may surface during adulthood when trying to form intimate relationships Afraid of making commitments that might end in disappointment 25 of children of divorce reach adulthood with serious social emotional or psychological problems Seen in 10 of children whose parents stay together Chidren tend to have Lower SES Poorer psychological wellbeing A greater chance of giving birth outside of marriage Marriages tend to be less satisfying and more likely to end in divorce BUT depends on how they resolve and interpret the experience of divorce Living in a OneParent Family Result of divorce or separation unwed parenthood or death Percentage of singleparent families in the US has more than doubled since 1970 but remained stable since 19905 More than half of all African American children live with a single parent 26 of Hispanic children and 19 of non Hispanic white children More prevalent in low income families Single parents are more likely to be mothers but single fathers have quadrupled since 1970 Children do fairly well overall but tend to lag socially and educa onaHy Child s age level of development family s nancial circumstances number of moves and father s involvement all make a difference Children of single parents do better in countries with supportive family policies Child and family allowances Tax bene ts to single parents Maternity leave Released time from work Living in a Cohabiting Family Parents tend to be more disadvantaged Have less income and education poorer relationships more mental health problems Brown 2004 35938 US families Worse emotional behavioral and academic outcomes for 6 to 11yearold children living with cohabiting biological parents Largey due to differences in economic resources parental wellbeing and parenting effectiveness Cohabiting families are more likely to break up Living in a Stepfamily 15 of US children live in blended families Adjusting to a new stepparent may be stressful Boys who have more trouble adjusting to divorce and living with a single mother bene t from a stepfather Stepfather should try to slowly become fnends Girls may nd the new man a threat to her independence and her relationship with her mother Mothers who remarry or form cohabiting relationships tend to use gentler discipline and have children who report better relationships Living with Gay or Lesbian Parents 9 million US children and adolescents have at least one gay or lesbian parent Some from previous heterosexual relationships conceived of arti cial means from surrogates or adopted No special concerns There is NO consistent difference between homosexual and heterosexual parents in emotional health or parenting skills and attitudes Any differences tend to favor gay and lesbian parents Gay or lesbian parents usually have positive relationships with their children No more likely to have emotional social academic or psychological problems No more likely to be homosexual or to be confused about their gender Social policy implications for legal decisions on custody and visitation disputes foster care and adoptions Adoptive Families Found in all cultures throughout history In 2004 15 million US children under 18 about 25 lived with at least one adoptive parent Roughly 60 of legal adoptions are by stepparents or relatives usually grandparents Usualy take place through public or private agencies Supposed to be con dential lndependent Adoptions Made by direct agreement between birth parents and adoptive parents Open Adoptions Both parties share information or have direct contact with the child Type of adoption bears no relation to the child s adjustment or to the parents satisfaction with the adop on Few signi cant differences in adjustment between adopted and nonadopted children Adoption in infancy has lowest adjustment problems About 17 of adoptions are transracial No signi cant problems for the child Sibling Relationships Roles and relationships are determined by Number of siblings Spacing Birth order Gender Positive and Negative Effects of Peer Relations Positive Develop sociability and intimacy skills Learn leadership and communication skills Gain a sense of belonging NegaUve CHques Reinforce prejudice Foster antisocial tendencies pressure to conform Popularity Sociometric Popularity Which peers are liked the most and least Popuar rejected neglected controversial average Perceived Popularity Which children are best liked by their peers Sociometric Popularity Good cognitive abilities high achievers good at solving social problems help other children and are assertive without being disruptive or aggressive Kind trustworthy cooperative loyal self disclosing and provide emotional support Perceived Popularity Physicaly attractive with athletic and to a lesser extent academic ability Unpopuar rejected or neglected children are Aggressive Hyperactive lnattentive or withdrawn Sily and immature or anxious and uncertain lnsensitive to other children s feelings Do not adapt well to new situations Friendship Look for friends who are similar in age sex and interests Strongest friendships involve equal commitment and mutual giveandtake Teaches children to communicate and cooperate Schoolage children distinguish among quotbest friendsquot quotgood friendsquot and quotcasual friendsquot Girls care less about having many friends than about having a few close friends Boys have more friendships but they are less intimate and affectionate Media and Aggression The average child spends 4 hours a day on television or a computer 6 out of 10 TV shows portray violence Usualy glamorized trivialized or glori ed Most studies support a causal relationship between media violence and aggressive behavior Observational learning desensitization and enactive learning Virtua violence video games may have a stronger effect than passive media TV Bullies and Victims Bulying Aggression deliberately and persistently directed against a particular target or victim Proactive To show dominance Reactive Responding to an attack Victims are usually Weak Vunerable Defenseless Cyberbulying Patterns of Bullying Become established as early as kindergarten lncreases during middle school and then declines Temporary rise as social networks form Especially with middleschool boys Boys tend to use overt aggression Girls tend to use relational aggression