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Cyterski PSYC 3230

by: Samantha Snyder

Cyterski PSYC 3230 MGMT 3000

Samantha Snyder
GPA 3.47
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Principles of Management
Charles W. Lyons, J.D.

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About this Document

Lecture Notes from week 7
Principles of Management
Charles W. Lyons, J.D.
Class Notes




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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Snyder on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 3000 at University of Georgia taught by Charles W. Lyons, J.D. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Principles of Management in Business, management at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 10/02/15
September 28 2015 Explanations Psychodynamic view 0 Repression defense mechanism used to protect oneself from thoughtsmemories Behavioral view 0 Operant conditioning o Dissociating is negative reinforcement o Statedependent learning when people can39t remember what the other personalities have done they are extremely statedependent learners At rst people with DID may not be aware of their other personalities but as time goes on often the fact that time doesn39t add up may clue them in Selfhypnosis tricky treatment because people with DID are extremely suggestible during hypnosis clinicians can insert false memories How are Dissociative Amnesia and DID treated Complex and dif cult to treat 0 Therapeutic alliance is critical bonds typically form during treatment 0 Recovering memories is the goal 0 Sometimes antianxiety drugs are used 0 Integrating the subpersonalities Fusion merging all personalities into one single person Hershel Walker DID video Sybil movie Chapter 6 Disorders of Mood Mood disorders exist along a continuum extreme sadness D extreme elation Normal to experience varied and extreme emotions o What makes it abnormal 0 Frequency extreme emotions are experienced how often they switch between moods how long each extreme emotion is felt Disorders of Mood Depressive disorders unipolar depression more common Bipolar disorders 8 of adults in the US in any given year 19 lifetime prevalence Women are twice as likely There are environmental amp social factors that affect depression rates Recurrent Around 40 will experience another episode later in their lives 0 Less likely to be recurrent if people get treated professionally Symptoms of Depression Symptoms vary from person to person diagnostic criteria requires a certain number of symptoms but not all to be diagnosed Zang selfrating depression scale 615 of people experiencing depressionlike symptoms report suicidal feeHngs SOMETIMES not recommended people who experience bouts of depression can recover eventually on their own Emotional symptoms feeling quotmiserable empty humiliatedquot Lack of drive initiative spontaneity Less active less productive Hold negative views of themselves Pessimistic Physical symptoms Diagnosing Unipolar Depression In class I am going to focus on biological approachesread the book though September 30 2015 Double depression very depressive episodes with milder depression between them Dysthymia moderate depression two years or more considered reaction to external stressor Blue Mood Dysthymic Disorder Major Depressive Disorder Biological Factors Key neurotransmitters Norepinephrine and serotonin 0 Low activity of these neurotransmitters is one cause of depression Biological Treatments for Unipolar Depression Antidepressant Drugs 0 Monoamine oxidase inhibitors MAO inhibitors lnhibit production of an enzyme called MAO MAO breaks down norepinephrine Leads to rise in norepinephrine Very effective but not prescribed often severe diet restrictions Discovered by happenstance tuberculosis treatment noticed it made patients happier o Tricyclics Block the reuptake process thus increasing NT activity in the synapse Proven more effective than placebo treatments by drug companies 0 Secondgeneration antidepressants Structurally different than MAO inhibiters and tricyclics More selective Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors SSRIs doesn39t block all receptor sites for serotonin just a few types of receptor sites Signi cantly less and lesser side effects Increasing serotonin levels Ex Prozac rst on the market and Zoloft There are also Selective Norepinephrine drugs on the market Video in class 0 By 199039s of people seeking treatment tripled As more people take them side effects emerged 1 in 5 people got more anxious 1 in 100 people went on to attempt suicide Seroxat put on the market and hid the fact that it raises the risk of suicidal behavior 8x 0 Majority of patients do bene t from medications but not for everyone 0 Alternative Treatments Electroconvulsive Therapy ECT shock treatment Controversial but methods have improved a LOT loss of longterm memory is a possibility but less likely 612 sessions 24 weeks apart Amnesia and muscle relaxers are used now 6080 improvement rate 0 People don39t REALLY know how it works Deep Brain Stimulation TMS Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Implantation of an electrode deep in the brain circuit Brodmann s area 25 that is thought to be involved in depression to stimulate brain activity 0 Very new and experimental October 2 2015 Psychological Models Behavioral Model 0 Lewinsohn positive rewards in life dwindle for some reason During treatment increase positive rewards Cognitive Model 0 Learned helplessness Beliefthat they no longer have control over the reinforcements of their life Seligman39s work with laboratory dogs discovered that when he put dogs in the lab through a procedure that was stressful amp they had no control depressionlike symptoms were induced Cage with divider and metal grid oor that could emit an electrical current on one or both sides 0 Signi cant research support for this eld 0 Attributions what you credit things that happen to you to internal credit to yourself quotI39m not smart enoughquot vs internal credit to others quotthe teacher sucksquot Internal attributions that are global and stable typical way you attribute things lead to greater feelings of helplessness and possibly depression 0 Negative thinking Aaron Beck People with depression typically have maladaptive attitudes Cognitive Triad individuals typically interpret 1 their experiences 2 themselves and 3 their futures in negative waystepression o Laughter Clubs Video 0 Movement in psych eld positive psychology 0 Began in India 0 World Laughter Tour quotlead the world to health happiness and peace through laughterquot o quotlaughter is actually about a relationship with other peoplequot 0 Laughter causes a change in brain chemistry that sends quotfunction normallyquot signals to the rest of your body Bipolar Disorder 0 Both the lows of depression and the highs of mania o Mania very talkative high energy productive happy feelings of creativity 0 Mania makes it hard to treat bc people want to get rid of depression but not mania 0 Full Manic Episode full blown episode that also has psychotic symptoms hallucinations and delusions o Hypomanic Episode lesser than full manic episodes Bipolar 1 Disorder 0 Substantial time between episodes of full depression and full mania Bipolar 2 Disorder 0 Full depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes 0 Rapid Cycling 0 4 switching episodes within one year additional speci er to Bipolar 1 or Bipolar 2 diagnosis Cyclothymic Disorder 0 Mild depressive and mildly manic episodes 0 Feliziano Video o quottough time keeping it togethernormaly high functioning but not during this periodquot 0 Manic quottalk to people I m nequot 0 Depressive quothermitlike nervous tight and compactquot o quotif I didn39t take my meds I wouldn39t necessarily become hypomanic I may become depressedand I want to avoid my depression more than I want to feel hypomanicquot Charlie Sheen interview What Causes Bipolar Disorders Neurotransmitters o Permissive theory Low serotonin low norepinephrine depression Low serotonin high norepinephrine mania on activity 0 Remember quotaction potentialquot discussion 0 Ions may be improperly transported 0 Causes neurons to re too easily mania or resist ring depression Treatments for Bipolar Disorders 0 Lithium


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