Week 6 Lecture notes, Cell Diversity, Photosynthesis, and Cell Respiration
Week 6 Lecture notes, Cell Diversity, Photosynthesis, and Cell Respiration EBIO 1210-001
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tatiana Tabares on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1210-001 at University of Colorado taught by Dr. Barbara Demmig-Adams in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see General Biology 1 in Biology at University of Colorado.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Cell Diversity Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration Week 6 Notes Cell diversity Size difference between human and bacterial cells The Human Microbiome The microbial cells living in our body outnumber our own cells most of these microbes are beneficial If you take antibiotics you wipe out all of these beneficial microbes Importance of Microbes Human microbiome amp health As beneficial quotprobioticsquot microorganisms defend the human gut against pathogenic bacteria a diet of refined foods depletes this quotarmyquot Relevant for human nutrition opens a new therapeutic options applies principles of ecology Huge field of microbiology right now to prevent and fight infection with disease impeding microbes pathogenic microbes reducing the use of antibiotics Other roles of microbes Home amp Industry 1 2 Production of fermented products as foods fuels by microbes Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea quotprokaryotequot quotbefore nucleus no nucleus no membrane around the DNA Domain Eukarya Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Animalia Protises multiple kingdoms quoteukaryotequot quotreal nucleus with membrane around the DNA Similarities All living cells share these key components Nucleic acids DNA to store genetic info for protein synthesis Proteins to perform diverse tasks and ribosomes to make proteins Outer membrane to maintain a suitable internal environment Ability to acquire energy from the environment for ATP formation amp the 3 types of cellular work Cell Diversity Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration Week 6 Notes Differences Prokaryotic Cell bacterium Smaller Simpler structure DNA concentrated in nucleotide region which is not enclosed by membrane Lacks most organelles Possess unique biochemical pathways Eukaryotic Cell Larger More complex structure Nucleus enclosed by membrane Contains many types of organelles Major Organelles involved in energy metabolism 1 Mitochondria the eukaryotic cell39s powerhouses a Role burn energy rich molecules with 02 to gain lots of ATP energy for cellular work b prokaryotes do not have mitochondria many prokaryotes cannot burn food molecules with 02 and instead use fermentation to make small amounts of ATP c All eukaryotes have mitochondria for making lots of ATP plants animals fungi protists 2 Chloroplasts solar energy collectorconverters a Role convert solar energy rich sugars in photosynthesis b Prokaryotes do not have chloroplasts photosynthetic bacteria perform photosynthesis using other structures c Only occur in plants amp algae Both possess their own DNA ribosomes of the type prokaryotes have and a double membrane as if they were independent organisms that have been swallowed by Endosymbiont Theory Mitochondria and chloroplast o are each surrounded by a double membrane 0 have their own DNA and ribosomes and divide within the eukaryotic cell Animal and Plant Cell share the same Cell Diversity Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration Week 6 Notes Plant Cell Unique plant cell features Chloroplasts for photosynthesis Cell wall and central vacuole for structural support Carbohydrates function as Energy supply Building blocks Gene regulators Carbohydrate polymers polysaccharides are built from the simplest sugars monosaccharides Example Glucose All carbohydrates polymers and simple sugars consist of multiple units H COH Names of simple sugars often end in quotosequot as in glucose fructose amp galactose These three are hexose sugars with 6 carbons C6H1206 CHOH6 Photosynthesis takes energypoor nonreactive C02 and H20 and uses sunlight to turn these into energy rich sugars Sunlight solar energy is harnessed thru photosynthesis by Producers plants algae and photosynthetic bacteria all consumers rely on energy rich molecules with CH bonds Photosynthesis Usable energy in sunlight energy enters ecosystem Cellular Respiration ATP Drives cellular work heat energy exits ecosystem Unusable energy out Cell Diversity Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration Week 6 Notes ATP is not produced not only in cellular respiration but also as an intermediate in sugar production in photosynthesis ATP is too unstable to serve as an actual storage form of energy Therefore CH bonds in energyrich molecules like sugars are instead used for energy storage and the sugars need to be broken down again later to ATP Sugars exist in the cell as rings Like a large check or gold bar not usable in a vending machine not usable for cellular work but stable enough for storage ATP is like smaller bills usable for cellular work but not stable enough for storage Metabolism the sum of all processes by which energy is obtained and converted and by which organism39s material substance body is produced maintained and degraded Greek origin metabol change ana up anabolism production of energyrich molecules and or of the organism39s material substance cata down catabolism degradation of energyrich food and or of the organism39s material substance Sugar has nonpolar bonds can be burned to extract energy Dehydration synthesis HZO of sucrose Monosaccharides gt Disaccharide Glucose Fructose gt Sucrose Glucose Galactose gt Lactose Hexose CESH1206 simple sugars the general formula of CH20n Monosaccharides and disaccharides Important monosaccharides Glucose fructose galactose Important disaccharides Cell Diversity Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration Week 6 Notes Table Salt Glucose Fructose gt Sucrose Milk Glucose Galactose gt Lactose Ancestral human sugar consumption was low The story of High Fructose Corn Syrup HFCS Background on HFCS Produced very cheaply from cornstarchmost companies switched to HFCS in 1980s Tastes extrasweet less is needed for same sweetness HFCS formula 55 fructose 45 glucose since human taste buds highly sensitive to fructose mix tastes sweeter than natural 11 mix from sucrose Sugar transporter in human gut is best at taking up 1 glucose 1 fructose is slow in taking up extra fructose 30 of US pop suffer varying degrees of fructose malabsorption This can cause flatulence and diarrhea remove essential protective intestinal microflora can lead to mineral deficiencies iron magnesium calcium amp zinc interferes with oral contraceptive efficiency Some fruit has fructose but way less than soft drinks most people will benefit from eating a whole fruit 0 Very small amount compared to soft drinks Another problematic sugar lactose milk sugar Lactose intolerance Diff from allergy to milk which is related to the proteins rather than the sugar Role of genetic background nutrigenomics Carbohydrates polysaccharides Starch energy storage carbohydrate in plants in potato cell Glycogen energy storage carbohydrate in animals Cell Diversity Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration Week 6 Notes granules in muscle tissue Cellulose cell wall for structural support in plants fibers in plant cell wall Alpha glucose forms the spiraling helices of the easy to digest storage carbohydrates starch and glycogen Beta glucose forms straight fibers of the hard to digest structual carbohydrate cellulose o Cellulose makes up the tightly packed fiber structure of plant cell walls Many organisms have enzymes that break bonds in starch Only a few microbes have enzymes to break bonds in cellulose Animals cannot break cellulose bonds and rely on microbial symbionts that can cows Carbohydrates are Gene Regulators High blood glucose and even more so high blood fructose stimulates fat storage especially visceral fat Sunlight solar energy Producers Consumers Humans need oxygen Oxygen that is released from a plant cannot usually be seen unless the plant lives underwater Father of NASA39s integrative regenerative life support system Joseph Priestly 17711772 quotthe injury which is continually done to the atmosphere by the respiration of such a large number of animals is in part at least repaired by the vegetable creationquot Jan Ingenhousz clarified the role of light in photosynthesis 1779 Photosynthesis 1 Requires carbon dioxide which diffuses into the leafs then chloroplasts 2 Chloroplasts use energy from light to transform C02 to sugar Transpiration regulated by guard cells surrounding stomata Cell Diversity Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration Week 6 Notes C02 goes into the leaves Chloroplasts Chloro means green 0 inner and outer membranes 0 Stroma fluid space waterfilled space where C02 is converted to sugar calvin cycle occurs 0 Thylakoid space little membrane stacks light reactions occur H is needed to make sugars Calvin Cycle the cycle in which ATP is used to convert 002 into glucose The 1st photosystem o watersplitting photosystem 0 taking electrons from water 0 energized with the help of light 0 2H 12 02 oxygen is not happy bkuz the electrons are wrestled away from the h20 Photosynthesis extracts electrons from water 2 H20 to 4H 4 electrons to reform 2 H20 ET Know the source of oxygen produced in photosynthesis A The oxygen is what is left over when the water is split essentially a waste product Sunlight also provides the energy to excite electrons to become highenergy electrons As excited electrons flow through the electron transport chain they give up energy that is used to power ATP formation ATP is used in the Calvin Cycle for sugar formation NADPHproducing photosystem o Sunlight energizes electrons again energized electrons and H are loaded onto NADP the H shuttle NADPH provides highenergy electrons and H for the CH bonds in sugars Protons H are pumped from low to high H concentration into the inner thylakoid space pile up like water behind a dam and flow back through the ATP synthase from high to low H concentration where the energy of the H gradient is used to form ATP in the stroma Cell Diversity Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration Week 6 Notes Protons H flow back through the ATP synthase turbine from high to low H concentration where the energy of the H gradient is used to form ATP in the stroma Origin of 02 is from H20 when it is releasing energized electrons for the electron transport chain iClicker answers The movement of protons through the ATP synthase occurs through passive transport 0 Going from high to low with the gradient The movement of protons through the electron transport chain occurs through active transport 0 Going from low to high against the gradient requires work 0 Releases small amounts of energy from the electrons Lightdriven electron transport force drives the buildup across the photosynthetic membrane of the proton H gradient that subsequently serves to drive ATP formation Membrane Structure and Function Outer cell membrane bring in food and building blocks eliminate waste keep out unwanted substances Internal membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria platform for energy transformations via electron transport chains and ATP synthase turbines these membranes act like dams behind which protons can be accumulated like water behind a dam Calvin Cycle What goes in High energy molecules Energy donors 0 ATP from the light reactions 0 NADPH from the light reactions H shuttle C02 from the air and via stomata What comes out Cell Diversity Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration Week 6 Notes G3P half of a glucose 0 Storage 0 Cell respiration o Cellulose iClicker question Explanation Leaf has the responsibility to take care of not only its own energy needs but the whole plant39s energy needs The leaf cannot consume all of the energy that it produces in photosynthesis Leaf needs to provide for the stems and the roots etc and to fuel the actual growth by the mass accumulation Answer Overall photosynthesis rates of a leaf should be higher when predicting the relative rates of photo vs respiration over the lifespan of a green leaf Respiration FoodtoEnergy Sunlight energy enters ecosystem C6H1206 and 02 Photosynthesis uses sunlight to make sugars and 02 Cellular respiration ATP Aerobic cellular respiration burns sugars with 02 to C02 amp water extracting energy to make ATP for cellular work C02 and H20 Hemoglobin in the bloodstream transports 02 inhaled by the lungs to body cells that burn the food with 02 to release energy hemoglobin transports the C02 waste produced by the body cell in this burning process back to the lungs to be exhaled o 02 in 0 C02 out o Foodin Hemoglobin in red blood cells transports 02 from the lungs to body cells that burn energyrich CH bonds from to C02 and H20 in cellular respiration to produce ATP 002 from the body cells is then transported back to the lungs by hemoglobin red blood cells Cell Diversity Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration Week 6 Notes Hemoglobin39s 02 binding capacity is affected by C02 concentration Muscle releases C02 from cellular respiration into blood fluid which results in a decrease in hemoglobin39s 02 binding capacity 02 is released from hemoglobin to muscle C02 is taken away from the muscle by blood fluid Lungs release C02 into the air The drop in C02 concentration in the blood fluid increases hemoglobin39s 02 capacity 02 inhaled by the lungs binds tightly to hemoglobin iClicker Question Hemoglobin binds 02 in the lungs and releases 02 in the muscle the binding capacity of hemoglobin for 02 is high in the lungs and low in the muscle region Cellular respiration within mitochondria 02 and glucose go in and Co2 ATP and H20 come out Cellular Respiration To extract their highenergy electrons sugars are broken down in steps starting with glycolysis in cytosol cytoplasm Glycolysis breaking sugar in the cytoplasm o by direct synthase Citric Acid Cycle takes place in the Mitochondrion o by direct synthase Electron Transport Bound to the inner membranes of the mitochondria o by ATP synthase Energy is extracted from CH bonds by transfer of highenergy electrons H to NADH H shuttle and then into electron transport to make lots of ATP Citric Acid Cycle demolishes Hydrogen bonds In the citric acid cycle highenergy electrons are extracts from the remaining CH bonds until only C02 is left Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor High energy electrons are fed into the electron transport chain to make lots of ATP This cycle finishes off what is left of the glucose Cell Diversity Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration Week 6 Notes Chemical Potential Energy Nonpolar HH bonds have high chemical potential energy and low stability HH bonds serve as an energy source since H does not want these electrons all that much Water39s polar bonds have low chemical potential energy and high stability 0 Since oxygen wants the electrons very much 0 The electrons in water are low energy electrons Nonpolar CH bonds in sugars and fats have high chemical potential energy and low stability 0 Stepwise release of energy in mitochondrial electron transport drives ATP formation 0 Hydrogen electrons and oxygen combine to produce water 0 Electrons from food molecules Electron Transport Chain NADH H20 Electrons are stripped from food molecules and shuttled by NADH Stepwise release of energy is used to make ATP Hydrogen electrons and oxygen combine to produce water H20 0 reactive o unstable 0 doesn39t want the electrons that much 0 these are high energy electrons o unreactive o stable 0 oxygen wants the electrons very much 0 these are low energy electrons High energy electrons from food are fed into the electron transport chain Electrons give up energy while flowing through the electron transport chain this energy is captured to energize active transport of H from low H in the matrix to high H in the space between the membranes 0 Remember membranes act like a dam collecting protons H behind its walls Cell Diversity Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration Week 6 Notes H flow from high concentration in space between membranes to low H concentration in the matrix energizes ATP formation Protons are pumped from low to high H concentration into the intermembrane space pile up like water behind a dam and flow back through the ATP synthase from high to low H concentration where the energy of the H gradient is used to form ATP in the matrix
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