Week 5- Christianity, Islam, and Byzantine Empire
Week 5- Christianity, Islam, and Byzantine Empire ST 150 - 20
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Tipton on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ST 150 - 20 at Ball State University taught by John Stanley Marsh (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
101 Christianity Jesus Jesus agreed he was an actual person born between 81ZBC died 3033AD historical fact Gospels of Matthew Mark Luke and John tell the stories of the life ofJesus Other sources of his life additional Christian gospels from the Nag Hammadi library included is a gospel of Phillip Thomas and Mary which add to the life ofJesus Josephus a Jewish scholar writes about a teacher by the name ofJesus who acquired a following and was reported of doing miracles reports from others on Jesus from another perspective Passing reference in Roman writing referring to the execution ofJesus not complete agreement on that Most of the information still from the 4 gospels Matthew Mark Luke and John 0 His message resonates in the Roman world The Religion Spread very slowly in the initial years after the death ofJesus Apostles receives the word ofJesus resurrection from Mary Magdalen Christianity viewed as another sect within Judaism First followers ofJesus were Jews themselves who saw him as the Mosiah Peter and Paul 0 Paul key player in the religion of Christianity 0 Paul was not an original follower ofJesus in his lifetime saw a vision and was told to spread the word of Christianity 0 Has ideas different than original followers Christian messaoe for evervone not just lews Don39t have to be a Jew to be a Christian 0 Tension between Paul and other disciples o Paul39s message was the life and the message Jesus brought was essentially the most important thing that trumped everything else People didn39t have to follow kosher laws etc to reach salvation 0 Paul plants churches in the places that he stops 0 Converts people moves on but keeps in touch with congregations he forms 0 Makes a mark of what it means to be a Christian Other apostles did spread Christianity through the Empire just not the same widespread impact that Paul had E EFSUS Miles J D 100 200 39 I The Journeys of the Apostle Paul Alexandre EGYPT First Journey Second Journey Third Journey Voyage to Home Copyright 1998 rumthew MoGee ll rights reserved WWW metthewmogeeorg Christianity is a product of two things 0 Judaism Monotheism Old Testament narrative prophesies Codes of conduct particularly the 10 commandments Equality before God Concepts of resurrection not new concept 0 GrecoRoman Culture Appeal to those seeking religion ful llment Christians dying in the arenas become martyrs that inspire people to know why they believe so strongly For persecution to have an effect it has to have a growing cause Easy spreadgt roads seas Latin amp Greek languages Cosmopolitan universal society Periodic persecutions Becomes official religion 392 AD Logicreason classical thought impacts Christianity Cultural elements gt holidays languages and rituals Christians begin destroying things like pagan temples no martyrs on the other side 3 Challenges of Early Christianity 1 What is the nature of Christ God Man Both Some say he is not God but a man delivering God39s word OR a God who looked like a man OR both a man and a God Group of religious leaders meet to try and decide Council of Nicaea decides Jesus is BOTH a man and God What books should be in the New Testament Long selective process What to do with GrecoRoman philosophy amp knowledge Some Christians said get rid of philosophy burn it burning library of Alexandria totally abolish OR ignore it OR just because philosophers came before Jesus does not mean they are bad or wrong as long as it s not in opposition to Christian belief they never settled the debate many different perspectives still present today Classical Humanism GrecoRoman lnherent individual worth You are a distinct rational thinking being and that gives you worth Cyclical view of time Intellectual and moral Christianit Worth because of God Humans are made in the image of God that makes us unique exceHence IN ONE WORD reason 0 Linear view of time from 0 Salvation Judaism end is when Jesus 0 IN ONE WORD faith comes back When we collapse the Roman Empire in the West we go more toward Christianity The middle ages is an age of faith we address disease or political problems with faith In the Renaissance there is a shift and reemphasis on classical humanism Eastern Roman Empire 0 Capital at Constantinople 0 When the western Roman Empire falls the Eastern Roman Empire is becomes known as the szantine Empire Byzantine Empire 0 Christianity 0 Church and state closely tied together Justinian was the emperor and wore a crown or halo shows position as protector of the Christian church 0 The empire will shrink down until its nal collapse in 1453 0 Emperor very engaged in defending the city can39t get enough people to guard the walls 0 People consumed in religion did not have time to man the walls o In that year it is not much bigger than Constantinople itself and at this point Constantinople conquered by Turks The Byzantines preserve re ne collect and organize a lot of Roman knowledge but add little new perspectives or ideas to it 0 Code ofJustinian 0 Roman laws some inspired by Greek in uence 0 Reorganized Byzantine scholars copy and recopy writings of philosophers Becomes the foundation of the Eastern Orthodox Church o Comes from Christian religion of the Byzantines o A religion of a minority or not the of cial religion 0 Church organized along national ines Greek Orthodox Church Russian Orthodox Church etc Christians in modern day Syria and in Northern Iraq who have recently faced persecution from SS Byzantine Architecture 0 Characterized by domes 0 Half domes turret like structure connected 0 Hagia Sophia in Istanbul DDDDDDDDDD After the fall of Constantinople the city was renamed Istanbul Today considered to be a museum no longer used for worship 0 19th Century NeoByzantine style in Russia 0 Churches with similar look but built in the 18005 0 Very ornate 0 Bright colors high rounded windows domes Interiors elaborately painted with biblical scenes 0 Painting at representations NO STATUES o Seen as idols o Graven Islam 0 The third of the Abrahamic monotheistic religions trace their narrative to Abraham Begins in the Arabian peninsula in the 7th century AD 0 ln Arabia previously included was polytheistic with various sacred places and sites sharing similar beliefs in tribal settings each tribe had different areas of focus 0 ln cities along the route you may nd Judaism Christianity Zoroastrianism monotheistic religion from Persia not Abrahamic Origins of Islam tied to the prophet Muhammad born in 570 AD died 632AD Around 610AD when Muhammad was in his 405 he saw the arch angel Gabriel and received revelations These revelations were collected and written down the Quran the holy text of Islam For the majority of Islam they would not depict Muhammad in pictures The Five Pillars39 of Islam There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet Dailey prayers 5 xed times during each day Almsgiving to the need Fasting during month of Ramadan Pilgrimage to Mecca if physically nancially able P PP N Jesus is a prophet is lslam Christian New Testament is a sacred testament in Islam just secondary The Quran is the most accurate for revelations of God for Islam Islamic dietary laws very similar to Jewish kosher laws The spread of Islam Muhammad has 75 converts after 15 years Conversion picks up pace as Muhammad and his followers build an army that is able to conquer parts of the caravan route Gain more followers through conquest By the death of Muhammad in 632 they had conquered most of the Arabian Peninsula In the 30 years after the death of Muhammad they conquer a part of northern Africa Egypt Persia etc heavily populated wealthy areas 0 Huge addition to Islam A little over a century after the rest of north Africa past byzantine empire pushing off boarders of India The expansion of Islam is almost entirely by conquest o In some areas they wipe out the existing population and repopulate it with Muslims 0 Most areas they established forced conversions die or convert to Islam 0 Take over areas and tax them with a much higher rate for those who are not converted Sunni Shiite o Majority of Muslims are Sunni 0 Split occurs with the death of Muhammad and who should succeed him 0 Sunni is the majority in almost every place except Iraq and Iran who are strongly Shiite o Sunni and Shiite split has to do with current con ict with ISIS Sunni against Iran and Iraq Indonesia is the most populous Muslim region The Golden Age of Islam Generally known as 750 AD1050 AD Islam was very wealthy Cultural heights in science mathematics medicine Powerful and had a lot of in uence The spoils of conquest was signi cantly funding their advances Muslims absorbed the wealth and cultural material from their conquered lands It was traditional to build a mosque right on top of the most holy sites of the people they conquered or take over and use their temples What brings the golden age to an end 0 There are some invasions in part of Islam that impact the golden age Mongols in particular from the east and north but not primary 0 The PRIMARY REASON is as a result of decisions by the rulers of Islam 0 The suItans begin to discourage this sort of learning discussion philosophy and eventually ban it 0 We only need the Quran that39s where focus needs to be no other exploration Why ban it Need focus on religion concern for purity of Islam fear of being overpowered by alternate teaching and someone else rising as a leader against you 0 Religious orthodoxy Fear of power struggles Principle ending is conscious decisions by sultans to turn away and they had the power to enforce this on a wide scale West explores enlightenment apply science and create industrial machines etc going down a path lslam does not Closing Discussion The conquest of Islam and the notions ofJihad Fundamentalist or radical group of Islam is a small but active group today 0 If the territory was taken by conquest is Islam a religion of conquest or violence 0 You take what you want to nd 0 Based on the Islamic writings you ll nd good and bad Take care of poor ex reigion of peace Go conquer kill the in del reigion of violence If you read the old testament you will also nd bloodshed o Majority ofJews and Christians view bloodshed in the bible as from another time period not current instruction 0 Muslims view them the same not instruction of today Fundamentalists see it t for today 0