SOC205Week5.pdf SOC 205 - 17
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Liescheidt on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 205 - 17 at Grand Valley State University taught by Darrick L. Brake in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Social Problems in Sociology at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Lecture on Race and Ethnic Inequality 1 The US is a diverse racial and ethnic society 1 The majority of the US will be African Latino Asian Middle Eastern and Native Americans by 2050 2 Currently White Americans are a minority in half of the largest 100 US cities and in Hawaii New Mexico Texas and California 3 There is population mobility now People can travel the globe and find the employment they want 1 in 2005 about 3 of the world s population lived somewhere other than their birth country 1 There is a lot of movement and it is continuous so much fluidity 2 Defining race and ethnicity 1 Biological perspective race can be defined as a group or population that share a set of genetic characteristics and physical features 1 This term has been applied to groups with similar features 1 ex white race Jewish race human race 2 People are trying to find a pure race 1 However there is no such thing as a pure race 3 It s been used to justify differences 1 The issue is that generations of migration intermarriage and adaptations to different physical environments have produced a mixture of races 4 Sociologists argue that race is an illusion 1 The meaning of race is socially situated 2 categories are being formed transformed destroyed and reformed regularly 1 What it means to be American will change over time 2 Who we are changes with that identity 1 The way we define ourselves will redefine those categories 3 Race is a social invention 2 Ethnic groups are set off to some degree from other groups by displaying a unique set of cultural traits such as language religion or diet 1 All of us to some extent have an ethnic identity 2 Ethnicity can serve as the basis for social ranking 3 In the past Ethnicity and Race used to be split up 1 splitting these two things up meant that they had different definitions 1 Most people don t split their existence upreason for combining the two terms 2 This doesn t change the problems which leads to more inequalities in different ethnic groups 2 Race and defining race has changed since the past 1 Definitions and race are rapidly changing 2 The ethnic class hierarchies are largely paralleled 1 We are adding layers to the way we define race and ethnicity 2 Reason for them being put together because they are being paralleled 3 Academics think about race with layers lots of fluidity and many absolute definitions which is different than the census 1 The census defines ethnicity as a redistribution of power 2 Defines ethnicity in terms of Hispanic nonHispanic status contrary to the conventional definition discussed by social scientists 1 US Census Bureau includes people who are Mexican central and south american puerto rican cuban and other categories of hispanics 1 That is almost 13 of the globe Native refers to anyone born in the US Refugees are aliens outside of the US who are unwilling or unable of return to country of origin for fear of persecution based on race religion nationality membership in a particular social group or political opinion 1 Not as many people are welcomed into the country as one might think 2 Some people can stay as long as they are students 3 Some may stay as long as they have a fulltime job 4 There is a 5050 split between males and females Ethnocentrism belief that tone s own group values and behaviors are right and even better than all others 1 feeling positive about ones own group is important it creates solidarity loyalty and connectedness The negative is that it leads people to believe that certain other racial or ethnic groups are inferior or superior which will lead people to discriminatory practices that are justified 1 This is known as racism Individual discrimination action against minority members Institutional discrimination practied by gov t social institutions and organizations 1 ex segregation exclusion or expulsion 1 segregation refers to the physical and social separation of ethnic or racial groups 1 It is now illegal yet still happens 2 Exclusion refers to the practice of prohibiting or restricting entry or participation of groups in society 3 Expulsion removal of a group by direct force or intimidation 1 ex native americans Theones 1 Functionalist perspective difference between racial and ethnic groups is largely cultural 1 the solution is assimilation a process where minority group members become part of the dominant group losing their original distinct group identity 2 This is what it means to have a Melting Pot 1 Helps maintain equilibrium 10 2 4 2 people are losing bit by bit of who they actually are but they are slowly getting in with dominant culture Conflict perspective focuses on how dynamics of racial and ethnic relations divide groups while maintaining a dominant group 1 defined according to racial and ethnic categories also defined according to social class relationships are based on power force and coercion Conflict may be mutual Business want to maximize their profits the cheapest way possible but still getting the job done 1 Cheap labor tries to further advance into other jobs and areas of employment by threatening cheaper labor 2 This creates perpetual conflict 1 less about racial conflict more about racial and class conflict 1 it s not about racial differences it s really about class differences Feminist Perspective worried about race class and gender and how it plays into one another interactionist perspective 1 race is a social construct we learn what racism is through our social interaction 1 The meaning is provided by our social institutions family and friends 2 Race is practiced and not a category 1 we have a history of racially biased ideas that we see everyday 2 alternative is self identification 1 even though it is picking preexisting categories 0 39gt0 D Consequences of racial and ethnic inequality 1 3 Income and Wealth 1 Black households had the lowest median income for 2011 at 32229 2 White Households is 55412 3 Asian households were at the highest level at 65129 which is 117 of the non hispanic White household African Americans have not been able to achieve same levels as whites and other ethnic groups For every dollar earned by white households Black households earned about 62 cents Education has problems 1 2 half of all latinos will succeed in college hispanic students are more likely to enroll in open door institutions that have lower degree completion rates Healthcare 1 2 there are two issues at playaccess to care as well as quality of the care we live in a society in which the underlying belief is that the poor and unworthy of our society do not deserve decent healthcare
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