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Week five notes

by: Rebekah Roosa

Week five notes HDF 302-02

Rebekah Roosa
GPA 3.51
Infant and Child Development
Linda Traum

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About this Document

These notes are all about prenatal and postnatal development in infants.
Infant and Child Development
Linda Traum
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebekah Roosa on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HDF 302-02 at Central Michigan University taught by Linda Traum in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Infant and Child Development in Education and Teacher Studies at Central Michigan University.

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Date Created: 10/02/15
Date 92815 amp 93015 Infancy infant family amp society Developmental Neuroscience study of the developing brain and nervous system as it relates to psychologicalbehavioral function ex moving thinking feeling etc a Measuring brain activity i EEG Electroencephalography measures brain electrical activity ii MEG Magnetoencephalography uses magnetic fields instead of electricity iii fMRI functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging uses magnetic fields to detect where blood is exchanging oxygen not good for infants because you have to be still for an fMRI iv fNIRS functional near infrared spectroscopy used infrared light that can pass through skintissues v PET Position Emission Tomography uses radiation and is not good for infants Basic structures of the nervous system a The cells of the nervous system i Neurons the information storage and transfer cells of the nervous system 1 Process electricalchemical information and transmit this information to other neurons 2 About 140 billion neurons in the adults brian 3 Each neuron can connect up to a thousand other neurons Date 92815 amp 93015 ii Action potentials electro chemical currents that travel from the cell body along the axons to the axon terminals which connects to other neurons iii Synapse connects the axon terminals transmitted neuron to the dendrites of the receiving neuron iv Brain architecture video URL httpdevelopingchildharvardeduresourcesexperiencesbuildbrain architecturez v Neurochemicals exchanged between neurons 1 They ultimately change behavior 2 Produce either inhibition or arousal of function b Examples of neurochemicals i Serotonin alters mood to create quiet alertness and feelings of well being too little can lead to depressing feelings ii Dopamine attention feelings of pleasure and optimism as well as regulation of movement too much can lead to thought disturbancesschizophrenia too little movement disorders Parkinson s c Anatomical structures of the brain i Human brain has three main regions 1 Brain stem alert states 2 Limbic system emotion regulation 3 Cerebral cortex Date 92815 amp 93015 ii Brain stem contains roots of afferent and efferent neurons of the Autonomic Nervous System ANS which is responsible for regulation of basic body functions 1 ANS has two branches Sympathetic and Parasympathetic 2 Sympathetic gets the body ready for action 3 Parasympathetic allows the body to relax iii Limbic System located in the center of the head related to memory emotion body regulation and the responses to stressrelaxation iv Cerebral Cortex outer layer of the brain has connections to limbic system also divided into lobes 3 1 Occipital lobe processes visual information 2 Temporal lobes auditory amp speech processing 3 Parietal lobes connected to the muscles and sense organs integrate sensory amp motor information from different parts of the body into a body schema v More about the cortex 1 Deep in the cerebellum is the lnsula this creates feelings of interception allowing us to feel the inner condition of our body 2 Frontal lobe AKA prefrontal cortex allows for voluntary not automatically regulated our body states and patterns of behavior vi The cortex is also divided into right and left hemisphere 1 Right Hemisphere Date 92815 amp 93015 a Controls movements on the left side of the body b More holistic amp related to novelty c Most social and emotional activity is processed in the right limbic sensory and prefrontal amp face recognition areas d This part changes rapidly over the first two years of life 2 Left hemisphere a Controls movements on the right side of the body b More analytical c The left prefrontal parietal and temporal cortices are important for language amp thinking d This part changes more rapidly after two years of age 3 Postnataldevelopment a Postnatal period over production of synapses which become pruned back to Strong COHHECthhS 4 Functional and neural network a Arousal attention emotion Sleep wake cycle control Related to hunger thirst physical arousal Emotions Develop over 1st year 1 Fear develops at the end of 1st year 2 Emotional attachments also form Sleep states Date 92815 amp 93015 1 Light 2 Deep v Awake states 1 Drowsiness 2 Quiet alert states best for interactions with small infants 3 Active alert 4 Crying related to hunger tiredness or too much of any one thing b Information processing remembering i Brain networks for staying awake and paying attention are connected to a larger network ii This includes sensory organs internal organs and muscles responsible for movement iii Infants learn and remember by using the whole body not just brain c Regulation and executive function i We need a mechanism for inhibition of orienting reaction 1 Emotional responses 2 We can direct our attention to higher levels of processing that encompasses a sequence of actionssensations ii We need a type of functioning short term memory 1 Remember sequences of events Date 92815 amp 93015 2 Compare out action between different attempts at the same sequence between us and somethingsomeone else iii And we need some type of emotion regulation 1 So we don t give up on difficult or stressful tasks iv Prefrontal cortex regulation and Insula sense of self are part of the brain that develop the slowest 1 Peak of prefrontal cortex are around 34 years 2 Link between prefrontal cortex and amygdala account for some independence and selfcalming 3 On other hand prefrontal cortex does not fully develop until age 25 Ill 4 To infant adults serve as an externa external and prefrontal cortex d Selfawareness i Major networks devoted almost entirely to sensing the inner condition of body and mind 1 Where body is in relation to environment 2 How we move on different surfaces 3 Body boundries ii Selfawareness goes through multiple developmental changes during infancy 5 Optimal and nonoptimal brain development Date 92815 amp 93015 Stress is probably the single most important factor regulating individual differences in brain development beginning before birth and continuing throughout life Effects of prenatal and infant stress i m something dangerous outside of ourselves ii m body unable to gain balance between SNS and PNS iii Scaled 1 Positive dealing Wenvironmental frustrations wanting needs meet new experiences etc 2 Tolerable 3 toxic iv Early stress 1 Impairs PNS calming 2 Changes key areas of brain related to selfregulation 3 Effects cell development and PNS expression v Neuroception is a nonconscious evaluation of safety or a threat vi Three basic patterns of neuroception 1 Immobilization 2 Mobilization 3 Social engagement


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