Lesson 13: The Enlightenment
Lesson 13: The Enlightenment Hist 150
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Hamke on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 150 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Hall in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Lesson 13 The Enlightenment 0 Reason Natural Law and Progress 0 International movement of writers and thinkers 0 France center of the enlightenment 0 Also in universities in Scotland I Adam Smith famous individual at one of these universities o Inventor of concept of economics Thomas Jefferson 0 Very much shaped by ideas of the enlightenment o This shaped his approach to politics 0 Home was Monticello o Inspired by Voltaire and Tu rgot I Turgot famous economist Voltaire amp Turgot o Philosophes Philosophers 0 Used ideas to bring change and progress 0 Interested in progress and improvement 0 Voltaire arrested and exiled due to his ideas Philosophes Critical of 0 Religion 0 Politics 0 Des potism concentration of political power 0 Law Problem of Organized Religion 0 Voltaire 0 Famous philosopher o Playwright 0 Author 0 Focused on problem of organized religion I Catholicism o Analyzed St Bartholomew Massacre in where people were being killed across France due to religious violence 0 Argued that organized religion led to superstition and unjust views I Fanaticism I Superstition I Religious violence 0 People should be allowed to worship as they please I Religious tolerance 0 Alternative to organized religion I Deism seeing religion as just a moral basis for life 0 Questioned basic Christian views 0 Questioned the Bible 0 Believed in the existence of God but that he created natural law 0 Saw Bible as more of a moral teaching than an actual recording of God 0 Saw Jesus as more of a moral philosopher than the Son of God Thomas Paine 0 Good Republican 0 Wrote quotThe Age of Reason 0 Outlined Deistic view Unita rians o Directdescendent denomination of the Deistic approach Politics 0 Concerned with the problem of despotism concentration of political power in the hands of a single ruler o Inspired Montesquieu 0 Republicans in the 18th Century Democracy 0 Most common form of government was the Monarchy Types of Government 0 Constitutional Monarchy 0 Places limitations on the power of the King 0 Absolute Monarchy 0 King is the sole ruler o RepubHc 0 Least common form but slowly developing Louie XIV 16431715 0 Personified absolute monarchy o Divine Right Kings given their power to rule directly from God answerable only to God 0 God s Lieutenants relationship of God and King Solutions to Des potism 0 Jean Jacques Rousseau o Idea of Direct Democracy I Looked towards Athens as a model 0 Citizens could be directly involved in all political decisions 0 Critical of hereditary monarchy o Montesquieu 0 Published quotSpirit of the Laws 0 Republican simplicity 0 First political scientist I Use of natural laws to reform politics 0 Discovered Separation of Political Powers I Wanted to protect liberty to prevent despotism 0 James Madison 0 Inspired by Montesquieu s idea of the separation of political powers I Made sure it was written into the constitution Systems of Justice 0 Prevented progress to human happiness 0 Cruel unjust ineffective 0 Critical of the use of Torture in gathering evidence 0 The Rack 0 The Thumb Screw 0 Drawing and Quartering I Robert Francois Damiens o Servant who tried to kill the King with a knife unsuccessful 0 Was then executed publicly by being drawn and quartered 0 Famous example of this wicked use of torture 0 Executions would always be held publically to set an example for the rest of the public Cesare Becca ria 0 Very critical of the use of torture 0 Argued that it was ineffective and led to innocent people admitting falsehoods in order to stop the pain of the torture which thus led to more misinformation