Chapters 3,7,8: Consciousness, Learning, & Memory
Chapters 3,7,8: Consciousness, Learning, & Memory PSYCH-1000
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brynn Beveridge on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH-1000 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Rollins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology (PSYCH 1000) in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Lecture NotesChapter 3 Consciousness Chapter 7 Learning amp Chapter 8 Memory September 28October 2 2015 Introductory Psychology With Dr Rollins Chapter 3 Consciousness continued Psychoactive Drugs Increase activity in Central Nervous System and speed up bodily funcions Effects wakefulness energy con dence decreased appetite Examples Very addictive Effects improves mood and memory decreases pain Very addictive Agonistic effects on norepinephrine dopamine and serotonin Effects euphoric rush con dence sense of wellbeing optimism Shortlasting Fun Fact Sigmund Freud used cocaine Methamphetamine dexedrine Benzedrine Very addictive Agonistic effects on norepinephrine dopamine and serotonin Effects alertness euphoria hyperactivity decreased appetite Longer lasting Ecstasy Agonistic effects on dopamine and serotonin Effects euphoria increased energy feelings of closeness with others Stimulant and mild hallucinogen Hallucinogens LSD psilocybin mescaline Low addiction potential Affects serotonin Effects hallucinations mystical experiences altered thinking and emotions Unpredictable Therapeutic potential Depression PTSD drug addiction Sometimes classi ed as a hallucinogen THC Cannabinoid agonist Effects perceptual alterations relaxation disinhibition euphoria decreased memory concentration attention and coordination Low toxicity Therapeutic potentials pain nausea appetite stimulant Chapter 7 Learning 9 a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge due to experience Early de nitions excluded knowledge because psychology focused on observable behaviors only Allows adaptation Helps with noticing patterns and making predictions Associative Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 9 type of learning where an organism learns to associate 2 stimuli Ivan Pavolv Experiments with dogs and salivation Dogs naturally salivate at the smell of meatfood so Pavlov rang a bell every time prior to feeding the dogs The dogs then learned to associate the sound of the bell ringing with the arrival of food and eventually they began to salivate at the sound of the bell alone Experimental Terms Elicits no response prior to conditioning Sound of bell A stimulus that naturally produces a UR Smell of meatfood Natural response to a US Dogs salivate to smell of meatfood An originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with a US comes to trigger a CR Sound of bell A learned response to a previous NS Dogs salivate to sound of bell Watson amp Rayner EXperiment with Little Albert EXposed Little Albert to a white mouse At first Albert showed no signi cant response Then every time the mouse was brought out a painfully loud sound was made This produced fear in Albert and eventually they conditioned Albert to fear the sight of white mice because he associated them with the painful sound Processes in Classical Conditioning 9Process of learning the association between the CS and the US CS should come before the US in experiments 90rganisms are biologically predisposed to make particular associations CTA We associate food with stomach illness If we get sick after eating a certain food we tend to avoid eating that food again 1 trial learning There can be a large time gap between eating the food and getting ill but the association is still learned 9the tendency to produce a CR to stimuli similar to the CS 9leaming not to produce a CR to stimuli that don t signal a US 9 getting rid of a CR by repeatedly presenting a CS without a US Helps us adapt to changing environments 9a type of learning in which an organism learns to associate its own behavior with a consequence Leads to reinforcement or punishment Differences with Classical Conditioning In CC organisms learn to associate 2 stimuli while in OC organisms learn to associate their m behavior with a consequence CC does not depend on the behavior of the organism OC does CC is re exive 0C is voluntary BF Skinner lnvented the 9a box in which there is a lever of some sort that animals can activate to receive a stimuli usually food 9 gradual reinforcements towards the desired behavior 9 some behaviors are easier to condition than others because of their natural occurrence Processes involved in Operant Conditioning 9 occurs when an organism learns that a particular behavior will lead to a particular consequence in presence of some stimuli but not others EX A rat learns to press a bar only in the presence of a green light to receive food 9a stimulus that signals that a particular consequence will occur is a behavior is performed 9 engaging in behavior in presence of stimulus similar to a discriminative stimulus that signaled reinforcement 9 anything that strengthens behavior 9 gaining something good as a result of a behavior EX money compliments 9removing something bad as a result of a behavior EX turning off an alarm Timing is important in reinforcement Consequences will have a stronger impact if they are displayed immediately after the behavior Schedules of Reinforcement 9when a behavior is reinforced every time it occurs 9When a behavior is reinforced only some of the time EX a paycheck at the end of the week gambling etc Teaches persistence 9 decreasing the frequency of behavior by removing reinforcement 9it is harder to extinguish behaviors that have been partially reinforced 9 anything that decreases the frequency of the behavior it follows 9 adds something unpleasant 9removes something pleasant EX losing privileges Problems with punishment punisher becomes a discriminative stimulus issues with attention fear anxiety abuse etc Something is Gained Something is Removed Good Positive Reinforcement Negative Punishment Bad Positive Punishment Negative Reinforcement 9when organisms learn by watching and imitating a behavior humans and other primates Albert Bandura Bobo doll experiments Showed some children a video of an adult beating up a Bobo doll When placed in a room full of toys including a Bobo doll children who had seen the video tended to beat up the Bobo doll in the same manner that the adult had EXposure to media violence increases the probability that an individual will respond to provocation with aggression and violence Media violence desensitizes and primes people The effect that media violence has on an individual is also affected by other factors such as personality home life and peer in uence Chapter 8 Memory 9the retention of information over time 3 steps encoding storage and retrieval 9we automatically encode space time frequency and sequence 9used to memorize items in a list repetition Serial Position Effects 9When one remembers the items at the beginning of a list 9When one remembers the items at the end of a list 9thinking about the meaning of the new information you are trying to remember Deeper Processinghelps with later retrieval 9when you link the new information you are trying to learn with information you already know 9making information personally relevant 9the tendency to better recall information if studying is spaced out over time