Sept28-Oct2 Notes- General Biology
Sept28-Oct2 Notes- General Biology BIO 121-A
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tori Notetaker on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 121-A at Missouri State University taught by Ryan Udan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Sept 28th Oct 2th Notes Biology 121 Chapter 4 Part 1 Microscopy all the information we know comes from cells what they look like do and are Microscopes use lenses to bend light the first compound microscope was designed by Robert Hooke he used his invention to look at a piece of cork which looked like jail cells hence the name cells Aton van Leeuwenhoek made the first single lens microscope to view living cells analyzed the nucleus and sperm of different species noting there are differences Cell Theory 1 Cells are the smallest unit of life 2 All living organism are composed of one or more cells 3 Cells are made only form preexisting cells by cell division 2 types of microscopy for this class light microscopy brightfield and fluorescence microscopy Brightfield typically used in classroom settings light is passed through the object then through the lens where it is magnified Fuorescence the object is dyed the fluorescent light from the object goes through the lens where it is magnified Major limitation of microscopy ability to observe two adjacent objects as distinct from one we can only see so far before we cannot look any further Electron microscope uses electromagnets to bend the beam of light as opposed to lenses provides better magnification and resolution than light microscopes cons of electron microscopes samples cannot be living the sample is processed to allow the microscope to work color information is not received from this microscope Overview of Cells 2 major types of cells prokaryotes and eukaryotes Similarities surrounded by cellplasma membrane cytosol within the membrane contain chromosomes Chromosomescoiled up DNA containing genes contain ribosomes Ribosomes structures that synthesize proteins Major differences chromosomes are stored in a membranebound nucleus eukaryotes DNA is found in nucleoid without a surrounding membrane prokaryotes has organelles like mitochondria or chloroplasts eukaryotes Prokaryote Cytoplasm contained within plasma membrane Nucleoid region where DNA is located Ribosomes synthesize proteins Cell wall provides support and protection Glycocalyx traps water gives protection help evade immune system Appendages pilli which assists with attachment flagella which assists with movement Eukaryote DNA is found inside membranebound nucleus eukaryotic cells tend to be larger in size than prokaryotes has membranebound compartments each has a unique structure and function an organism may have different types of cells the same cell types may differ between species Eukaryotes are about 50100x bigger than prokaryotes prokaryotic cells are smaller because they have less in them prokaryotic cells do not grow larger because they would need more energy to move the larger body size Plasmacellular membrane the boundary between the cell and the outer environment composed of the phospholipid bilayer which contains proteins functions transport of things in and out of the cell communicating between cells connects cells together Cytosol a thick solution that fills each cell and is enclosed by the plasma membrane but does not contain organelles contains water salts nutrients proteins etc Cytoplasm is different from cytosol in that it includes everything inside the plasma membrane cytosol nucleus endomembrane system semiautonomous organelles Cytosol is the where many chemical processes take place and where movement and structural proteins are located Cytoskeleton structural proteins of cytosol 3 types of protein filaments Microtubules largest in diameter hollow tubes form spherical subunits that attach only to the end can be broken down quickly ntermediate filaments medium size of diameter ong twisted subunits most stable not easily broken down or built Actin filamentsMicrofilaments smallest diameter ong twisted thin fibers easily broken down subunits are added and lost at the ends so they can grow or shrink Cytoskeletal protein functions provide structure and support dynamicaly formed and unformed rapidly important for movements and changes in shape participate in delivery of molecules or organelles throughout the cell Motor proteins tiny molecular motors for controlled movements in the cell walk and carry molecules or organelles through the cell uses ATP as an energy source and the head hinge and tail for walking 3 kinds of movements 1 motor protein carry cargo along the cytoskeleton 2 they can move cytoskeleton fibers themselves if motor protein is restrained 3 if both motor protein and cytoskeleton fibers are restrained the motor protein exerts a force that bends the cytoskeleton fiber Flagella usualy longer than cilia single or in pairs 92 microtubule array Cilia covers all or part of the cell surface 92 microtubule array STU DY QU ESTIONS n microscopy refraction is the bending of light by lenses This type of microscope can be used to visualize viruses is aan Electron microscope Which of the following objects are found in a prokaryotic cell Nucleus mitochondria or ribosome Ribosome What is the solution in the cell that does not include organelles What is the solution that does include all the organelles Cytosol cytoplasm What part of the cell membrane allows for adjacent cells to adhere to one another Proteins Based on the rapid formation and breakdown of the cytoskeletons these are used for changes in cell movements Actin and microtubules