PSYC 316 Week 6 Notes
PSYC 316 Week 6 Notes PSYC 316
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Karikomi on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 316 at Northern Illinois University taught by Simon Jencius in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Intro-Psycpathology in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Chapter 6 Mood Disorders Wednesday 30 September I Mood Disorders A Two Primary Emotions or Poles in Mood Disorders 1 Depression sadness life feels dark and overwhelming the individual feels hopeless and helpless about their future 2 Mania extreme euphoria frantic and frenzied energy a What is a Manic Episode 1 httppsychcentralcomlibwhatisamanicepisode b Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder 1 httpwwwdbsallianceorgsitePageServer a enameeducation brochuresbi olar disorderra idc clin 0 Gender Differences Contribute to the Likelihood of the Development of Mood Disorders 1 httpwwwncbinlmnihgovpmcarticlesPMC4268901 II Unipolar Depression 8 Current Prevalence Additional 5 with mild forms 20 Lifetime Prevalence US Canada Europe Women to men ratio is 21 Occurrences can be seen as early as childhood 85 May Recover Without Treatment 40 will experience a recurrence later in life A 5 Core Features of Unipolar Depression 1 Emotional Svmptoms feelings of misery emptiness sadness and limited pleasure 2 Motivational Svmptoms unmotivated lack of initiative drive and spontaneity 3 Behavioral Svmptoms less active withdrawn and less productive 4 Cognitive Symptoms negative aspect of selfworth selfblame pessimism 5 thsical Svmptoms headaches general pain dizziness sleep problems disturbances change in appetite B Presentation Can Vary in Different Individuals only ve symptoms are required for diagnosis Subject A trouble sleeping indecisiveness withdrawal lack of interestpleasure depressed mood Subject B weight gain thoughts of deathdying low selfworth lethargy depressed mood C Types Listed in the DSMS l 2 Maior Depressive Disorder gt2 weeks of severe depression without mania a With Mania diagnosis would be Bipolar Dvsthvmic Disorder now called Persistent Depressive Disorder longlasting depression 2 years but less debilitating than MDD a Double Depression comorbid MDD and Dysthymia Premenstrual Dvsnhoric Disorder repeatedly experience depressive symptoms in a week before the start of menstruation Disruptive Mood Regulation Disorder a new childhood disorder persistent depressive symptoms and recurrent angry outbursts D Biological Explanations for Depression 1 Genetic Heritabilitv a 20 prevalence in relatives with depression 1 Compared to the lt10 in the general population b 46 prevalence in monozygotic twins 1 20 in dizygotic twins Neurotransmitter Dvsregulation Serotonin and Norepinephrine a Successful medications increase serotonin andor Norepinephrine can relieve depressive symptoms E Bioloqical Treatments 1 ECT a Causes brain seizures for over 612 sessions over 24 weeks b Treatment seems to be more effective 1 Around 6080 improve Drug TheraDv a Second Generation Prozac Zoloft PaXil Celexa Wellbutrin etc 1 SSRIs Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Specific to serotonin though SNRIs and SSNRIs are becoming available 2 About as effective as trycyclics but more popular because a Harder to overdose with b No dietary restrictions as is the case with MAOIs c Fewer side effects though still associated with loss of seX drive b 35 of people who try antidepressants fail to see improvement Friday 2 October F Behavioral Model Depression develops as a function of rewards and punishments 1 Individuals become less reinforced with desirable rewards This leads to a decline in constructive andor social behavior a Decline in social behaviors is empirically supported 2 Treatment Behavioral Activation empirically supported a Slowly introduce a schedule of more pleasurable activities that present opportunities for desirable rewards to the depressed individual b Focus on social skills 0 httpwebutkedudhopkoBAinpatientpdf d httpwebutkedudhopkoBATDmanualpdf G Coqnitive Model two predominant theories 1 Learned Helplessness Theorv a Depression develops when people believe that they have no control over their external environment and that they are to blame for their helplessness b This theory is based on Seligman s work with dogs who were shocked and could not escape 2 Beck s Theorv of Negative or Denressoqenic Thinking 4 related components lead to depression empirically supported a Maladaptive Attitudes selfdefeating that often develops in childhood b Cognitive Triad negatively interpreting their experiences themselves and the outcome of their futures c Thinking Errors arbitrary inferences minimizing the positive eventsfeelings d Automatic Thoughts constant dark view of experiences 3 Coqnitive Treatment may include some behavioral aspects recognizing and changing the cognitive process a Four Phases lt20 Sessions patient works on 1 Increasing their activity and elevating mood 2 Challenging their automatic thoughts 3 Identify their negative thinking 4 Changing their primary attitudes How do SSRIs Work httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvG4r3quLUDQ