Week 6 Notes
Week 6 Notes Psych 1301
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Reyes-Hernandez on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Randolph Taylor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
In Class Notes 6 Monday September 282 2 15 1 232 AM o Studying memory 0 Refers to the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information and skills 0 Recall 0 Recognition o Relearning o How does memory work An InformationProcessing Model 0 Encoding 0 Storage 0 Retrieval 0 Models of memory formation 0 The AtkinsonShiffrin Model 0 Stimuli s is record and held in our sensory memory 0 Some of it is put into the short term memory 0 Info moves into long term memory 0 Working Memory 0 Visual and auditory repeating of the info 0 Certain executive focuses parts and pulls it into the long term memory 0 DualTrack Processing Explicit and implicit memories 0 Explicit are fast experiences that we can consciously know and recall 0 Implicit are memoires that are formed without going through all of the stages We are not fully aware of them 0 Automatic Processing 0 Some memoires go straight into IM that include Procedural memory Conditioned associations Space Time Frequency 0 The encoding and processing memory 0 Sensory memory 0 Refers to instant very brief recording of info I Echo or image 0 34 second echo 0 129th ofa second image 0 Evidence of Visual Sensory Memory 0 George Spelling Experiment s 0 Shows that 120th of a second view of a grid 0 Encoding Memory Capacity of Short Term and Working Memory 0 George Miller 0 We hold info for 72 seconds 0 Varies from person to person 0 Duration of short Term Memory STM 0 Lloyd Peterson and Margaret Peterson wanted to know the duration of short term memory People were triples of consonants eg VM F To prevent rehearsing the subjects had to do a distracting task People were then tested at various times to recall Result after 12 seconds most memory of the consonants had decay and could not be retrieved o Encoding Effortful Processing strategies 0 A way to encode information into memory to keep it from decaying and make it easier to retrieve O Effortful processing is known as studying o Chunking I Why are credit card number broken into groups of four digits Four chucks are easier to encode memorize and recall than individual digits I Organizing data into manageable units I Works even better if we can assemble information into meaningful groups 0 Mnemonics What are the order of operations 0 Think back to math class 0 Please excuse my dear aunt sally o Is a memory trick that connects information to exhibition memory strengths such as imagery or structure HierarchiesCategories We are more likely to recall a concept if we encode it in a hierarchy branchingnested set of categories and sub categories Below is an example of a hierarchy using some of the concepts we have just seen Rehearsal and distributed practice Massed practice refers to cramming information all at once o It is not time effective The spacing effect You will develop better retention and recall if you use the same amount of study time spread out over many short sessions The testing effect Henry roediger found that if you distributed practice includes testing having two answer questions about the martial you will learn more and retain more than if you merely reared DeepSemantic Processing When encoding information we are more like to retain it if we deeply process even a simple word list by focusing on the semantics meaning of the words Making Information personally meaningful We can memorize a set of instruction more easily if we figure out what they mean rather than seeing them as set of words Actors memorize lines and students memorize poems more easily by deciding on the feelings and meanings behind the words so one line flows naturally to the next In self reference effect relating material to ourselves aids encoding and retention Now try again but this time consider how each word relates to you Memory storage Capacity and location The brain is not like a hard drive I The brains long term memory storage does not get full it gets more elaborately rewired and interconnected Process known as long term potentiation o Emory of a particular kitchen table may be a linkage among networks for kitchen meal wooden home legs sit o The end of long term memory is death 0 Double receptor sites I Electron microscope image a showsjust one receptor site grey reaching toward a sending neuron before long term potentiation I Image b shows that after LTP the receptor sites have double This means that the receiving neuron has increased sensitivity for detecting the presence of the neurotransmitter molecules that may be released by the sending neuron o Explicit Memory Processing I Retrieval and use of explicit memories is directed by the frontal lobes I Encoding and storage of explicit memories is facilitated by the hippocampus Held here to be viewed before moved to other parts of the brain during sleep 0 Implicit memory processing I The cerebellum 39little brain39 Formats and stores our condition responses I We can store a phobic response even if we can39t recall how we acquired the fear I The basal ganglia next to the thalamus controls movement and forms and stores procedural memory and motor skills We can learn to ride a bicycle even if we can39t recall having the lesson 0 Emotions and Memory I Strong emotions especially stress can strengthen memory formation I Flashbulb memories refer to emotional intense events that become burned in as a vividseeming memory I Note that flashbulb memories are not as accurate as they feel 0 Memory retrieval I Recall Short term memory capacity abt 72 bit of information decays rapidly long term recall can be aided through effortful processing I Recognition the average person can view 2500 new faces places later can notice 90 percent accuracy which ones they39ve seen before I Relearning some people are unable to form new memories especially of episodes although they would not recall a puzzle solving lesson they might sight solve the puzzle faster each lesson 0 Retrieval Cues I Retrieval challenge memory is not stored as a file that can be retrieved by search alphabetically I Instead it is stored as a web of association 0 Conceptual o Contextual o Emotional I Memory involves a web of associated concepts 0 Retrieval is affected by activating our associations I Priming is the activation unconsciously of a particular associations in memory 0 Triggers a thread of associations that bring us to a concept 0 Our minds work by having one idea trigger another this maintains a flow ofthought The power of Priming I Priming has been called quotinvisible memoryquot because it affects us I In the case of tree bark vs dog bark I The path we follow in our thoughts can be channeled by priming I We may have biases and associations stored in memory that also influence our choices 0 Primed with money people do not share 0 Primed with Santa Claus led kids to share 0 Primed with a missing child poster more liking to see adult to child talking afar would be considered kidnapping Context dependent memory I Part of the web of associations of a memory is the context 0 AKA more than just the info itself I We retrieve a memory more easily when in the dame context as when we formed the memory StateDependent Memory I Memories can also be tied to the emotional state we were in when we formed the memory I Mood congruent memory refers to the tendency to selectively recall details that are consistent with one current mood 0 When mad at your romantic partner you remember all the things they ve done to annoy you 0 When happy with your partner you remember all the good times you ve had The serial position effect I Priming context cues are not only the factors which make memory retrieval selective o The serial position effect 0 Refers to the tendency when learning information in a long list to more likely recall the first items and the last items The brain and the two track Mind the case of henry malison 39HMquot I The removal go HM39s hippocampus ended his seizures but also ended his ability to form new explicit memories I HM could learn new skills procedures locations of objects and games but had no memory of the lessons or the instructors o What is the important difference here The Two Types of Amnesia I Retrograde amnesia refers to an inability to retrieve memory of the past 0 Head injury 0 Temporary I Anterograde amnesia refers to an inability to form new long term declarative explicit memories 0 Brain damage 0 Will not get better I RA old memories inaccessiblegtgtgtgtgtgtgt AA No post trauma memories Storage Decay 1022015 1248 AM I Material encoded into long term memory will decay if the memory is never used recall and restored I Decay is LTP in reverse or like pruning Unused connections and networks wither while well used memory traces are kept I Decay tends to level off 0 Memory for both nonsense syllables and Spanish lesson decays rapidly o What hasn t decayed quickly tends to stay intact long term 0 Tip of the tongue Retrieval Failure I Sometimes the memory does not decay but what does are the associations to the memory I quotI know what namequot I To prevent retrieval failure when storing you build multiple associations and linking images to it 0 Why is our memory full of errors I Memory gets forgotten and constructed I They are altered when we recall them 0 Reconsolidate I Later Infor alters earlier memories I No matter have accurate you think it is it is full of alterations o The misinformation effect I Incorporation misleading info into ones memory of an event 0 Implanted memories I In Elizabeth lotus people were asked to provide details of an incident in child when they had been lost at the mall I Even though no incident actually happened most people believe that it happened 0 d ja vu I Already seen 0 The feeling that you39re in a situation that you39ve seen or have been in before 0 We feel certain a source of amnesia o A memory that we think is from our long term memory 0 Familiarity and recognition kick in and our brain tells us that this is a past Or it kicks in too soon 0 Constructed memories and Children I Kids have underdeveloped frontal lobes more prone to implanted memories I Imagined events are hard to differentiate from experienced events I When interviewing kids don t LEAD them be nonsuggestive in questions 0 Recovered memories of past abuse I Can people recover repressed memories I Abused memoires are more like burned in I Forgotten memories can reappear spontaneously through cues 0 Improving memory to improve grades I RETRIEVAL CUES I Meaningful depth I Mnemonics I Multiple study sessions I Space further and further apart I Activating your retrieval cues I Test yourself