9/28-10/2 MSCI 210 001
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MSCI 210 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maggie Hubacher on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MSCI 210 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Lori Anne Ziolkowski in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Oceans and Society in Marine Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
928 Waves httpsciencekqedorgquestvideoscienceofbigwaves science of big wave sur ng this video covers many key points about waves that we will talk about next weekbut there is more to waves than sur ng Waves propagate energy not massenergy passes through the water by cyclic motion but the water itself doesn39t move the medium water does not travelwave motion is not the ow of water but the ow of energy Wave characteristics Parts of a wave height H distance between the crest and troughWaveIength L distance between 2 successive crests or troughsSteepness ratio of wave height to wavelength HLPeriod T time for one full wave to pass through a xed pointSpeed S wavelength divided by period LTFrequency f the number of wavelengths that pass through a xed point per unit time Major factors that make waves making the wavesWind speed how fast the wind blowsDuration amount of time that wind blows in one directionFetch the distance over which wind blows in a single directionquotfuy developed seaquot when the maximum fetch and duration are achieved for a given wind speed organizing the waveswave dispersion waves are sorted into groups with similar wavelengths Two main types of waves Deep water waves generally when the depth is greater than half the wavelength L2 Speed wavelength and height are constant over a long distance Shallow water waves surf generation when depth is less than L20 waves breakSpeed and wavelength decrease height increases at L2 rounded tops at L20 wave breaks How a wave breaks depends on bottom topography plunging breakers steep beaches good for experienced Spilling breakers gradual slope good for beginners Interference patterns waves can collide the energy can be ampli ed destroyed or do nothingconstructive interference waves are inphase and their energy is added together to make bigger waves destructive interference waves are out of phase their energy cancels each other out and waves get smaller mixed interference combination of constructive and destructive interference Most common can lead to rogue waves IIIIIIIIIEIIIDIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIDIIIIIII IIIIIIEllIIIIIIIIIII mixed interference combination of constructive and destructive interference Most common MSCI21O Fall 2015 Course Outline can lead to rogue waves largest possible rogue wave 100ft wave refraction common at coasts parts of wave that contact the bottom are bent or refracted energy is then focusedcan cause erosion Classi cation of waves capillary waves smallest type of wave caused by windwind waves caused by wind wavelengths between 60 and 150mstorm surge caused by pressure changes hurricane wavelength 100km tsunami caused by earth quakes or land slides wavelength 200km speed is determined by water depth open ocean can travel 435 milesh very small waves at sea but very large when they reach land tides caused by gravity moon and sun wavelength 20000 km 930 Waves TidesCoasts Driven by moon and sun 0 Blood moon made tides higher What generates tides Deformation or pulling of the ocean outwards due to gravitational attraction of sun and moon Involves laws of physics gravity centrifugal force Gravitational attraction force 0 G universal gravitational constant Masses of two bodies that are interacting Gravitational force is proportional to mass More massive objects exert more force 0 Closer objects exert more force than further objects lnertia earth 0 Gravity is balanced out by inertia OO 0 Spring tides have the highest high tides and lowest low tides o Tides associated with full moon and new moon are spring tides Tidal patterns vary with ocean basin and size 0 Tidal range is the height difference between high and low tides o Tidal bore is 0 Bay of Fundy highest tide in world 0 She got married Bay of Fundy for some reason idk Tidal bore in lowgradient rivers 0 Amazon China New Brunswick 0 Occur in long rivers or narrow bays 0 Over 50 of US population lives close to the coast COASTS Once formed can be erosional or depositional Erosional coast net sediment loss typically higher energy west coast Depositional coast net sediment accumulation lower energy coast east coast 0 Can switch over variety of time and space scales 0 All shores experience erosion and deposition Erosional shores typically have steep cliffs areas where tectonic uplift of the coast occurs active margin Depositional shores have sandy beaches and barrier islands 0 Erosion can still be a problem Erosional shores Wave energy is concentrated on headlands due to refraction causing sand to be deposited in quieter water 0 Greatest wave energy is focused on the foreshore region exposed at low tide Wavecut cliffs sea caves sea arches sea stacks Rate of wave erosion is determined by 0 Degree of exposure of the shore o Tidal range 0 Composition of coastal bedrock Depositional shore Spit linear ridge of sediment extends alongshore Barrier islands extensive offshore deposits of sand lying parallel to the coast 0 Are separated from mainland by a lagoon 0 Protect from hurricanes 10215 WE reviewed for the test today all this information is on my study guide
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