MOUL United States History II
MOUL United States History II HIST 2112
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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bobby Corkery on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 at Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College taught by James Galt-Brown in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/217637/hist-2112-abraham-baldwin-agricultural-college in History at Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Reconstruction 13th Amendment Emancipation Proclamation 10 Plan WadeDavis Bill pocket veto John Wilkes Booth Black Codes Joint Committee on Reconstruction Radical Republicans Thaddeus Stephens Charles Sumner Freedmen s Bureau Civil Rights Act of 1866 14th Amendment Command of the Army Act Military Reconstruction Acts Tenure of Of ce Act Redeemers Carpetbaggers amp Scalawags Knights of the White Camellia Night Riders Secret Order of the Christian Knights of the Ku KluX Klan KKK General Nathan Bedford Forrest Enforcement Acts 1870 1871 1876 election Rutherford B Hayes vs Samuel J Tilden Compromise of 1877 13th 14th amp 15th Amendments The New South amp the New West Postwar South Defeat Despair amp Devastation Slaves equaled 458 of prewar portable wealth Cashcrop farming Price drops Contract labor Sharecropping Business Plantations Tenant Plantations Yeoman small farmers Crop Liens Union Leagues Carpetbaggers Scalawags Freedmen Hiram Revels MS Joseph Rainey SC Jefferson Long GA Francis Cardoza Antoine Debuclet P B S Pinchback Mexican War Sutter s Mill Compromise of 1850 Gold Railroads amp Cattle 49 ers San Francisco Pike s Peak Colorado Oregon Chisholm amp Santa Fe Trails Butter eld Overland Express 1858 Pony Express 1860 Transcontinental telegraph 1861 Railroads Central Paci c amp Union Paci c Promontory Point Utah May 1869 American Bison Buffalo Cattle Long Drives Sioux Kiowa amp Apaches Frederick Jackson Turner The Frontier in American HistoLV 1893 The Turner Thesis Big Business Steam Power Industrial labor force Production 1839 1899 increased 50 Population 1869 1899 increased 300 Urbanization amp the growth of cities Population of New York 1790 33000 1890 1505301 1990 7071639 Railroads Iron amp Steel Henry Bessemer Iron Converter 1856 William Siemens Open Hearth Method 1866 U S Steel Production 1870 77000 tons 1900 10000000 tons Andrew Carnegie The Gospel of Wealth 1889 J Pierpont Morgan United States Steel 1901 Upward Mobility Organized Labor Commonwealth V Hunt 1842 Boston Journeyman Bootmaker s Society Molly Maguires Miner s National Association Railroad Strike 1877 Haymarket Strike 1886 Homestead Strike 1892 Pullman Strike 1894 National Labor Union 1866 National Labor Reform PartyUriah Stephens Noble amp Holy Order of the Knights of Labor 1869 Jay Gould American Federation of Labor AFL Samuel Gompers Karl Marx Industrial Workers of the World Wobblies Syndicalism The Gilded Age amp the Progressive Era Alexis de Toqueville Democracy in America James Bryce The American Commonwealth Percentage of Popular Vote in Presidential Elections 1876 1900 Year Republican Democrat Other 1876 480 won 510 10 1880 483 won 483 35 1884 482 485 won 32 1888 478 won 486 36 1892 430 461 won 109 1896 510 won 467 23 Mark Twain The Gilded Age amp Other Novels 1873 R B Hayes R James Gar eld R Chester Arthur R Grover Cleveland D Benjamin Harrison R assassinated by Charles Guiteau 1881 passive Presidents Spoils System Pendleton Act 1883 Civil Service Commission McKinley Tariff Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890 Sherman AntiTrust Act 1890 The Populist Party 1892 85 ofthe vote for Populist James B Weaver Pullman Company Strike 1894 Eugene V Debs Bimetallism William Jennings Bryan SpanishAmerican War 1898 William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Cuba Philippines Guam amp Puerto Rico Elkins Act 1903 Hepburn Act 1906 Interstate Commerce Commission Standard Oil Company The Square Deal National Conservation Commission 1908 Upton Sinclair The Jungle 1906 Pure Food amp Drug Act 1906 Panama Canal 1904 Treaty of Portsmouth 1906 William Howard Taft 1908 PayneAldrich Tariff Act Robert LaFollete National Republican Progressive League Bull Moose Party 1912 Woodrow Wilson 1912 Election Wilson 418 Roosevelt 274 both Republicans Taft 232 Debs 60 Wilson s New Freedom Underwood Tariff Act 1913 Federal Reserve Act 1913 Federal Trade Commission 1914 Clayton Antitrust Act 1914 Federal Farm Loan Act 1916 World War One Treaty of Versailles League of Nations World War One quotThe War to end all Warsquot The Great War The War in Flanders Why is there a war in 1914 Who stands to gain from con ict Russia AustriaHungary Serbia Germany France Turkey Great Britain Italy United States This war is fought by schedule very timecritical 28 June 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand Assassinated in Sarajevo The July Crisis The Blank Cheque 25 July Serbia Mobilizes 28 July Austria declares War on Serbia 29 July Russia mobilizes against Austria 30 July Frances mobilizes against Germany before Germany can mobilize in support of Austria 01 August Germany declares war against Russia 07 May 1915 Lusitania sunk with loss of 128 Americans A legitimate target attacked by illegal means technology outruns maritime law Germany apologizes again quotWhat can she do She cannot come over here I do not give a damn about America Gen Erich von Ludendorff German Chief of Staff 31 January 1917 Germany announces resumption of unrestricted Sub warfare believing Britain can be starved into surrender in siX weeks 03 February 1917 Wilson breaks diplomatic ties with Germany British Secret Service releases the quotZimmerman Telegramquot to the press on 24 Feb Most Secret For Your Excellency 39s personal information and to be handed on to the Imperial Minister in Mexico We intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare on the first of February We shall endeavor in spite of this to keep the United States neutral In the event of this not succeeding we make Mexico a proposal of an alliance on the following basis Make war together make peace together generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas New Mexico and Arizona The settlement detail is left to you You will inform the President of Mexico of the above most secretly as soon as the outbreak of war with the United States is certain and add the suggestion that he should on his own initiative invite Japan to immediate adherence and at the same time mediate between Japan and ourselves Please call the President 39s attention to the fact that the unrestricted employment of our submarines now o ers the prospect of compelling England to make peace within a few months Acknowledge receipt Zimmerman March 1917 Germans sink Algonguin Nicosia amp Cypress 02 April 1917 Wilson asks for declaration of war quotI advise that the Congress declare the recent course ofthe Imperial German government to be in fact nothing less than war against the government and people of the United States that it formally accept the status of belligerent which has thus been thrust upon itWe shall ght for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts for democracy for the rights of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own governments for the rights and liberties of small nations for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last freequot President Woodrow Wilson Address to Joint session of Congress 02 April 1917 American mobilization for war 1 916 National Defense Act Defines US military land force structure Regular Army Army Reserves National Guard when in Federal Service quotNational Armyquot to be raised in wartime Reserve Officer Training Corps quotROTCquot 06 April 1917 Regular Army strength 1083 99 Reserves 16767 National Army 0 troops How do you raise a modern quotNational Armyquot Sect of War Newton D Baker proposes conscription Army JAG Gen Enoch Crowder develops the plan 18 May 1917 The Selective Service Act The Draft applies to all males 21 to 35 years old Administered through 4557 local Draft boards Never applies to the Navy or the Marines 20 July 1917 Sect Of War Baker draws 258 of 10500 draft numbers enlisting 1374000 men You have the manpower what about the tools US Forces employ 2250 artillery pieces 100 of them American made the rest bought from the French 5000 American pilots amp aircrewmen in 45 combat squadrons with 1029 aircraft all French manufactured 250 American tanks all made by Renault Total supplies used by the AEF 18 million tons 10 million purchased in Europe July 1917 War Industries Board created administered by Bernard Baruch He decides what goes where and to whom August 1917 Food Production Act Food amp Fuel Act Increases production and encourages domestic Conservation rationing Railroad board administered by William McAdoo Coordinates rail schedules between civilian Military and industrial requirements National War Labor Board run by Samuel Gompers And William H Taft Do what you have to do To maintain production schedules if labor wants a raise then give it to them the Government will foot the bill Preferred draftees Single white males 18 22 yrs Old Same profile as the primary labor force Who runs the factories Women and Blacks enter the work force Propaganda amp Home Front security Committee on Public Information George Creel 75 million posters printed 1917 Espionage Act 1918 Sabotage Act 1918 Sedition Act Public opposition to the war becomes a crime Criticism crime Supreme Court Chief Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Issues the decision in Schenck V United States Regarding the constitutionality of these acts Specifically the Espionage Act quotThe question in every case is Whether the words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to preventWhen a nation is at war many things that might be said in time of peace are such a hindrance to its effort that their utterance will not be endured so long as men ght and that no court could regard them as protected by any constitutional right These acts are essentially directed against Socialists Eugene V Debs is jailed for sedition We have the troops amp the tools How about training ROTC produces Reserve Officers OCS trains qualified candidates in three months The quot90 Day Wondersquot The most experienced Army Officer was Gen John quotBlack Jackquot Pershing his largest Command to date was 16000 troops Now he Has over four million Pershing decides to conduct Basic training in America and save advanced infantry training until the troops arrive in Europe quotThe eyes of the world will be upon you because you are in some special sense the soldiers of freedom Woodrow Wilson 03 September 1917 When the Doughboys arrive in France where do they deploy and in what capacity Option 1 Employ Americans as replacements in the French and British positions This is what the French amp British want as they are almost bled out The French lost 200000 in the Nivelle offensive while the British have staggered under titanic losses at Arras 158000 3rd Ypres 380000 amp Messines 108000 quotThe French really wanted us to send small untrained units for incorporation into their divisions Gen Pershing Option 2 Deploy the Americans as a single unit but where do we place them The British hold the north end of the line close to the English Channel The French must hold the center because of national pride the region closest to Paris The AEF thus deploys to the south from Verdun to the Swiss border The German High Command is meanwhile positioning the largest offensive of the war 210 diVisions with 1559000 men renewing their attack on the Somme and by 27 May broke through the Allied lines and raced for the Marne River where the first battle of the war was fought Pershing deploys the 2nd DiVision with the Marine Brigade attached to hold Belleau Wood while the 3rd Infantry DiVision held the river crossings at ChateauThierry quotHave your men prepare entrenchments some hundreds of yards to rearward French commander at ChateauThierry We dig n0 trenches to fall back on The Marines will hold Where they stand Captain Lloyd Williams USMC The battle raged for three weeks with the Allies pushed to within 30 miles of Paris but the Allied and especially the American lines did not break and in icted 1000000 German casualties suffering 800000 of their own 9500 of them Americans With Marshal Ferdinand Foch in overall command of the Allied Forces he adopts a policy of attacking multiple positions simultaneously using their steadily increasing numerical superiority against the Germans whose army has dwindled to 80 full strength diVisions facing 220 Allied diVisions 18 July 03 August 2nd Battle of the Marne 08 August The British attack in Flanders 14 September Pershing s American 1St Army of siX oversized Divisions pushes the Germans out of the SaintMihiel salient near Verdun suffering another 7000 casualties but capturing 16000 Germans 26 September Marshal Foch s quotVictory Offensivequot begins with 660000 French and 220000 Americans along the Meuse River valley and into the Argonne forest pushing the Germans out one month later On the same day another 4000000 Americans registered for the Draft 11 October American 18th Infantry took the Ardennes Forest One battalion began the day with 1000 men 285 survived 01 November American 1St Army and French 4th Army prepare to assault Sedan 1100 AM 11 November 1918 the guns fall silent Legacies amp Lessons Learned Russia 1700000 dead France 1357000 dead Britain 908000 dead Germany 1800000 dead AustriaHungary 1200000 dead Turkey 325000 dead America 130174 dead 200000 wounded Total noncombatant warrelated deaths 20000000 American eXpenses in the war 32000000000 Legacies amp Lessons Learned Political Total Home Front mobilizations Industry Finance and propaganda manipulation of the corporate mindset 1914 Everyone except maybe Belgium believed everyone would still be there at the end 1918 Four Empires are gone Germany Russia Turkey and AustriaHungary Without U S involvement it is not certain that Germany would win but it is certain that Germany wouldn t lose and Versailles will be sufficiently harsh to make the losers seek revenge and sufficiently weak to allow it Technological Mechanization amp Mobilization1C engines amp steel poison gas subs tanks aviation machine guns Telegraph s limitations leads to improved radios used mainly by the Navy still too heavy for individual ground forces Military Organization Contingency Plans poor or nonexistent When the plan stalled the war stalled The Peace 1918 1919 Versailles Wilson attends with his quotFourteen Pointsquot calling for an intl Governing Body to prevent future wars and a variety of measures aimed at natl selfdetermination for subject minorities In order to get the League of Nations Wilson has to concede on colonial possessions In any event it was a moot point The new Republican Senate led by Henry Cabot Lodge refused to ratify the treaty quotThe United States is the world 39s best hope quotLodge once said quotbut if you tangle her in the intrigues of Europe you will destroy her powerful good and endanger her very existence Beware how you trifle with your marvelous inheritance this great land of ordered liberty For if we stumble and fall freedom and civilization everywhere will go down in rain quot Hemy Cabot Lodge Chairman Senate Foreign Relations Committee Wilson s Fourteen Points 1 Open covenants openly arrived at 2 Freedom of the Seas in peace and war 3 Open International trade 4 Reduction of military stockpiles 5 Adjust of colonial claims for national selfdetermination 6 Evacuation of occupied Russian territory 7 Evacuation amp restoration of Belgium 8 Return Alsace amp Lorraine to France 9 Adjustment of Italian borders 10 Independence of AustroHungarian ethnic amp national minorities l 1 Romanian Serbian and Montenegrin independence 12 Independence of the Ottoman national amp ethnic minorities 13 Recreation of Poland with access to the sea 14 Creation of a League of Nations ARTICLE 231 The Allied and Associate Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies ARTICLE 232 The Allied and Associated Governments realize that the resources of Germany are not adequate to make complete reparation for all the loss and damage The Allied and Associated Governments however require and Germany undertakes that she will make compensation for all damage done to the civilian population of the Allied and Associated Powers and to their property ARTICLE 233 The amount of the above damage for which compensation is to be made by Germany shall be determined by an InterAllied Commission The findings of the Commission as to the amount of damage defined as above shall be concluded and notified to the German Government on or before May 1 1921 This is the justification for a 200 Billion reparations bill against Germany a nation that laid down its arms based on the promise of Wilson s Fourteen Points Do the Germans have a grievance Is there a balance of power in the world in 1919 The Roaring Twenties American Expeditionary Force Xenophobia The 39Red Scare39 Bolshevik Revolution Warren G Harding Warren G Harding 39Normalcy39 Washington Naval Conference of 1921 The National Origins Act of 1924 Calvin Coolidge XIX Amendment Ku KluX Klan 39Scopes Monkey Trial39 Evolution Creationism XVIII Amendment Volstead Act 1928 presidential elections Alfred E Smith Herbert Hoover Leveraged Buying Margin Stock Bubble The Wall Street Crash Depression 20 The Great Depression Revenue Act of 1926 Adkins V Children39s Hospital Dawes Plan 1924 credit Agricultural Credits Act of 1923 FordneyMcCumber Act of 1922 HawleySmoot Tariff 1930 New York Stock Exchange NYSE Early 1928 to September 1929 the Dow Jones Industrial Average rose from 191 to 381 RCA Corporation Buying on margin John Doe could buy 1 share of the company by putting up 10 of his own and borrowing 75 from his broker If he sold the stock at 420 a year later he would have turned his original investment ofjust 10 into 34125 420 minus the 75 and 5 interest owed to the broker That makes a return of over 3400 Black Thursday 24 October 1929 industrial production fell by more than 90 between the market crashes in October and December 1929 Unemployment grew to ve million in 1930 and up to thirteen million in 1932 21 The New Deal Franklin D Roosevelt The Civilian Conservation Corps CCC Federal Emergency Relief Administration FERA Civil Works Administration CWA Home Owners Loan Corporation HOLC Works Progress Administration WPA Agricultural Adjustment Administration AAA Public Works Administration PWA National Recovery Administration NRA Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation FDIC Securities and Exchange Commission SEC Banking Act of 1935 Tennessee Valley Authority TVA Wagner Act of 1935 National Labor Relations Board Fair Labor Standards Act Social Security Act of 1935 22 Some 0fthe Consequences of the New Deal Ida May Fuller of Ludlow Vermont Began paying social security when the system went into effect in 1935 Retired in 1940 at age 60 having paid in a total of 2475 First Social Security check amount 2254 Ida May Fuller lived to the age of 100 years 7 collecting 2288892 92480 times her total amount invested 1940 Ratio of workers contributors to retirees 7 421 2001 Ratio of workers contributors to retirees 7 341 And the ratio continues to shrink 23 World War 11 Is this a result of WW I Is this a continuation of WW I Are the combatants the same What has changed What has stayed the same 1931 Japan invades Manchuria inaugurating the Japanese EastAsian C0 Prosperity Sphere the LON condemns J apan s actions Japan withdraws from the LON in March 193 3 October 1933 German Chancellor Adolph Hitler withdraws from the LON in Violation of Versailles Treaty March 1935 Hitler repudiates Versailles and begins to openly rearm Germany Violating every interwar arms treaty signed by the Weimar Govt April 1935 LON condemns Hitler s actions and the French govt signs a mutual defense agreement with the Soviet Union March 1936 Germans reoccupy the Rhineland DMZ Benito Mussolini Il Duce of Fascist Italy invades Ethiopia Both are LON members but France amp Great Britain hope to recruit Mussolini into a pact against Germany and remain silent Italian troops use aircraft MGs and mustard gas against the Ethiopian cavalry July 1936 The Spanish Civil War erupts between Monarchistspolitical conservatives led by Gen Francisco Franco and the socialistleft coalition that won the 1936 national elections September 1936 France amp GB initiate mild sanctions against Italy under article XVI of the LON charter October 1936 Mussolini signs an alliance with Hitler and withdraws from the LON in December 1937 24 07 July 1937 Japanese amp Chinese troops skirmish on the Marco Polo bridge near Peking Japan responds by invading southern China quickly seizing Peking and Shanghai Who owns Hong Kong March 1938 Hitler annexes Austria wo firing a shot 29 September 1938 The Munich Conference Hitler demands the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia home to 325 million ethnic Germans and the Brno Skoda and Czeka Zubroj ovka arms factories British PM Neville Chamberlain returns to London with a signed agreement by Hitler to take no further territories March 1939 Hitler annexes the rest of Czechoslovakia April 1939 German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop demands Poland surrender the Danzig Corridor France amp GB guarantee Polish territorial integrity on threat of war Russia is the remaining wild card 23 August 1939 MolotovRibbentrop Pact a mutual nonaggression treaty between the Soviet Union and Germany 01 September 1939 Germany invades Poland 03 September 1939 Great Britain declares war In 1914 all the major powers expected all the major powers to still be there when the war ended In 1939 you have a con ict of societies with political practices that are mutually exclusive Fascism vs communism vs capitalism Authoritarianismtotalitarianism vs liberal democracy World war II will be a con ict between societies A fight to the death 25 World War II the last quotGreat War Four wars in one 1 The 2quotd German War 2 The quotGreat Patriotic War 3 The War for East Asia 4 The Great Paci c War Each starts at different times with different players 1 US amp British Empire France amp Poland vs Germany Italy Romania amp Hungary 2 Soviet Union Vs Germany 3 Japan vs China Brit Empire Dutch amp US 4 Japan vs US Australia amp New Zealand Objectives Britain survive and preserve the Empire Germany Italy expand territorially USSR survive the expand amp create buffer states Japan Japanese East Asian CoProsperity Sphere World War II Neutrality Acts British amp Dutch East Indies U S Paci c Fleet Pearl Harbor Philippines LendLease Act March 1941 Casablanca Conference January 1943 North Africa Italian Campaign DDay 06 June 1944 Operation OVERLORD 26 Gen Bernard Montgomery Gen George S Patton Battle of the Bulge December 1944 VE Day 08 May 1945 Pearl Harbor 07 December 1941 Burma Aleutians Solomons Battles of Coral Sea amp Midway Summer 1942 Admiral Chester Nimitz General Douglas MacArthur Island Hopping B29 Superfortress Strategic Bombing Tarawa November 1943 Kwajelain amp Eniwetok February 1944 Marianas Islands June 1944 General Curtis LeMay The LeMay Soultion XX amp XXI Bomber Commands Firebomb Raids Operation OLYMPIC September 1945 Manhattan Project Atomic Bombs Hiroshima 06 August 1945 Nagasaki 09 August 1945 VJ Day 02 September 1945 27 PostWorld War II amp The Beginning of the Cold War The Big Three Joseph Stalin USSR Winston Churchill amp Clement Atlee Great Britain Harry S Truman United States Washington Quebec amp Casablanca Conferences 1941 1945 Atlantic Charter United Nations 1944 Election Thomas E Dewey NY 12 April 1945 Roosevelt dies Potsdam Conference July 1945 Hiroshima 06 August 1945 Russian Declaration of War 08 August 1945 Nagasaki 09 August 1945 VJ Day 02 September 1945 quotThus far the chief purpose of our military establishment has been to Win wars From now on its chief purpose must be to avert them It can have almost no other useful purpose Bernard Brodie The Absolute Weapon 1946 Legacies and Lessons learned 28 1 The cost of not being prepared to deter aggression 2 The cost of appeasement 3 Victory was an Allied effort and only practical as such thus we want Allied effort in the future 4 Economic instability is a primary cause of the war after the war measures to ensure economic stability are established World Bank IMF 5 We have a monopoly on the Bomb 6 The Nuremburg Lesson Nazi Germany provides the single most important case study for civilian control ofthe military and a collateral fear that our govt might someday do something equally horrible Vietnam 7 quotPaX Americana American has NO industrial competition in 1945 GB France Italy Japan amp Germany have devastated industrial bases and we got nearly all of Britain39s specie cash reserves before 1941 Military dead U S 292100 UK 397762 France 210671 USSR 7500000 China 500000 Germany 2850000 Italy 77500 Japan 1506000 Misc 1500000 Total 15000000 By the Numbers wounded 571822 475000 400000 14012000 1700000 7250000 120000 500000 NA c34000000 civilian dead 0 65000 108000 c15000000 1000000 500000 40100000 300000 c17000000 29 30 Uroli i Nasledstva 1 31512000 dead amp wounded and we still won 2 Communism obviously triumphs over Fascism 3 Therefore the quotinevitability of Communism is validated 4 We have NO allies the West was perfectly content to contemplate a RussoGerman war during the 193039s and they opened the Second Front for their bene t not ours The Rodina is surrounded by enemies whose Avowed purpose is our destruction 5 The solution to 4 is to make our own allies in regions we liberated during the march on Germany This will provide a buffer zone against western aggression and allow us to rebuild our industrial base to support the coming war 6 We must ght that war and we can afford massive casualties and still triumph Demobilization 1945 1946 Labor Management Relations Act TaftHartley Act 1947 War Crimes International Military Tribunal IMT Bernard Baruch Baruch Plan August 1946 Atomic Energy Commission National Security Act 1947 Department of Defense National Security Council Central Intelligence Agency Greece amp Turkey 1946 1947 Truman Doctrine George Marshall Marshall Plan June 1947 Rio Treaty 1947 31 Organization of American States OAS 1948 Berlin Airlift 24 June 1948 1947 National Security Act National Security Council NSC68 Summer 1950 John Foster Dulles NATO April 1949 Central Intelligence Agency Department of Defense Deterrence amp Containment Massive Retaliation The New Look Defense More bang for the buck Korean War 25 June 1950 July 1953 Dwight D Eisenhower and Richard M Nixon Revenue Act of 1954 Senator JosephMcCarthy McCarthyism Witch Hunts Black Lists House UnAmerican Activities Committee HUAC 32 CIVIL RIGHTS Brown V Board of Education of Topeka Kansas 17 May 1954 Desegregation quotseparate but equalquot Plessy V Ferguson 1896 September 1957 Governor Orval E Faubus Central High School Little Rock Arkansas December 1955 Martin Luther King Jr Bus boycott in Montgomery Alabama Southern Christian Leadership Conference the Congress of Racial Equality The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Malcolm X Ralph Abernathy Rosa Parks the Civil Rights Act of 1957 Civil Rights Commission 1960 Election John F Kennedy vs Richard M Nixon Fall 1962 James Meredith enters the University of Mississippi University of Alabama Governor George C Wallace Medgar Evers Birmingham Church bombing 28 August 1963 Martin Luther King marches on Washington I have a Dream 1961 The Berlin Wall October 1962 The Cuban Missile Crisis 33 The Vietnam War Containment Policy Monolithic Communism Domino Theory French Indochina 7 May 1954 Dien Bien Phu 1954 Geneva Conference 1955 Republic of Vietnam South amp Democratic People s Republic of Vietnam North Ngo Dinh Diem Ho Chi Minh National Liberation Front NLF Viet Cong 2amp4 August 1964 USS Maddox amp USS C Turner Joy 7 August 1964 Tonkin Gulf Resolution Operation Rolling Thunder 1968 Tet Offensive 1968 Election Richard M Nixon vs Hubert Humphrey Vietnamization Treaty of Paris 1973 Watergate 34 America Since Vietnam 8 August 1974 Nixon resigns Gerald R Ford 1976 Election Jimmy Carter vs Gerald R Ford Iranian Hostage Crisis In ation amp Interest rates top 20 OPEC Petroleum Embargo 15 July 1979 Carter s Malaise speech quotIn a nation that was proud of hard work strong families closeknit communities and our faith in God too many of us now tend to worship selfindulgence and consumption Human identity is no longer de ned by what one does but by what one owns quot 1980 Election Jimmy Carter vs Ronald Reagan Supply Side Economics Tax cuts Reaganomics Strategic Defense Initiative Star Wars IranContra Affair 1988 Election George H W Bush vs Michael Dukakis 1991 Gulf War Operation Desert Shield Desert Storm Recession 1992 Election George H W Bush vs William Jefferson Clinton