United States History I
United States History I HIST 2111
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Popular in History
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Federalist Era Building the New Nation 7 George Washington was selected to serve as the 1St President 7 Reluctantly accepted the Presidency won by unanimous vote 7 Felt he had to serve his country once again That was the only reason he accepted The delegates knew this amp used it to their advantage 7 John Adams was named the 1St Vice President 7 Thomas Jefferson was appointed as Head of the State Dept 7 Alexander Hamilton appointed as Sec of the Treasury 7 Edmund Randolph was appointed as the 1St AttorneyGeneral 7 John Jay was appointed as the 1St Chief Justice Bill of Rights 7 James Madison made the Bill of Rights a top priority of the Constitutional Convention 7 Wanted it to protect the liberties of all citizens against the encroachments of the few 7 It was modeled after the VA Bill Declaration of Rights 7 Became effective on Dec 15 1791 7 Gaveno rights or protection to blacks slaves indentured servants Indians or women Revenue 7 Alexander Hamilton Sec of the Treasury 7 Basically a genius had many ideas as to raising money for the new government Import Duties taxes on all things imported into the country Tonnage Act of 1789 taxes paid for the amount of tons a ship is carr in American built foreign owned ships paid 30 cents n Foreign ships 50 cents per ton He concentrated on protecting American trade relations 7 Hamilton s Report on Public Credit Suggested that the gov t fund the federal debt at face value Citizens holding gov39t bonds could exchange them for interestbearing bonds Fed govt would assume the state s debts from the Revolution Proposed an excise tax on liquor this would cause the Whiskey Rebellion Proposed a National Bank amp a Mint to provide a uniform currency source of revenue amp to take care of the Federal Treasury 7 Hamilton s Report on Manufactures Believed in the advantage of the development of manufactures The diversification of labor it would bring More use of machinery Labor saving devices Paid work for those not usually employed outside the home ie women children handicapped It Would promote immigration Good amp Bad Diversity of talent amp abilities More opportunities for the entrepreneurs Would create a better market for American Agricultural products administra o 7 He was able to do away with the Revolutionary War debt reestablish trade relations with foreign countries 7 He was able to raise commercial capitalism 7 But he was never able to understand the small towns ampvillages the rural farming areas He more associated government with the wealthy 7 Some Would see him as an antagonist of the South rural amp farming areas 7 Alexander Hamilton was brilliant t r Political Parties 7 A carry over from the FederalistsNationalists amp the AntiFederalists of the Constitutional Convention 7 Federalists wanted a strong central government Alexander Hamilton was the embodiment of this party 7 Republicans felt that the Federalists wanted a monarchy Hamilton actually supported a Const Monarchy They wanted a consolidated central gov t with more power for the states James Madison amp Thomas Jefferson were the primary leaders of this party Foreign Affairs 7 The French Revolution began during Pres Washington s 2quotd term 7 America sympathized with the French but only to a certain point 7 April 22 1793 Washington declared that America would remain friendly amp impartial toward the belligerent powers Also warned Americans that those who were aiding or abetting hostilities would be prosecuted 7 Edmond Charles Genet the Ambassador of the New French gov t to America He was called Citizen Genet Arrived in 1793 amp started causing trouble right away 7 Tried to organize support for the French revolutionaries Enlisted Privateers to attack amp capture British ships promised the rural farmers amp backcountry folks land in Spanish Fla amp39 Louisiana if they would support him 7 Threatened to incite the American people to go over Pres Washington s head Je erson felt he had gone too far amp Washington called for his immediate removal 7 While Genet was in America the French gov t changed once again ampthe new gov t sent a court officer to arrest him amp return him to the guillotine 7 Genet asked for asylum in America married the daughter of the Governor of NY settled down became an American citizen amp passed away several years later Jay s Treaty 7 Chief Justice John Jay also served as special envoy to Great Britain 7 He was sent to England by Pres Washington to try amp settle all the major issues between the US amp England Get the English out of the northwest forts To get reparations for the losses of American Compensation for slaves that were taken in 1783 I Commercial treaty to legalize American commerce in the British WestIndes 7 Jay accepted the British definition of Neutral Rights naval stores were contra and could not go n neutral ships to enemy ports 7 Great Britain was given most favored nations status ampthe issue of compensation for the slaves was dropped 7 Public outrage in America over JaYs concessions amp barely passed with 23 majority The House demanded that the Pres present all papers on the case 7 Washington set the precedent of Executive Privilege that the papers were only for the Senate Battles on the Frontier 7 Pres Washington sent Gen Mad Anthony Wayne to the northwest territory to deal with the constant attacks of the Spanish Canadian amp Indians 7 Hostilities had increased in this area mainly because of the Canadian militia inciting the Indiansagainst the Americans 7 Plus the Americans were encroaching into Indian territory 7 Thearea was claimed by America Canada Spain France ampthe Indians 7 Battle of Fallen Timbers Aug 1794 2000 Shawnee Ottawa Chippewa amp Potawatomi warriors attacked with help from the Canadian militia but the American troops were combat veterans amp caused heavy losses for the Indians The Americans then burned amp destroyed all Indian villages amp fields This forced the Indians to sign a treaty Treaty Of GreenvilleAug 1795 the US bought the SE quarter of the NW territory for 10000yr this area is now H Chicago Detroit amp Vincennes The Whiskey Rebellion 1794 7 Hamilton s excise tax on liquor in 1791 had finally made it to the Frontier in 1794 7 This was the Frontier farmers most profitable product It was cheaper to store transport amp made more money than any other cropquot they could produce 7 Frontier farmers did not trust the new Federal government From GA to Penn the Whiskey Tax caused a lot of resistance Tax collectors everywhere were harassed attacked etc 7 The people that paid the tax had their stills blown up barns burned etc 7 Aug 7 1794 Pres Washington ordered the hiskey Boys to go home amp then activated 12900 militiamen from VA Maryland Penn amp NJ amp ordered them to Suppress the Rebellion 7Gen Light horse Harry Henry Lee led an army larger than any that Washington commanded during the Revolution 7Aexander Hamilton even accompanied them to get even with those that oppposed his tax 7 The Whiskey Boys ran for the hills 7 Only 20 barefoot halfstarved ragged Prisoners of War were captured amp brought to Philadelphia amp put in prison 7 2 were found guilty of treason but received a Presidential Pardon by Washington since one was a simpleton amp the other was insane 7 But the government amp the army made proved its point by the show of force Pinckney s Treaty 1795 7 Spain was stirring up trouble with the Creeks Choctaws Chickasaws amp Cherokee in the southeast Ga Tenn Ala Miss etc 7 US Ambassador Thomas Pinckney extended negotiations with Spain amp won 7 The 31St parallel GaFla boundary line was the bOundary line free navigation of the Miss River the right to deposit goods at New Orleans for 3 yrs with renewal a commission to settle claims between the US amp Spain amp promise to stop stirring up the Indians from BOTH sides Land Act of 1796 7 Built onto the one of 1785 7 It doubled the price to 2acre amp only 1 year to completely pay it off 7 Townships would be sold in 640 acre sections for 1280 7 There would be several Land Acts over the next few years to address the population growth in the Frontier 7 This would also account for a lot of the problems with the Indians The Wilderness 7 As land opened up in the Frontier people increasingly encroached into Indian territory Daniel Boone would be the most famous person to come out of this area 7 He would lead thousands into the Frontier starting in 1773 to build homes farms etc 7 Boone lost several of his family members to Indians as they pushed into the Frontier 7 Many of the settlers were Revolutionary War veterans that had received land grants from the government w Election of 1796 7 George Washington refused to serve a 3rd term amp graciously gave his farewell speech on Sept 17 1796 7 This would cause the 1St partisan election for President in America 7 The debate over who would be the next Pres Was between Alexander Hamilton John Adams amp Thomas Jefferson 7 Jefferson almost won but Adams beat him by a very slim margin XYZ Affair 7 Adams had some big shoes to fill after Washington left He was the most popular man in America 7 Jay s Treaty caused the French to attack American ships Just as they would British ships 7 Relations with France were borderline at best 7 Charles Pinckne John Marshall amp Elbridge Gerry were sent by A ams to France to tr amp estore relations T e French Forei n Minis er Charles Mauricede Talleyrand sent un namedquot agents to accost the Americans In Adams39 report to Congress they were named X Y amp Z France would only start ne otiations if America would ay the bribe of 25 000 This would lead to a year naval war with France Partisan wars 7 American politics had split even more on the Party lines 7 The Federalists amp the Republicans were almost at war with one another 7 Adams even asked Jefferson to help him form a bipartisan administration But each had pushed their own party at every turn 7 The war with France really put a wedge in the American gth This gave rise to the Alien amp Sedition Acts of 1798 limited freedom of Speech press amp liberty to nonAmericans Election of 1800 7 A Republican victory Many were tired of the Federalists policies plus all the problems that occurred during Adams administration aided in his removal 1st real mud slingingquot campaign The Hamiltonians split from the Federalist party After Adams nomination he fired Hamilton for all the negative comments he had said in the past Alexander Hamilton wrote a pamphlet that questioned Adams39 ability to be Pres Aaron Burr the Republican VP candidate published one for public circulation w w w w 7 Jefferson was the Rep Party Pres candidate thus creating an alliance between VA amp NY 7 Jefferson was accused of being a French Supporter amp an Atheist amp his election would cause the down fall of American civilization 7 Jefferson promoted himself as a friend of the farmers a states rights advocate peace liberty amp a gov t that did not promote waste 7 Thomas Jefferson would win by a very narrow margin amp mainly by the in party fighting of the Federalists 7 Jefferson amp Adams would not speak to one another for the next 12 years The War 7 The South had Better military officers NCO amp enlisted men Better marksmen on average 10 Northern soldiers were shot amp killed for every 1 Confederate Strong military tradition code of Honor dueling history etc Fewer soldiers the Union Army outnumbered the Confederates on average of 5 to 1 Fewer naval ships supplies factories etc Relied on assistanceaid from England amp urope No way to get new recruiB 7 The North had More men amp more new recruits to replaced those that died in combat More equipment amp ways to resupply the troops More factories within the North did not have to rely on outside assistance Bigger navy with better ships able to establish a naval blockade in the South effectively cutting off the supplies being sent from England Europe Mexico amp South America to the South Attack on Ft Sumter 7 April 11 1861 7 Confederate General Pierre GT Beauregard demanded that Union Maj Robert Anderson surrender Ft Sumter 7 Anderson refused knowing that ships were bringing relief 7 April 12 1861 at 430am Gen Beauregard began shelling Ft Sumter amp continued for a day amp a half before Anderson surrendered on April 14 1861 The BuildUp for War 7 April 14 1861 Pres Lincoln calls up 75000 militiamen from loyal states 7 April 19 1861 Lincoln ordered a blockade of Southern ports The US Supreme Court would later rule this as an act of War 7 Before the attack on Ft Sumter there were only 7 Confederate States After Lincoln s Proclamation of War 4 more states joined the Confederacy 7 The Confederate Congress chose Richmond VA as the capital city for the CSA 7 States became divided as to which side to join Many chose to split on the issue of slavery But 5 slaveholding stayed with the North ie Missouri Kentucky West VA Maryland amp Delaware 7 The old MasonDixon Line no longer separated North amp South 7 Gen Winfield Scott the hero of the Mexican War was the Commander of Union Forces when the War started But he was very old Pres Lincoln amp Gen Scott called in their most qualified officer to take his place 7 Robert Edward Lee From Virginia Attended West Point Military Academy in NY T e only Cadet in it39s history to ever graduate without a single demerit Fought in the Mexican War Thought about Pres Lincoln39s offer for several days Had VA stayed in the Union he would have accepted But VA seceded Lee turned in his resignation stating that he could never take up arms against his beloved state But did not approve of the War Pres Jefferson Davis offered Lee the command of i all Confederate Forces which he accepted The 1St Battle of Manassas 7 July 21 1861 7 Gen Beauregard led the Confederate Army to Manassas Junction RR center 7 Gen McDowell led 37000 Union troops outnumbering the Confederates greatly amp planned on marching on the Confederate capital of Richmond VA 7 They attack Beauregard s troops who were dug in almost defeating them 7 Gen JOSeph E Johnston s reinforcements arrived amp stopped the Union advance 7 It is at this battle that Gen Thomas Jackson earns the nickname Stonewall 7 The Union troops broke amp ran retreating past the civilians that came to watch the Yankee s One Battle War Many civilians began shooting at the soldiers to try amp get them to go back amp fight The Confederate troops were too tired amp disorganized to give pursuit 7 If they had the war would have ended there Yankee Strategy 7 After the early Confederate victory at Manassas Lincoln had to go back to Gen Winfield Scott s Anaconda strategy Defend Washington DC amp put pressure on Richmond VA Establish a naval blockade of the southeast to stop supplies from England amp other pars of Europe Split the South up amp conquer the areas between H the rivers 7 The US Navy would play a major role in the defeat of the South The use ofa naval blockade as Gen Scott recommended worked 7 The use of new naval weapons ie the Monitor 1st use of a turret weapon the cannon could swivel 360 7 The Battle of Hampton Roads Mar 89 1862 the Merrimack Virginia CSA amp the Monitor USA square off 7 The Confederacy had the Hunley the 1st submarine Used in combat Only sank one Yankee ship amp killed every crew it ever had Mainly had a psychological effect on the Northern blockade of the South They did not know how many of these there were Quantrill s Raiders 7 William Quantrill led a guerilla war out west against Northern supporters in the Kansas Nebraska Missouri area 7 Very bloody but it has been since Pottawatomie Entire towns were destroyed 7 The Jayhawkers were Union sympathizers but they were just as bad They attacked amp burned proSouthern areas out west 7 The 5 Civilized Indian tribes generally sided with the Confederacy The rest of the Indians split between North amp South The Battle of Shiloh 7 April 6 1862 7 Gen Johnston regrouped his men amptook advantage of Grant exposing his 42000 men without defenses 7 The Confederate troops attacked early that morning while the Union troops were sleeping amp eating breakfast They were slaughtered This is the Bloodiest Battle in US History 7 Gen Johnston was killed in the attack his X0 called off the attack instead of finishing the Union army 0 The Battle of 7 Pines 7 Stonewall Jackson kept about 40000 Union troops pinned down in the VA mountains from March 23June 9 1862 7 May 31 1862 Gen Johnston was able to attack Union Gen George McClellan s forces at the Chickahominy River 7 The Union was almost wiped out but reinforcements were able to get across the flooded river amp bring it to a draw 7 Both sides took heavy losses amp Gen Johnston wasrseverely wounded The 7 Days Battles 7 June 25 July 1 1862 Gen Johnston still recovering from his wounds regrouped amp set out to help remove the Union troops from the Richmond area 7 The attempt was unsuccessful The Union forces were able to dig in amp build palisades Also the Union navy was in the James River using their naval artillery as well as land based artillery 7 Confederates took heavy losses leaving the Union forces within range of Richmond VA w The 2nd Battle of Manassas 7 Aug 2930 1862 7 Confederate forces captured a Union supply depot amp forced the Union troops back into Washington DC 7 Union forces thought they only had to deal 39with Stonewall Jackson s army They had no idea that Gen Lee s army was there also 7 The Union commander John Pope was so severely beaten that Lincoln removed him from command amp returned him out west The Battle of Sharpsburg 7 Sept 17 1862 7 The Bloodiest single day of the War 7 Both sides fought to a draw with heavy losses on both sides 7 The North lost more men about 13000 total dead amp wounded 7 The South lost a good deal less but they represented over 14 of Lee s entire army 7 Union Gen George McClellan was removed from command by Lincoln amp never allowed to lead troops again The Battle of Fredericksburg 7 Nov 14 1862 Burnside now in command of the Army of the Potomac sent a corps to occupy the vicinity of Falmouth near Fredericksburg 7 The rest of the army soon followed 7 Gen Lee reacted by digging in his army on the heights behind the town 7 Dec 11 Union engineers laid 5 pontoon bridges across the Rappahannock under Rebel fire 7 Dec 12 the Federal army crossed the river Dec 13 1862 Burnside mounted a series of frontal assaulB on Prospect Hill and Marye s HeighB that resulted in a blood bath for the Union causing staggering casualties Meade39s division on the Union left flank briefly penetrated Gen Jackson39s line but was driven back by a counterattack Union generals C Feger Jackson and George Bayard and Confederate generalsThomas RR Cobb and Maxey Gregg were killed Dec 15 Burnside called off the offensive and went back across the river ending the campaign The Union lost over 12000 men amp the Rebels barley 6000 Jan 1863 Burnside initiated a new offensive which quickly bogged the Union down in the winter mud The abortive quotMud Marchquot and other failures led to Burnside39s replacement by Maj Gen Joseph Hooker in Jan 1863 A major Confederate victory The Battle of Chancellorsville April 27 1863 Union Gen Hooker crossed the Rappahannock River to attack General Lee39s forces Hooker had over 130000 men ampGen Lee had less than 12 that But Lee was the better General May 13 1863 Gen Lee split his army attacking a s urprised Union army in 3 places and almost completely defeating them Hooker withdrew across the Rappahannock River giving the South a victory but it was the Confederates39 most costly victory in terms of Casualties May 2 1863 Gen StonewallquotJackson had led a successful surprise attack against the Union forces at The Wilderness That night as the fighting broke off he rode out to find the Yankee line amp was shot accidentally by one of his own men May 3 1863 Gen Jackson had his shattered left arm amputated amp began to recover 1 May 10 1863 Stonewall Jackson dies of pneumonia 39 Gen Lee stated he had lost his right armquot This would be Gen Lee s last significant victory The Battle of Vicksburg Gen Grant won several victories around Vicksburg The fortified city considered essential to the Union39s plans to regain control of the Mississippi River May 18 1863 Grant had pushed the Rebels into the city amp cut offampor destroyed all supplies he planned on starVIng them ou May 22 1863 Grant began a singe of the city amp after 6weeks Confedera e Gen ohn Pemberton surrendered giving up the city and 30000 men The caPtUre of Port Hudson Louisiana shortly therea ter placed the entire Mississippi River in Union hands The Confederacy was split in two The Battle of Gettysburg July 13 1863 Gen Lee39s Army Of Northern Virginia of 75000 men and the 97000 man Union Arm of the Potomac Confederate brigade sent fonNard for supplies observed a forward column of Meade39s cavalry July 11863 Confederate troops began attacking Meade39s cavalry on McPherson Ridge west of town Outnumbered the Union forces managed to hold and even drive the Confederate army back after the addition ofJohn Reynold39s Infantry division Reynold39s subsequent death on the front lines They held until afternoon when they were overpowered by additional Southern troops and driven back through town Thousands of Union soldiers were captured before they could rally on Cemetery Hill south of town Long into the night Union troops labored over their defenses while the bulk of Meade39s army arrived and took positions July 2 The main portions of both armies were nearly a mile apart on two parallel ridges Union forces on39 Cemetery Ridge in the famous quotfish hookquot facing Confederate forces on Seminary Ridge to the Lee ordered an attack against both Union flanks Gen James Longstreet39s thrust on the Union left broke through Sickles39 advance lines at the Peach Orchard now known as Bloody Run It was strewn with dead and wounded and turned the rocky area called the quotDevils Denquot at the base of Little Round Top into a shambles Gen Warren saved Little Round Top for the Union when he saw that the strategic hill was unmanned R S Ewell39s attack ultimately proved futile against the entrenched Union right on East Cemetery Hill and Culp39s Hill even though they were able to take possession of the southern slope of Culp39s Hill on one occasion The frequent lack of effective communication would prove the downfall of the Confederacy this The Confederates were only a few hundred yards away from taking the Unions supply trains July 3 Lee decided to press the attack to the Union center on Cemetery Ridge 2 At 1pm the Southern artillery opened a bombardment that for a time engaged the massed guns of both sides in a thundering duel for supremacy but did little to soften up the Union battle lines w o Gen George E Pickett in a desperate attempt to recapture the partial success of the precedin day spearheaded one of the most Incredible effor s in militar historgua masse infantry assault of 5 00 Confe erate troops across the open field toward the Union center on Cemetery Ridge 1 mile they marched while being pounded by artillery and rifle fire Gen Pickett39s men reached but failed to break the Union line and the magnificent effort ended in disaster The tide of the Confederacy had quotswept to is crest pause an receded In 5039 minutes 10000 in the assault had become casualties and the attack forever to be known as Pickett39s Charge was now history w With the failure of Pickett39s Charge the battle was over the Union was saved Lee39s retreat began on the afternoon ofJuly 4 The battle did not end the war nor did it attain any major war aim for the North or the South it remains the great battle of the war Here at Gettysburg on July 1 2 amp 3 1863 more men actually fought amp died than in any other battle before or since on North American soil The Battle of Chickamauga Sept 19 1863 Union and Confederate forces met at Chickamauga Creek in Tenn After a brief period of fighting Union forces retreated to Chattanooga an t e Confederacy maintained control of the battlefield After Rosecrans39s mishap at Chickamauga Confederate Gen Braxton Bragg39s army occupied the mountains that ring the vital railroad center of Chattanooga The Battle of Chattanooga Nov 24 1863 Following the defeat at Chickamauga Grant was brought in to save the situation by steadily building up offensive strength The Union then burst the blockade in a series of brilliantly executed attacks 7 Union forces pushed Confederate troops away from Chattanooga The victory set the stage for General Sherman39s AtlantaCampai n This would also give the command of the Union Army to Grant The Battle of the Wilderness May 57 1864 May 5 1864 the Union V Corps attacked Ewell39s Corps on the OrangeTurnpike while Hill39s corps encountered Getty39s Division VI Corps and Hancock39s II Corps on the Plank Road Fighting was fierce but inconclusive as both sides attempted to maneuver in the dense woods Darkness halted the fighting and both sides rushed forward reinforcemenB May 6 Hancock attacked along the Plank Road driving Hill39s Corps back in confusion Longstreet39s Corps arrived in time to prevent the collapse of the Confederate right flank amp by 12 pm a devastating Confederate flank attack in Hamilton39s Thicket sputtered out when Longstreet was wounded by his own men The IX Corps Burnside moved against the Confederate center but was repulsed Union generals James S Wadsworth and Alexander A t I Hays were killed as well as C D JOhn MJones Micah Jenkins and Leroy A Stafford The battle was a tactical draw But Grant did not retreat as had the other Union generals before him May 7 the Federals advanced by the left flank toward the crossroads of Spotsylvania Courthouse The Battle of Cold Harbor 7 June 13 1864 7 Confederate troops were dug in amp well fortified in a defensive entrenchment 7 They had learned their lesson the hard way at Gettysburg about attacking such fortifications 7 Grant on the other hand ordered his troops to launch a frontal assault on the Confederate lines 7 The following 20 minutes was a complete massacre of Union troops 7 Over 7000 Union troops lay dead or dying 7 Grant would call this fiasco his greatest mistake amp earn him the title of the Butchel by his troops The End of the War 7 After the Battle of Chattanooga the Union forces had a straight shot into Georgia amp the heart of the South s railroad lines 7 With no organized army left in Georgia to stop him Gen Sherman killed burned amp pillaged his way through the Heart of Dixie Grant amp Sherman had previously agreed to wage war on the Southern civilian population 7 Sherman was to completely destroy every thing in his path amp a 20 miles on either side 7 As Sherman moved through Georgia on his march to the sea he killed burned pillaged plundered amp raped everything in their path 7 Only local militias ampyoung military cadets from Georgia Military College stood in their way they were quickly slaughtered 7 Even the slaves they encountered were not safe Many would die at the hands of their Northern liberators 7 Sherman would live up to his vow to make Georgia howl 7 By the end of 1864 and the start of 1865 the South had no supplies no new fresh troops to relieve the battle weary veterans they were starving literally the walking dead 7 The Confederacy had been defeated over a year ago amp she just didn t know it stated one Rebel soldier 7 Against the wishes of his officers amp his troops Gen Robert E Lee could no long stand the war the killing nor the condition of his men 7 He considered surrender 7 April 9 1865 Gen Lee met with Grant at Appomattox Va to discuss terms of surrender 7 The War was over in the same place it began 7 Over the next several months the Field Officers one by one surrendered 7 May 10 1865 Pres Jefferson Davis was captured in InNinville GA as he was trying to escape amp rebuild the Confederate capital out west Brigadier General Stand Watie I Commander of the Cherokee Creek nd Seminole cavalry totaling 800 men who fought alongside their Texas brothersinarms I Gen Watie was the only Indian on either side to rise to a brigadier general39s rank during he war I June 25 1865 two months after Gen Robert E Lee39s surrender he officially surrendered his command of the First Indian Brigade CSA to federa authorities at Doaksville near Fort Towson in the Choctaw w I This gave him the distinction of being the Last CSA general to surrendel 7 The War Between the States was over the North had preserved the Union 7 By the end of 1865 all slaves would be set free by Pres Andrew Johnso 7 He forced ALL STATES TO RATIFY THE 13th AMENDMENT 7 This freed the slaves amp started the long road of Reconstruction The Federal Union U n The Canfederatmn Cehgress had vev hme authunty mes1 enhe pewe was h the skates eamg wrh manes Dfdwphmiyv Mamv dean wnh ehd deereeeeh e se up cerrrreTaT guvemmmt that weer make the Tead DHEE Mamfe DEsUny eame he pTav aeuhee wm ee 3 eeas n weer eeheemrace eh FT na nce Reeer Merrs e Eveemve ead nee Cunfederatmn ghee there was e PrETdentquot PrmE Mmscer th ett mad tn make hTmseTre the Canfedaatun mere pew T H2 555 the mah backer e a enh ATTEH a IBankD ta 17 er her Mums aeeauv u aed mehev 3 am tn Wehhgceh emeers eserTes Trmev weer a eee d etat Aevahde HamTceh hTermed Gm W hngtm enhe mam pusis evhg m get hTm eh MeretsTde sxaced that the Cmt Army The Canfederatmn Cehgress mn nuad tn grew weee evev vee The AmeTeam quot quotL 3 S5 b k 5 A papu aun had hst aH respe e fanh h Tr av eshg the Bank he fen he weer eer m HEN Amman gmmm A rte was very eTeee tn anamhyr Land pohcv Land 0rdhamee er was evherever xhdeh TUE had hem gWEn up the am had tn be make mme mehev at they had ceraT eemmT ever EarTv eh these eee enhe Wesf mu be eeaced as RepeeTes egeaT h seems we ahv ether srace Land 0rdhamee er 1734 esreced evIThemas Je amn favured se gnvemmmt snared hv Repubhn cemcerv vheee pepeTaeeh egeaTed that enhe smauesr are weer be S gWEn msracemeed 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nbbfe bf the Cmvermm THDN Jeffemh e W h FENCE but wbb 11 be the am Dr thhe CDHSUQJUDH BEHJENW Frawkhn e the deeemeTebace a1 yfs de W the bebe bf 725mm The buk bf the a bfhmb CEMEVEd armnd whexhef bf hbf cb EVE a sbbhb bf Weak mtra bbyeh t ThTs Ts whee the S ates Rghb bebe 51am b w EDHUHUE my 1351 1h eha1 afgbfhmb bazkrsn zbwng cembef ahbbfhs e1 Sbfhe sfaceb VLW Tke SDDHEG bhmeh at bby my way bf ybb bah39f bbyw SeyefaT beTebaces fefbseb D amndpm ars bbfpraheb bmey b bTbbkeb ahy aneffpf cb EDHUHUE the VVEEUHQ ebffe wen sfbfhbd But bbssm hetp mme uf the y Asa shnmd t be z up tn the states as tn the BSuE atstayery thtswtu bamme the mam SSJE Separatton ofPoWers Set the eeyemment up nte 3 dtsttnet h h ereyent any ene eraneh ttem tehne eyer deyennene eet teared the eeneraxeeehe They dd net W51 the gmera papu d un wtth mdlt nd seeh yttaT demsmns eatanees te matntatn erder e tewe Heeses CthExemtwe hastdmtje Wu Prestdent V JedteaT eeeh VA 3 NJ mans nenttened eeaexshed by the Cansmumn ay dtytdtne seyereenty between the eeeeTe e the mennent the trames et the Cansmumn prmad that mveretgnty eeer ee th They a m set up a system that auewed the Canstmmnn te ereweehanee as the eeyemment e the eeentry grew 3 ehaneed Ammdmene The Consmuuon en Sept 23 1737 xt redered 9 states te rattty Tt te eeeene etTeetye The yete wass Ttteetween a red astmne tetra deyennent Weed Tater hemme thenedeahsts AnthFedevdTStS rfayaved a detentrahzed rederaT eeyenn ml states rents aeth gmups agreed that a stmne nattenaT aethenty was warranted thh tts mm tneeme e that the peepe nest haze sateeeads agan tyranny The smauer states wee the 1st te ratmy the Cmstmtmn Detaware weer be the 1 en De 7 1737 Dunng that ttne mpts were sttu eetne deeaed ganeeT Adams wanted te prmat human nehe e that states sheetd haye eewes net granted te the new eeyemmemt Pathek henry weed eeeeme the New Censttmtten Jan 2 17m aet tt Wm d he a ereeess that Wm td Tet swera yeas te det au the states te rattty Rhude xsTand weer be the Tet en May 29 179m w men man Edmund Rawdmph her eetstentne the Censttmtten unmthe Censt Canvmtun reeeentzed a mu ethdne New Hampshre wanna be the W w gnvemm Benjamwn Frawkhn sumbur Cunsmutmn s m azma nperatmn everytmng appeas m pmrmse that n W Last but m ths WFHd man s mam butDeath 3 Taxes Genrge Wa wvgmn W Heard n say 1 dB nut expat the Cansumtmn m 351 fur mare than 2 yeas The Revolutionary War 7 American Colonists now had to decide which side to support This would prove to be a hard decision for many It would literally divide towns villages amp even families 7 The Patriots or Whigs those who supported the Revolution 7 The Tories or Loyalists those who supported the British Empire 7 There was also a swing group that did not care either way amp would support the side that would benefit them the most at that particular time 7 Many Loyalists fled the American Colonies for England amp British North America Canada 7 By the end of the War 3 5 over 100000 of the American Colonies population had left in support of England 7 Many supporters of the Revolution found that they were not treated any better by their fellow Patriots than they were by the British 7 The Class structure was well established in the Colonies amp the majority were poor 7 This will hurt the Cont Army 7 The 1St target of the War for the British was to take New York This would separate New England from the rest of the Colonies amp hopefully bring a quick amp decisive end to the situation 7 British troops were sent from Nova Scotia plus they were relying on the very large Pro British Loyalists population in NY 7 Gen Ho we knew that Gen Washington would fight for NY He also knew that Washington had no real combat skills or leadership experience Which was evident in the early yearsof the War 7 Had Gen Howe pushed the issue he would have defeated the Cont Army in that 1St year amp destroyed the rebellion 7 Gen Washington amp the Cont Army were defeated in most battles in the beginning Washington managed to keep his troops intact by generally avoiding face to face battles with the British This would help him later in the War 7 Both armies headed for NY by the end of July 1776 The British left Boston amp attacked New YorkCity as Washington hurried to build outposts all over the island 7 The 1St major battle for New York would be at Brooklyn Heights Washington wanted to hold amp control this area since they could easily fire on New York City 7 Washington did not know where Gen Howe would land his troops so he split his army amp placed the rest on Manhattan Island 7 Gen Howe took advantage of this surrounded the Cont Army had the British Naw bombard the Heights amp the British Army push the American troops back forcing Gen 7 Washington to retreat By doing so Washington left 3000 of his men behind to be captured by the British at Ft Washington In the process Gen Howe almost blocks Washington s retreat in Nov 1776 Had the British pursued the Cont Army or stopped them outright this would have endedthe War Now the British military could use NY as it s Winter Quarters Very nice accommodations amp a supportive populace Good for the British since NY stayed under British control the rest ofthe War 7 Dec 1776 Gen Howe stationed the Hessians at Trenton NJ 7 Gen Washington took the Cont Army in direct violation of accepted warfare of the time did not place his troops in cantonment for the winter But launched an attack 7 Dec 25 1776 that Christmas night WaShington led 2500 men on a surprise attack against the Hessians at Trenton Most of the Hessians were still drunk from the holiday partying Over 1000 Hessians were killed 39or captured only 500 escaped 397 Washington has only 6 wounded The British Army lost only 2 minor battles in 1776 but did not take advantage of the many mistakes made by the Americans This would hurt them more than any battlefield defeat For the Americans they were finding it hard to have enough men to even constitute an army Many deserted during the battles or on marches Even more left in the fall because 7 they had to harvest the crops Also several that had volunteered did not renew their contracts In Dec amp went ome Washington was lucky to have 5000 troops at any given time amp it was only getting worse 1777 A New Beginning 7 Washington asks Congress for more troops he Cont Congress increased the quota from each colony allowed the wealthy to serve increased enlistments to 3 years amp increased cash land incentives amp unofficially allowed Blacks to serve 7 Mass 8 Conn Had already sent several hundred slaves amp FreeBlacks to meet their quota 39Congress asked GA amp SC to do the same they refused at first but later sent a few 100 7 All total over 5000 Blacks Free amp slave served in the Cont Army Many slaves had mixed feelings about the ritish 1775 Dunmore s Proclamation any slave that escaped made it to British lines amp help the British would be set free Lord Dunmore then captured amp sold them in the West Indies This would hurt British Because in 1779 the Phillipsburg Proclamation stated the same thing as Dunmore but the slaves were set free many in Canada Over 100000 slavesWent to the British between 1779 1783 over 20 of the slave population None fought but served as Laborers 7 British military had a lot of infighting numerous change of commands poor communication etc caused a lot of problems for the military 7 Gen Gage was replaced by Gen John Burgoyne who would take command of the British forces in Canada sweep down into NY ampattack Philadelphia 7 Gen Howe wanted Philadelphia also since it was the Capital of the Revolutionary Government amp it would force Washington into a fight 7 June 1777 Gen Burgoyne s troops easily took Ft Ticonderoga from the Colonial troops then marched to Albany American troops placed boulders amp trees in their way to slow them down It took the British 24 days to march 23 miles 7 Aug 16 1777 Gen Burgoyne sent 800 of his men to Bennington Vermont where American troops led by Col John Stark pretended to be Loyalists amp slaughtering 500 of them 7 Thiswill force the British to go back to S aratoga where Gen Horatio Gates was waiting for him 7 The Battle of Saratoga Oct 1777 Burgoyne s army crosses the Hudson River amp is attacked by Gen Gates39 troops Gates keeps the British pinned down at Bemis Heights NY amp finally surrounds the British Bur o ne believes that he would be rescued by the Britis orces in NY this would break the morale of the Americans amp redirect the battle Gen Howe had forgotten about Burgoyne so no reinforcements were sent also British Gen Clinton refused to send his troops to help Burgoyne Oct 17 1777 Gen Burgoyne surrenders to Gen Gates 5700 British soldiers were held as prisoners while Burgoyne was allowed to return to England e did not receive a hero s welcome many shunned him39for giving up to the ColonisB w z 7 The Colonial victory at Saratoga would be a crushing defeat for the British amp a major victory for the Americans Some considered this the turning point of the war in the North 7 After the American victory the French agree to help the Americans 7 Treaty of Amity amp Commerce 1778 recognized the independence of America amp established trade concessions 7 Treaty of Alliance both agreed to fight until 39 America was free neither side would enter a separate peace without the other amp a guarantee of possessions in North America 7 The Battle of Brandywine Creek Sept 11 1777 Washington removed his troops 11000 men from NJ to try amp stop the British from taking Philadelphia Gen Howe easily forced the Cont Army back amp by Sept 26 the British controlled Philadelphia 7 Oct 4 1777 Washington led a counter atta ck at Germantown Penn 397 British reinforcements led by Gen Lord Cornwallis pushed Washington s troops back out of town 7 This forced Washington to seek winter quarters at Valley Forge Penn Possibly the harshest winter for the men Most officers were allowed to return home for the winter while the enlisted troops had to stay Many men died from exposure starvation amp sickness Very demoralizing for the troops Another example of the class separation of the men 7 British troops stayed in nice warm houses in town with lots of good food amp female company 7 Spring 1778 Washington wanted an organized disciplined army 7 Frederick William Augustus Henry Ferdinand Baron Von Steuben a Prussian officer amp mercenary was hired by Washington to teach the Cont Army how to fight a European style war D amp C closeorder drill manua arms etc They would soon look like a professional army Going into 1778 the morale of the American troops was high the French were going to help the victories at Saratoga Congress promised extra pay amp bonuses 80 etc 1778 An American War 7 Now the war had spread to all areas of the American Colonies So the fighting is no longer concentrated in the New England area 7 George Rogers Clark led 175 men against the British under the command of Col William Hamilton in the Indian lands now Illinois Ohio Indiana amp Missouri 7 July 4 1778 Clarks troops take Kaskaskia near St Louis This would be the start of his campaign in what is now Illinois 7 Cla rks attempt to retake Ft Vincennes would leave a lasting impression on the British amp the Indians of the area 7 His troops used their woodland skills to launch a surprise attack on the British beheading the Indians they captured to Show what would happen to those that opposed him Causing many of the Indians that were loyal to the British to flee 7 Clark will be credited with winning the Frontier Campaign amp winning this territory for America 7 Following Clark39s victories Gen Washington turned his attention to the Indians that posed a threatquot to the Revolution 7 From 17781779 Loyalists amp ProBritish Indians attacked American villages farms etc burning looting amp killing settlers on the Frontier 7 Summer 1779 Washington sent Gen John Sullivan with 4000 troops to attack amp kill all Indians mainly Iroquois burn their villages crops orchards until nothing was left 7 Indians that allied with the Patriots were even attacked the most ruthless expedition of Scorched Earth policy in American historyquot War in the South 17781781 7 England hoped that the many Loyalists in the South would assist them in the War 7 1778 England planned to arm the Loyalists for the British Army Then pacify the South amp lead them into the North to put an end to the War 7 Nov 1778 Gen Clinton attacks Savannah GA amp easily defeating the Patriots there Moved up amptook Augusta by Dec Clinton then pulls back to Savannah for the winter 7 Most of 1779 Britain would be moving troops from the North to the South 7 Battle of Charleston April May 1780 Gen Clinton ordered the rest of his army amp naval forces to leave NY amp launch an amphibious attack against Charleston American Gen Benjamin Lincoln had occupied Charleston with about 6000 troops He was not a skilled defensive commander but anticipated a sea attack But did not plan for a simultaneous land assault 7 May 12 1780 Gen Lincoln amp 5500 men surrendered Charleston to Gen Clinton This would be the single biggest loss for the Americans during the War 7 Congress sent Gen Horatio Gates to command the American Army in the South 7 Gen Clinton returned to NY leavin Cornwallis to command the British troops in the South 7 Cornwallis would have had an easier time of subduing the South had it not been for Banastre Bloody Tarleton amp Patrick Ferguson 7 These 2 subordinates of Cornwallis caused many of the backcountry neutrals amp the Patriots to join forces against the brutal ritis 7 The Battle of King s Mountain Oct 7 1780 7 Those that opposed the brutal tactics of the British attacked Ferguson at King s Mountain SC The backcountryquot frontiersmen amp the Patriots devastated the British amp killed many Loyalists as they surrendered Later they turned on the Loyalist prisoners This was the turning point of the War in the South It proved that the small farmers amp militiamen could stand up to the British Army by fighting a guerrilla war w 7 Thesegroups were led by Francis Marion the Swamp Fogtlt ampThomas Sumter the Gamecock 7 Nathanael Greene The Fighting Quaker was selected by Congress to be the new Commander in the South 7 Jan 17 1780 the Battle of Cowpens Banastre Tarleton attacked Gen Daniel Morgan one of Greene s officers Morgan purposely boxed his men in at Broad River to force them to fight Tarleton advanced his troops thinking the militia was retreating He lost over 800 men 7 Morgan amp Cornwallis pretty much played Tag from 17801781 7 March 15 1781 The Battle of Guilford Courthouse 7 Morgan utilized a series of strategic retreats to inflict heavy losses on Cornwallis 7 Although not Ninning ampdefeating Cornwallis out right it did cause Cornwallis to pull back to Wilmington NC to regroup amp resupply thus giving the Americans a chance to do the same 7 By May 1781 Cornwallis abandoned his campaign against the Carolinas in order to attack Virginia He felt this was the only way to take the Carolinas 7 The American bravado was almost solidified due to the heavy losses the British were taking in the South Plus in the summer of 1780 the French Army arrives American leadership on the battlefield is improving Washington is getting his Professional Army thanks to Baron Von Steuben While in the South they are using bloody small unit tactics ambushes amp guerrilla raids 39 739 Many Loyalists are starting to rethink their allegiances They made up about 20 of the entireAmerican population 350000400000 397 Many are fleeing to Canada amp England the rest stay amp fight Benedict Arnold 7 One of the best officers amp soldiers to serve under Gen Washington 7 Briiant commander on the battlefield feared nothing amp no one 7 He had fought with Daniel Morgan in the Canadian Campaign actually caused Gen Barry St Leger amp his men to retreat amp run back to Canada when they heard he was coming for them Once Philadelphia was recaptured he was the Commander of the American Forces stationed there 7 This is where the trouble began 7 Many rumors as to why he betrayed his country 7 One of the most prominent was that his wife was very High Maintenance amp while they were in Philadelphia they were living too extravagantly Washington gave him an official reprimand Arnold felt he was being singled out since many officers including Washington was living the Good Life England made him an offer his wife pushed the issue amp when he became Commander of West Point he was going to surrender it to the British troops One of his Lt found out amp reported him He escaped before he could be arrested England made him a Gen in their Army but he was never accepted 7 Gen Greene returned to the South to try amp push the remaining British troops out of SC amp Georgia Over 8000 British troops were scattered out in several towns amp forts 7 This made it easier for Greene s 1500 troops amp the querrilla fighters of Sumter Pickens amp Marion to pick them off one by one 7 Greene told Washington in May 1781 that if the enemy divide their forces they will fall by detachments and if they operate collectively they cannot command the country By July 1781 the British were pushed into a small strip between Savannah amp Charleston The Battle of Yorktown 7 Lord Cornwallis had moved back to the North on his campaign to subdue Virginia 7 At Petersburg VA he linked up with the newly commissioned British Gen Benedict Arnold Cornwallis detested the traitor amp did not trust him But their combined force was well over 7000 men 7 This forced the Americans to try to send reinforcements to the area 7 CornWallis moved to Yorktown amp prepared to start siege warfare 7 Cornwallis had requested reinforcements from Gen Clinton of NY who refused They did not like one another 7 By this time the French had arrived but the British Navy was able to keep them blocked out for a while 7 The French 1St landed a group of about 6000 soldiers in Rhode Island They were able to slip past the British Naval blockade thanks to the efforts of the small American Navy amp 39 privateers led by Captain John Paul Jones 739 By May 1781 Washington wanted to link up with the French amp attack NY 7 July 1781 as the Americans amp the French met Washington received word that the French Fleet amp over 3000 soldiers were inbound to VA 7 Now Lord Cornwallis had Washington39s Northern Army Greene s Southern Army amp the French Army amp Navy all heading for him 7 Aug 30 1781 the French forces led by Admiral de Grasse landed at Yorktown ampjoined the American forces there quot7 Sept 5 amp6 1781 the British amp French Navies confronted one another The French were able to keep the British from helping Cornwallis in any way 7 French ships sailed up the Chesapeake Bay to bring more American troops to Yorktown 7 Now the AmericanFrench forces more than doubled Cornwallis 16000 vs 7000 7 The Siege of Yorktown began on Sept 28 1781 7 The British had plenty of time to Dig in amp prepare but they were just out manned They were unable to retake vital areas that allowed the American amp French forces to gain cOntrol 7 Oct 17 1781 Weather kept Cornwallis from escaping into Loyalist territory causing him to push for discussing peace 7 Oct 19 1781 Lord Cornwallis surrenders by Proxy His army was allowed to leave amp board ships for England 7 Thelwar was effectively over in America 7 A fewsmall skirmishes between Patriots amp Loyalists some Cont amp British forces on the Frontier but for the most part IT WAS VER The English Response 7 Feb 27 1782 the House of Commons voted against continuing the war 7 March 5 1782 the King was authorized to make peace with the Americans 7 March 20 1782 Lord North resigned in shame 7 Now the politics get involved France was allies of America amp Spain but Spain was not an ally of America Everyone wanted to get something out of the deal So now the negotiations started 7 Sept 3 1783 The Peace of Paris officially ended the Revolutionary War recognized America as an independent nation separate from England set the AmericanCanadian Border est the western border on the Miss River amp ceded Florida to Spain Nov 24 Dec 4 1783 the last of the British troops those in NY were allowed to leavex 7 Dec 23 1783 Gen Washington appeared before the Cont Congress amp resigned as Commander of the American Forces ampwent home for Christmas 7 The Articles of Confederation was established in 1777 but did not have any real power Basically maintained the status quo after the war It set up 13 separate republics joined loosely by a representative Congre 7 They became effective March 1781 7 Laid the ground work for a constitution to be established 397 The Confederation government was the most pragmatic structure for the new nation 7 Change happened n every aspect of Colonial life Religious tolerance transformed into a complete separation of Church amp State 7 The Anglican Church was associated with England amp therefore suffered after the war After the war they changed their name to Episcopal in America Many states now removed all tax support for the churches amp they must rely on the tithes donations amp generosity of the congregation 7 The Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom written by Thomas Jefferson stated that no man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship place or ministry whaBoever w w
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