ONLINE Pharm for Health Prof
ONLINE Pharm for Health Prof PNUR 1104
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fabiola Zboncak on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PNUR 1104 at Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College taught by Tamara Dennis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see /class/217650/pnur-1104-abraham-baldwin-agricultural-college in Pre Nursing at Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
1IEI Pharmacology Cardiovascular Medications Classifications amp Characteristics ZIE Objectives 0 Identify cardioinotropic agents 0 Describe antiarrythmic drugs 0 Identify common antianginal drugs 0 Describe common diuretics 0 Identify purpose and use of anticoagulant antiplatelet and thromboembolytic agents 0 Identify and describe antilipemics and peripheral dilators 3E Cardiotonic Inotropic Agents 0 PURPOSE Used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease Examples 0 Di italis o Phosphodresterase inh bitors 4 IE Digitalis Preparations 0 Action increases force of myocardial contraction of heart slows rate of ventricular contractionheart rate 0 Example igoxin Lanoxin 0 Uses acute amp chronic CHF atrial fibrillation atrial flutter 0 Side effects Visual disturbances bradycardia arrythmias anorexia NV HA fatigue weakness drowsiness confusion 5 El Question o Digitalis preparations the force of myocardial contractions amp the heart rate oThe daily dose ofdigoxin is called the dose 0 Administration of a relatively large initial dose of digoxin is called the dose 0 Visual disturbances such as photophobia amp altered color perception may be a sign of toxicity in clients taking gt 6 El Phosphodresterase Inhibitors o WHincreases cardiac contractility amp decreases preload amp afterload by relaxing muscle of the heart to produce vasodilation oExample Primacor Inocar o Lm Short term treatment of CHF 0 Side effects Ventricular arrythmias hypotension HA thrombocytopenia anorexia NV abdominal pain hepatotoxicity 7 IE Antiarrythmic Drugs 0 0 Used to treat thetachyarrythmias of the heart 8IEI 9E 10E 11E 12E 0 Examples o Na channel blockers o beta adrenergic blockers o Kchannel blockers o Ca channel blockers Antiarrythmic Drugs 0 Am reduce automaticity slow conduction of electrical impulses through the heart and prolong refractory rest period of myocardial cells Examples 0 Examples Classl Na channel blockers o Class IA quinidine Cardioquin o Class B lidocaine Xylocaine 0 55 l C o Class II betaadrenergic blockers propanolol lnderal Class III Kchannel blockers o amiodaroneCordarone Class IV Ca channel blockers diltiazemCardizem Unclassified o adenosineAdenocard Antiarrythmics Uses 0 To convert atrial fibrillation or flutter to a normal sinus rhythm maintain normal sinus rythm after conversion when ventricular rate is so fast or irregular that cardiac output is impaired and when dangerous arrythmias occur amp may be fatal 0 Checkapicalradial pulse before each dose 0 Check blood pressure daily Antiarrythmics Side Effects 0 Heart Block 0 Arrythmias o Hypotension o Dizziness 0 Fatigue 0 Malaise o Bradycardia o Confusion 0 Weight gain 0 Seizures 0 NW 0 hypothyroidism o Paresthesia 0 Peripheral neuropathy Questions 0 drugs reduce automaticity of myocardial cells amp slow conduction of electrical impulses through the heart 13 El Antianginal Drugs cm to treat angina pectoris OAQIIQN decrease myocardial demand for oxygen or increase blood supply to the myocardium OEXAMBLES 0 Organic Nitrates nitroglycerin o Betaadrenergic Tenormin lnderal 0 Ca channel blockers Cardizem Procardia 14 El Antianginal Drugs Treatment of acute amp chronic angina 0 Purpose To treat angina pectoris 0 Action To decrease myocardial demand for oxygen or increase blood supply to the myocardium 0 Examples Organic nitrates Betaadrenergic blocking agents Ca channel blockers 15 IE Organic Nitrates 0 Example 0 nitroglycerin Nitrostat Nitrobid Prototype 0 Side effects 0 dizziness 0 WA 0 hypotension o tachycardia 16IE Betaadrenergic Blocking Agents 0 Example 0 propanolol lnderal o atenolol Tenormin 0 Side effects 0 fatigue CHF 0 weakness pulmonary edema o impotence o bradycardia VIE Ca Channel Blockers 0 Example 0 diltiazem Cariazem verapamil Isoptin o Nifedipine Procardia 0 Side effects 0 peripheral edema dizziness 0 WA CHF 0 flushing weakness 0 arrythmias constipation 18E Antihypertensive Drugs To Treat Hypertension oAction decrease BP by decreasing cardiac output or peripheral vascular resistance 0 Uses 0 Angiotensinconverting enzyme ACE inhibitors 0 Example catopril Capoten 0 Side effects cough hypotension taste disturbance proteinuria 19E Antihypertensives o Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist o losartan Cozaar o valsartan Diovan o Antiadrenergics 0 Alpha blocking agents 0 Alpha2 agonists o Postganglionicactive drugs 0 Betaadrenergic blocking agents 20E Antihypertensives 0 Calcium channel blockers o dilitiazem Cardiazem o nifedipine Procardia o verapamil lsopton o Other vasodilators o hydralazine Apresoline 21E Antihypertensives 0 Use 0 to treat primary hypertension 0 Side effects 0 postural hypotension impotence o dizziness bradycardia o weakness GI distrubances 0 Na amp water retention HIE Diuretics 0 Purpose to treat excessive fluid in the body oAction act on kidneys to decrease reabsorption of Na Cl water amp other substances 0 Uses edema amp hypertension 23 IE Diuretics o Thiazide amp related chlorothiazide Diuril indapamide Lozol 0 Loop diuretics furosemide Lasix torsemide Demadex o Ksparing diuretics spironolactone Aldactone o Osmotic diuretics mannitol Osmitrol MEI Diuretics Side Effects 0 Hypokalemia Lasix 0 Dehydration 0 Low Na levels 0 Low magnesium levels 0 Low chloride levels 0 Hyperglycemia 0 Hyperuricemia 0 Give diuretics in the early AM for daily dose 25 El Anticoagulant Antiplateletamp Thrombolytic Agents 0 Purpose To treat clotting disorders oAction alter some aspect of the blood coagulation process in the body 0 Uses prevention or treatment of blood clot formation 26 El Diuretics Examples 0 Anticoagulants heparin Enoxaparin Lovenox warfarinCoumadin o Antiplatelet agents aspirin o Thrombolytic agents alteplaseActivase 0 Side effects bleeding gums vomitus stool urine sputum bruising petechiae tissue irritation at injection site 27 IE Diuretics Key Points 0 The antidote for heparin is protamine sulfate 0 The antidote of warfarin is vitamin K 0 Do not aspirate or massage injection site ZBIE Antilipemics 0 Purpose 0 To lower blood lipids especially total amp LDL cholesterol to prevent or delay development of fatty plaques amp to promote regression of existing fatty plaques 294E Antilipemics oAction alter production metabolism or removal of lipoproteins from the body resulting in lower lipid levels 0 Uses 0 hyperlipoproteinemia not controlled by diet and exercise 0 clients with S amp S of CAD family hx CAD o Other risk factors HTN diabetes smoking WEI Antilipemics 0 Examples 0 HMGCoA reductase inhibitors Statins atorvastatin Lipitor simvastatin Zocor o Fibrates o Bile acid sequestrants cholestyramine Questran 0 Side effects GI problems abdominal cramps constipation diarrhea flatus heartburn rashes 31IE Questions
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