ONLINE American Government
ONLINE American Government POLS 1101
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American Polnics Today mann m Dermcvahc Ram F39uhtms and Guvemment DKeerms Mmquot n anvmmnmmm Pe mms ce am mm m cm Gwemmem msmmmnmwmch gums m maaemmsam camh s m mm benevs ande eves Why 5 Guvemment Nate ssary7 uomm Pvmeamg membevsmsume vwam Menu 2 and cnmna amv wsthe Mes Pumase av gavemmem Why Is Government NecessaryP cont El Liberty The greatest freedom of individuals hat is consistent with 399 by or invoked against government Why Is Government NecessaryP cont El Authority and Legitimacy l authority the right and power ofa government or other entity to enforce its decisions and compel obedience l legitimacy is popular acceptance of the right and power ofa government or other entity to exercise authority Forms of Government El Totalitarian Regime govemment controls all aspects of the political and social life of a nation El Authoritarianism A type of regime in which only the government itself is fully controlled by the ruler Social and economic institutions exist that are not under the govemment s control Forms of Government co nt El Aristocracy Rule by the best in reality rule by an upper class El Democracy A system of government in which political authority is vested in the people Derived from the Greek words demos the people and kratos authority Direct Democracy El Political decisions are made by the people directly rather than by their elected representatives El Attained most easily in small political communities Direct Democracy Today El Initiativea procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment El Referendum an electoral device whereby legislative or constitutional measures are referred by the legislature to the voters for approval or disapproval El Recall a procedure allowing the people to vote to dismiss an elected of cial 39om state of ce before his or her term has expired ls Direct Democracy Dangerous El While the founders believed in government based on the consent of the people they were highly distrustful of anything that might look like mob rule Therefore they devised institutions to lter the popular will through elected elites A Democratic Republic El Democratic republic and representative emocracy really mean the same thing government based on elected representatives except for the historical quirk that a republic cannot have a vestigial king A Democratic Republic cont El Principles of Democratic Government I ul llvel sal Suffrage or the l lght ofall adults to vote forthelrrepresentatlves maionty ruler tne greatest number of citizens in any political Lll llt should Select the offlclals and e ermine policies El Constitutional Democracy limited government states tne powers of o emment snoulo be limiteoi usually by ll lStltutlol lal checks Wthout such llrnltS democracy could destroy itsel What Kind of Democracy Do We Have El Majoritarianism El Elite theory El Pluralism Fundamental Values El Political Socialization El Liberty versus Order El Equality versus Liberty l Economic Equality l Property Rights and Capitalism El capitalism an economic characterized by the private ownership of wealthcreating assets and also by 39ee markets and freedom of contract Tensions Over Big Government El How much power should the American government have and what role should it play in the lives of citizens El Katrina El Taxes El National security policies Ideologies Liberalism vs Conservatism El Conservatives tend to favor limited governmental involvement in the economic ector Economic freedom 39s seen as a necessity for the good ofthe society On social issues conservatives a ocate governmental involvement to preserve traditional values and lifestyles El Liberals tend to favor governmental regulation ofthe economy to bene t individuals within the n as a necessity for the good ofthe society Ideologies The Traditional Political Spectrum El Socialism a political ideology based on strong support for economic and social equality Socialists traditionally envisioned a society in which major businesses were taken over by the government or by employee cooperatives El Libertarianism a political ideology based on skepticism or opposition toward almost all government activities Classical Liberalism El Liberal once meant limited government and no religion in politics The term evolved into its modern American meaning along with the political evolution of the Democratic Party which was once the party of limited government but has become the party of relative economic equality The Traditional Political Spectrum virus 7 i m mum Immrn mm Hm Mr 0 am LA Mme WW m mquot m mum Nunu t WW 4 mmmulmx a m m r a m my mum m new mm 5 EW mm munAla r We main smirk m m rt mat m I gym1 mm mm pwmnr m s n nui Mm moi uww Wm rtcunr lrli ll lll mwmcn mmmnlul nun Animusmf 4 The Ideological Grid El We can break down the electorate into cultural and e onomic liberals cultural and economi conservatives cultural liberalsecono 39 conservatives libertarians and cultural conservativeseconomic liberals Ciassifying the Voters AH rour viewpoints have subst ritiai support based on poiii g ata opu arity However the term co 5 rvatrve as a seifrappiied iabei is more popuiar than any other iabei except moderate Other Ideologies El Communism revolutionary variant of socialism hat favors a partisan and o en totalitarian dictatorship government control of a enterprises and the replacement of free markets by central planning scism a twentiethcentury ideology olten totalitarian hat exalts the national collective united behind an absolute ruler and rejects liberal individualism values action over rational deliberation and glori es war Ideologies in the Islamic World El While communism and fascism are the historical ideologies that totalitarianism was coined to describe our current international problem is with radical Islamism as exempli ed by Al Qaeda The Changing Face of America El Aging El Population Growth El Ethnic Change I Changes in Hispanic Community El Women in the Workforce The Agmg qumEnca U s Pupu atmn H Questions for Critical Thinking El Do you think a direct democracy is a rational option for governing in the United States Describe the forms of direct democracy that exist and discuss the pros and cons of these Questions for Critical Thinking El Do you think some people in American society equate security and order with protection against fellow citizens who are racially culturally or economically different If so why El Do you think protection against discrimination should be considered a ecurity issue as well as an issue of equality Justify your answer American Government and Politics Today Drama 5 cm mm numb memm mm m We aqua Pmmm mam mmmmm 1mm my vi a mam an mum Wm m 4 cum cw Rights intrudumun cunt qmmrewmmm m Slavery in the United States Ending 5ervitude a The Thirteenth Amendment 1355 prohibits slavery within the United States a The Fan t Amendment 1353 established that all persons born in t e United States are citizens and n state shall deprive citizens of their rights under the Constitution a The Fifteenth Amendment 1370 established the right of citizens to vote Early Civil Rights Legislation I The Civil Rights Act5 of 1865 to 1875 nAimed at the Southern 5tate5 nAttempted to prevent 5tate5 from pa55ing law5 that would circumvent the ndment5 I The Civil Rights Ca5e5 1883 EIInvalidated much of the civil right5 legi51ation in the Civil Rights ca5e5 Challenges to Civil Rights Legislation Plessyv Feigu n DSeparaterbutrEqual Doctrine V rs ry the grandfather clause taxes litera Extralegal MethodsofEnforcmg White Supremacy The End of the Separatebut Equal Doctrine Brown v Board of Education of Topeka nOverlurnedPlessy v Ferguson With All Deliberate Speed uStates were ordered to eliminate segregation policies with all delilierate speed School Integration De facm segrega mliraclal segregatlon that occurs because of past soctal and economlc condmons and testdenttal tactal patterns Deure segrega mliraclal segregatlon that occurs e ause of laws or admlmstratlve dectstons by The Civil Rights Movement Martin Luther Kings Philosophy of N violence EINonvjolentrnarches and t emonstra 39 115 Another Approach Black Power El Leaders such as M cm X advotzte a e e a g The Climax of the Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Legislation I The Civil Righm Act of 1964 El employment I The Voting Rights Act of 1965 I Urban Riot5 I The Civil Rights Act of 1968 and Other Hou5ing Reform Legi51ation Consequences of Civil Rights Legislation I Political Participation by African American5 I Political Participation by Other N noritieS I Lingering Social and Economic Di5pariti5 Women s Struggle for Equal Rights I Early Women 5 Political Movemen s t n Activism forwomen 5 rights began with the Seneca Falls Convention In 1848 Years by Country in which Women Gained the Right to Vote The Modern Women s Movement The Equal Rights Amendment Additional Women s Issues u domestic Violence u abortion rights u pornography divided the movement rather than unite it Discrimination in the Courts Expanding Women s Political Activities Women in Politics Today Women in Congress Women in the Executive and Iudjcia Branches Continuing Disproportionate Leadership GenderBased Discrimination in the Workplace I Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 a This title prohibits gender discrimination in employment I Sexual Harassment El The Supreme Court also has held that Title VII includes prohibitions on sexua harassment GenderBased Discrimination in the Workplace cont I Wage Discrimination a Recent figures show a woman earns 76 cents for every dollar made by a man a The Equal Pay Act of 1963 a The Glass Ceiling Immigration Hispanics and Civil Rights El Immigration rates today are the highest they have been since their peak in the earty twentieth century El By 2050 minority groups collectively will constitute the majority of Americans Illegal Immigration El Mostly Latin Americans entering states bordering Mexico looking forwork El Issues include I Citizenship I Border Crime Bilingual Education El Accommodating Diversity El Controversy over Bilingual Education Affirmative Action I Dscn39beS thoSe policie that give Special preferenceS in educational admi55ion5 and employment deci5ion5 to groupS that have been di5criminated again5t in the pa5t I Regents ofthe University ofCuli min 7 Bukke 1978 u Quota systems that only considered the race of an p licantweie unconstitutional I Adavund Comtmctors Inc 7 Pe u I State Ballot Initiative5 N Am Encans mommm WWW 1 AF hm mgmmzmhymm Secuvmg R wgh s m Pevsuns Wm Dwsab mes m w r vwm Dwsab mes cunt M Na mu mvued mp4 tunnel s xeyetmve mg m The Rights and Status of Gay Males and Lesbians I Growthin the Gay Male and Lesbian Rights Movement I State and Local Laws Targeting Gay Males and Lesbians The Rights and Status of Gay Males and Lesbians cont I The Gay Community and Politic5 a Gay activists now play a to e in both major parties Eleven openly gay men or lesbians sit in the House I Gay Men and L5bian5 in the N litary I SameSm Marriage I Child Cu5tody and Adoption The Rights and Status of Juveniles I The prsumption i5 that children are protected by par t I Depending on the juri5diction and the i55ue children may be de ned a5 thoSe under age that vary from Sixteen o twen one I Voting Rights and the Young I The Rights of Children in Civil and Crin1inaleceeding5 The Rights and Status of Juveniles cont Civil nghts orluvenlles Ifa person ls a minor t pelso n IS not usually helol responsible for contracts nto Criminal nghts orluvenlles Deallng Wllh Iuvenlle Crlme who commit acts such as murder have been tried as adults Another approach is to hold parents responsible for the crimes of their children hat Questions for Critical Thinking El Why was the Voting Rights Act necessary El Are there any obstacles today to the civil rights of various groups in society El Should affirmative action exist Ifyou do not favor af rmative action how should society address the economic gap between men and women and whites and African Americans American Government and Politics Today Chapter 6 Public Opinion and Political Socialization Defining Public Opinion Public opinion is the aggregate ot individual attitudes or beliets shared by some portion o a s Private opinion becomes public opinion when an individual takes some t e ot action to express an opinion to ot ers publicly When there is general public agreement on an issue there is said to be a consensus When opinions are sharply divided there it is divisive 0pin titwit l t funnies FIGURE 5 1 DIVISIVE o xkl N OPlNIDN rm tutyiuo 1 at no you more m momma outman misc w that is ltintllmyz ms sbsrwadmn home 11h vlnppma SW m nplnhn w Political Socialization The process by which individuals acquire political beliets and attitudes Sources ot Political Socialization nThe Family and the Social Environment uEducation as a Source ot Politic Socialization uPeers and Peer Group In uence quinion Leaders In uence uMedia Presentation ot Political Issues Political Socialization cont El Political events can produce a long lasting impact on opinion formation Example the impact of the Great Depression on people who came of age in that period We call such an impact a generational effect or a cohort effect Political Preferences and Voting Behavior Demogmphic In uences u Raigious In uence Commitment a Race and Ethnicity a Gender u Geography iaa mt numucu um 57 item an new in nrsmmm riruim nu w is n n e u u u r r ii i u u r si 25 u 17 n n 4 is ii i a w ii it Ni it n i i rr to u i n m is s ii i u n u u is 7 u i u m ii Al Ah o u u to u u it u ii ii is t 7 is u u m u m u u u n 539 m ii 7 7 t e i u n it n ii is ii e gt3 a at i a 5 Ii 36 n a it u M a it a u m n u n w i in 32 i m at is an a 39 mm sea i vacuums or union Houstnoms m39mmu litiulllun n quot1x A in 39II h at Mmimaiaaarumuaaurinal The Gender Gap EIectionSpecific Voting Behavior Facto s I Party Identification I Perception of the Candidates I Issue Preferences Measuring Public Opinion I The History of Opinion Polls D18005 Straw Polls nBy the 19305 modem relatively accurate polling techniques were dev ope y George Gallup Elmo er and others Measuring Public Opinion cont Sampling Techniques mu 5 Apurel mndnmstzmple will be representative within the stated margin of error The larger the sample of the population the smaller the margin oferror Prumems wnn PuHs 5mm Eums um Mam hemzen mugs m5 imam mm m mm mm m hem mamaed mm m mm em be nt Prumems vwm F39uHs cunt m yummmmm mum W amu m mvnmmmmm MM mamnwmm ammun wmm Technumgy and Opmmn F39uHs mmmn m Technmugy and Opmmn F39uHs Pubh ommun andme cunt Pummaw Pruness mum mm am mm H Public Opinion and the PolI cal Process Trends in Political Trust Public Opinion About Government Trust in government peaked after 911 but fell back thereafter Over the years the mi 39tary and churches have been the institutions receiving the highest levels of public Confidence After 911 con dence in the military reached new highs and business come off more poorly ll Confidence in Institutions YABIE 575 l uNrInENu qumluw m use ts rut its mmw udnl no i Minnie his 54 s hnr orlimltd Mimin 5 st ants nit time s as us it meme cm s is Minimal si ii incision is is mittpet Si is sasnn 14 is Drl39lnlxed buy is n nastiness ii i m lNSIlll luNS nirtts unmisasmmnv tutti you tine st in noumntasneni Win niwmeulv st st 02 in is I u si in ii si ss 51 is is U u s 19 sit so u it is so ti is is to An is is 18 An Al is is wt 2 It is ii is is 5 is is l m ii it so 5 SS is 35 ii is is m 2 ts ts ll 22 26 as s 29 is is is NA 21 is is u is is is A M ii i it in 12 4 ma Ll are Mail Imvnauim Factan rum 4 I FRESENY git allm ttnwttplmut m no Warmjtlddaim ItglltmlallnR ttttotnpmmsstt mi icosmttt tegttu Ilwuquot t uplnpumt 1w bi mWtmitm l xlllrnl w tum tteittiiwtiltuttpstdenrn tigittctsiolhir unilsbuns two tmvwin aiwnthsxs lightosioIlv uIIKmvlmmr l m9 mmer ts39git rest oi W at 39E 4 q tam divlulvln39 tm intuitulna retraininunmulwmmt uoe wotnxtnntiititctr L39I E Dli thb ii I t lil 2130i ksmlnmt 544le bmnwcsmetotsmw 2102 mummifian tomsethumdgetds tit mo Er rn rmrn uilw litmutugs mt wittnttnatiuuonw 1 m th Public Opinion and Policymaking The general public believes the leadership should pay attention to p opular opinion Leaders themselves are less likely to believe this ISetting Limits on Govemment Action El Public opinion may be at its strongest in preventing politicians from embracing highly unpopular policies ITaking into account the limits on polling Questions for Critical Thinking El In what ways have you been socialized politically Compare and contrast your experiences with those ofyour classmates El In 2000 less than half of the adult population par icipated in the presidential election lfthe public continues to have minimal involvement in he political process can democracy con inue to function What are your thoughts on the future of democracy Democracy Under Pressure Empty 5 m mega Eaml mng The Struggle for Equal Merle his mum mame m melal and rellvlaus was Thauvh vmvmsshasbeen made m aucan lnequalmes mere Wham be same um melal 7 mm xlwaaImxlvumadu mmq llmamlmumxamm sum e x x mammmmm aquot mm em The Struggle for Equal Ri hts uamma m nvMs lewle Mme wan minv Mean mncansdam have ul saclal and Emma mm mam l 7 Nam mmuwnmwmlm bu E39 T Z Jf m quot9quot The Struggle for Equal The Struggle for Equal Ri hts game m magnum me dal Vlndlvmues um um ace v m um l hsveulmwmmalu 7 mm mmmulkx hmAmelulxamxmennh mulvmlllg The Struggle for Equal Rights Others including American Indians Hispanics and Asian Americans have difficulties similar to African Americans 7 Tne unemployment rate forAmencan indians is eignt times tne national avera e 7 By 2003 Hispanics oecame tne iargest minority group in tne nation Tne Census Bureau reported tnatin zuua tnere were so 8 miiiion Hispanics in tne United States More tnan half or Hispanics Sixty percent were born in tne United States Tne term Hispanic rerers to peopie rrom Mexico and Central and Soutn America The Struggle for Equal Rights 7 Atii 6 million Asian Americans are tne tniro iargest minority arterHispanics and Amcan Americans 7 During tne 1970s women came to be viewed as anotner minority grou Discrimination based on sex is ouiit into many puoiic and private institutions in ZEIEIZ the median income for men was 33423 VWIIE for Women it Was 3EI ZD3 e Gays face formidable oostacies ranging from suotie bias to pnysicai violence The Struggle for Equal Rig h ts r The 53 million Americans with disabilities are another group wnose ngnts were orten neglected e otner groups discriminated againstinclude Jews Catholics tne eideriyi and peopie witn A D8 The Struggle for Equal Rights Such racial polarization has been re ected in the nation39s political issues and aIi nments r Blueccollar wnites reacted witn nostilitv wnen pressed for greatereouaiity and opp i y r lroriically wnites will become a minority in tne middle ortne Zist ceritu e Multiculturalism becomes a serious disadvantage wnen etnnic fragmentation occurs and tne nation ioses its nationai identity and unity 7 By 2060 according to Census Bureau Hispanic oiacki Asian American and American lndian popuiation wiii outnumoertne wnite popuiation Democracy Under Pressure Some Groups in Pro le American Indians The term quotAmerican Indiansquot is gradually replacing the familiar name quotIndiansquot 7 De nition ortne group depends on seltrldentltlcatlon r Tnere are almost 2 8 million American lndiaris including Alaskan Eskimos and Aleuts Some 8000 American indians live on or near reservations Tnere are 309 reservations in 32 states Unempioyment on reservations is 5D percent Onerfourtn miro do Work earn belovvtne poverty ieyei Coiiege graduation rates or American indians is iesstnan nair tne nationai percentage Tne suicide rate is nigner and among tnose ii to 24 it is more tnan twice tne nationai ayerage American Indians American Indians Until 1871 the United States treated the tribes as a The American illdlan Moiemail NM SeiZed 0191 er separate sovereign nations 7 Betwee village or Wounded tltnee on tne Pine Ridge lridiari Reservation in soutn Dakota When tne srege ended two rnontns later two f b 1887 a 1934 Some 90 m H O 95 were We Native Arnencan supporters were killed and one teder 0 quot l 95 agent paralyzed e The lridiari Reorganization Act or 1934 ended tne practice or 7 m meme some Amman Mm have prospered W WWW 9 eSe Vam opening gambling casinos but theirvvealth nas not cnanged e in recentyears Arnencan indrans have nad sorne success me dwar condmg ofme m J0 W getting iand backthrough Congress and tne courts 7 The Arne icari governmentwill spend rnore tnan eleven r billion a year on aid to American iridiaris urnnut hmihleK Hispanic Americans Like American Indians poverty and discriminati Of the thirty three hs a Twentyone percent of Hispanics live in poverty c mpared to a 121 percent national average median income wa 3 0 n Hispanics contend with on eight millions Hispanics in America re Mexican Americans I I 3 per year A little Americans have he s 31 more than half of adult Mexica graduated from high schoo Number of Hispanic Americans in the South Hispanic Americans and the West 2000 V V Between 1943 and 1964 hundred of thousands 0 State Numbvr 01 Hispanics migrant laborers entered the United states under the California 10974413 Briggosprsgfirlrllellions of others entered the Texas 72582 7 They pertorrn backbreakin iabor Arizona 1298049 a They live under nornbie living conditions Which snortens New Mexico 765818 mequot V95 s a Farm Workers are not covered by tne National Labor dololadn 735315 Reiaiong Board SOURCE us Bureau or the Census Hispanic Americans Cesar Chavez formed the United Farm Workers UFVW and led a nationwide boycott of table grapes in support of La Causa the grape workers39 ovement e in 1975 Caiiromia passed legislation proyiding farm workers the same rights as other union me bers in other industries 7 ln l996 the UFWand lettuce growers signed a contract with Red Coach lettuce Hispanic Americans In 2004 only nine of California39s Congressional delegation are Hispanic In 2004 only twenty ve Hispanics serve in the House of Representatives Nationwide there are 4624 Hispanics in elected of ce Hispanic Americans Undocumented immigrants 7 There are approximately 8 million undocumented immigrants and an estimated 70 percent are Hispanic 7 in Caiiromia and Texas growers nire undocumented workers as cneap labor 7 Unions complain that undocumented workers undermine minimum wage health and safety laws and other bene ts Hispanic Americans 7 The u 5 Supreme Court has ruled tnat states can bar empioyment or illegals but their children cannot be kept rrom attending puoiic schools 7 in less Congress passed legislation proyiding punisnment ror empioyers wno knowingiy hired illegals e in 2004 President Bush proposed a pian to aiiow undocumented workers to work iegaiiy rortnree years and tnen renew tnat status 7 Since 1 Hispanic Americans Puerto Ricans r The island has commonwealth status and residents use U S currency mail and courts and can ouaiity rorweirare benefits but pay no takes 7 They may yote in tne primaries but not in tne national ons electi 980 tney naye sent delegates to tne Republican and Democratic conyentions 7 Those who migrate tend to settle in New York Chicago and Philadelphia Hispanic Americans 7 in 2003 34 million resided in tne United states 7 They usuaiiy obtain unskiiied iowpayingioos and tne median income was little more than halfthat of other Americans 7 ln 1993 and 1998 Puerto Ricans chose to have theirisland em state in a commonwealth instead of becoming a r The Puerto Rican Armed Forces of National Liberation c and FALN rayors independen e bombings in tne i970s and i980s were blamed for 130 Aswan Amencans Am Mmmsnma u 2 mm mm mm 39 13 mam xeku n Iguxgm mm macaw mm mm 7 cm H mm mm Imax u quotMy AsianInarimm m Ihc Uniml Smk s mm Aswan Amenoans m mmmmmm um um m mm m p m Women Wmquot m mvmm m mu 7 Numnwmxgmum 35ngWWW u cum Women Wmmmmmw 7 mmasmnmxuau WWW mzuzssmmu mum vm g mummmum m Imam Wmquot m mm m mm Femqu nmln wwam um n m pmmmm memm Women Wanequot mm mm 7 xm1xlxvveunmauaamImunumbla a nmmm Women m Caninan mg nmvuammee mum mm mm m p 39 2mmquotmawgznmm w mm v w Women 7 mungmcmuuglmmm Wo m en Vwmahvgmw mpmxumgImux mgquot n namm WW mum umwmmgnmm WW mama NEW mm m Sexua has has m Women mm m was his mm m m members Mummmmmmw mm mm mm mmnm 2mm mum aw a hnvwmwamen mem snmyuslawanens ssm m m mm m H mm 7 mm Ammuuummhmnesunuanlu mmfmumummum not prevent demonstrators from murdertng abortton provtders Gay Rights In November 2003 Massachusetts39 highest court ruled that gays have a right to marry In February 2004 President Bush proposed a constitutional amendment to ban gay marriages Thirtyseven states and the federal government have laws prohibiting gay marriages In 1996 Congress passed the Defense ofMarriage Act recognizing only unions ofa man and a women In May 2004 Massachusetts allowed gay marriage to take place Gay Rights The Census Bureau counted 594000 samesex households A University of Chicago study released in 1994 states that 28 percent of American men and 14 percent of American women identify themselves as homosexual or bisexual According to poll date 59 percent of the public believe that homosexuality is morally wrong In a 2003 Gallup Poll 90 percent of all Americans tended to favor equal job opportunities for gays Gay Rights By 2003 242 communities had laws to protect gay people including rights in housing employment and other areas In 1986 the Supreme Court ruled 54 that the Constitution does not protect homosexual relations between consenting adults That was reversed in 2003 Gay Rights Congress has acted to protect the rights of gay persons In 1988 Congress passed its rst comprehensive AIDS legislation 7 lricludeS 1 billiori for research drugs home health care arid testirig In 1992 President Clinton challenged the practice of dismissing gays from the armed services 7 Seriator uriri ofGeorgia theri chairrhari ofthe Arrhed Services Committee fought the president Human Rights Campaign HRC was founded in 1980 to elect of cials who support gay rights Disabled Americans There are about 53 million Americans with disabilities Problems exist for wheelchairbound people gaining access to shopping malls restaurants employment and transportation Disabled Americans In 1990 he Americans with Disabilities Act was signed into law banning discrimination aga nst c accommodations transportation and telecommunication a Applies to companies who empiov more than 15 peopie a New buses taws hoteis phone booths ATM machines and other facilities rhust be rhade accessible to the disabled In spite of he Eleventh Amendment George Lane was allowed to sue the state of Tennessee for violating the Americans with Disabilities Act He won Democracy Under Pressure Black and White An American Dilemma Black and White An American Dilemma The Rodney King beating case a study in current US race relations a Avideotape orwhite Los Angeles poiice of cers beatirig a black speeding suspect named Rodney Kirig shocked the nation 7 King s iniunes were severe and the video showed that he was virtuaiiv subdued and was surrounded by15 of cers 7 The four officers Who Were latertried for ass lt au and excessive use of force argued that King had aggressiveiv resisted arrest Black and White An American Dilemma 7 Governor Pete VWson sent in the National Guard and President Bush authorized federal agents to put down the Black and White An American Dilemma All four were acquitted setting offa restorm in predominately black South Central Los Angeles 7 Some wnite dnyers were dragged trom tneiryenicies and meme 7 Both tne president and Rodney ilting went on teieyision to 7 Three nights of destmction witn tires and iooting Some 50 99 that the meme Stop ersoris died and more than 2300 were iniured most or The Justice Department in the wake ofthe whom were Hispanic orAfncari American acquittals charged the of cers with federal civil rights violations Two were convicted and two acqu39tted 7 Close to 14000 Were arrested as a result ofthe violence The fact that an incident like this could take place 39ca B c shocked many Ameri ns la are familiar wi h race prejudice in society were not as shocked Black and White An American Black and White An American Dilemma DIlem ma ssues faw enforcement and racia prejudice arose r Detective Mark Fuhrrnan testified to finding a bloody glove again in the OJ Simpson case oeianghing to Simpson athe murderdsite d b h 7 u rrnan s racist remar son an au ietapewere use yt e the1995mmforme foomama 5quot 950 W55 owed derense tci discredit nis testimciny because tney inciuded buasts that he had planted evidence in uthercases ofrnurdenng nis eXcWi e Nicole Brown Simpson and her we Ronald 60mm 1994 o simpscin s defense team used tnis evidence at racism as a key part cirtneir derense tci establish a reasunable duubt in iururs minds c in a survey taken a rewdays oercne theiururs decisicin 77 percent cirtne wnitestnciugnt simpscin guiity wniie 72 percent cir blacksthuught ne was ncit Black and White An American Black and White An American Dilemma Dilemma Author James Baldwin says in his book The Fire Next Time that white people cannot perceive what it is like to be black in America 7 Black Writer Ralph Ellison called hirnselfthe invisible rnan o ause people refuse to see me r The tthat it is paradoxical that a nation created upon tne principie tnat aii peopie are created eouai e roblern m g I o a u 9 a snouid have a r c p 7 Swedish sociologistGunnar Myrdai notesthatArnencans are not tortured by tne fact tnat wnat tney espouse in tneory and American creed does not piay out in practice By the 1980s a substantial black middle class emerged and black incomes were growing V lliam Julius V lson says that quotas the black middle class rides ave of political and social change the black underclass falls be indquot Democracy Under Pressure The Historical Background African Americans Unlike most other immigrants A 39ican Americans came to the United States as slaves and lost pride in their African culture by losing contact with it Slaves were captured mostly in West Africa and sent by ship under cruel conditions 7 ltWas not unusual to lose half orthe transported slaves r Estlmates are that betWeen the 16th and mldlg about l5 rhlllloh slayes orperhap th centurles h t Were brought here from Afnca sabouttwlcet a An African American Heritage Beginning in the 1960s a new interest in the cultural heritage of African Americans encouraged new studies ofthe roles of blacks in US history 7 a Afncan Amerlcans Were kllled lrl the Boston Massacre ln 1770 and took part ln the battles of Lexlngton Concord and BunkerHlll They also were Wlth Washlhgtoh at Valley For e r b The contrlbutlons ofAfncan Amencans to Nnencan culture and sclence Were overlooked r c VWlle the Declaratlon of independence sald all men are created equal thls dld not lnclude the slaves Who Would ln the U S Constltutlon be called threer lths of a perso Dred Scott Reconstruction and Jim Crow Citizens ofa state are constitutionally citizens ofthe nation as well Until the Civil War this principle really only applied to whites What is the citizenship status of quot 39ee blacksquot This remained an open question to be answered in he Dred Scott case Dred Scott Reconstruction and Jim Crow Dred Scott a slave who had lived in a free state 39 In the North for four years went to court seeking that he be declared a 39ee man 7 Supreme Court ChlerJustlce RogerTaney held that Scott and black Amehcahs are not lncluded and were hot lhtehded to be lncluded uhderthe word cltlzehs h the Cohstltutloh H e Taney was reyersed alterthe clyll Warwlth the Thlrteenth h rnel lt whlch outlawed savery the Fourteenth whlch ade the former slayes CltlZens and the Flfteenth whlch sald race could hot be used to keep blacks from yotlhg Dred Scott Reconstruction and Jim Crow During the Reconstruction period the Civil Rights Act of 1875 was written to provide equal public accommodations for blacks 7 in the Clvll rlghts cases of 1883 the Supreme Court sald that the Fourteenth Amendment protected cltlzens from lhtrlhgerheht orthelr rlghts by states hot by ohyate lndlvlduals e Dlschrhlhatloh by ohe cltlzeh agalhst ahotherwas deemed a atter Dred Scott Reconstruction and Jim Crow 7 This atmosphere led to the hse ofsegregation and the Jlrn Cr w laws ln the South these were used to segregate the races 7 The Jlrn Crow penod Was also accompanied by lynchings and terror torAtheah Arheheahs Plessy v Ferguson A black man Homer Plessy took a seat reserved for whites only on a train bound for New Orleans When he would not move he was arre The Court ruled that the Louisiana statute did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment this approving the principle of quotseparate but equalquot Plessy v Ferguson In a ringing dissent Justice Harlan who had been shocked by Ku Klux Klan atrocities and become champion of blacks on the Supreme Court declared quot ur Constitution is colorblind and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizensquot The quotseparate but equalquot principle remained the quotlaw of the landquot until 1954 The Case of Linda Carol Brown The father of eightyearold Linda Brown of Topeka nsas was disturbed that his daughter had to go to school 21 blocks 39om her home when one 7 blocks away was available 7 roWn tned to enroll hlS daughter ln the nearby Summer Elementary School 7 He was told the Sd ool was only for Wht r Wth the help orthe NAACP Brown took the case to Court Brown v Board of Education On May 17 1954 ChiefJustice Earl Warren speaking for a unanimous court ruled that quotin the eld of public education the doctrine 39separate but equal39 has no placequot e note that separate educatlonal facilities are inherently unequal and thlS vlolated Fourteenth endrnent protections Compliance was olten slow and in some cases involved arm d con 39ontation between state and federal authorities Little Rock Oxford and Ala ba ma olence erupted at Central High in Little Rock Arkansas when Governor Faubus tried to block the school39s integration in 1957 President Eisenhower sent troops to quell the violence A similar altercation in 1962 surrounded attempts to admit James Meredith a black student tot marshals and 16000 troops to guard Meredith and restore order Little Rock Oxford and Alabama The following year Governor George Wallace stood in he doorway of the University ofAlabama backing down only after President Kennedy federalized the Alabama National Guard The School Decision Aftermath In October 1969 after de ance of Brown in the states the Supreme Court again unanimousy ruled that schools must end segrega ion quotat once now and hereafterquot In 1979 Brown was reopened because Topeka39s schools were still segregated ln 9 a federa district court ruled that the school district while not totally integrated was in compliance with the law The Busing Controversy In 1971 the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that in some circumstances the Constitution required busing of school children to achieve desegregation Critics argued that neighborhood schools were vored by a majority of parents In Northern cities segregation was not a product of any one law but of de facto segregation due to residential patterns and white flight The Busing Controversy Some black leaders concluded that the goal should be improvement of majority black schools ratherthan integration ln 199039s 70 percent of black students still attended I predominately minority schoo s Democracy Under Pressure The Civil Rights Movement Freedom N The Montgomery Bus Boycott 43yearold seamstress Rosa Parks refused to move f e to the back 0 a Montgomery Alabama bus to giv whites a seat in the front She was arrested and ned 10 A 27yearold minister Dr Martin Luther King Jr led a yearlong boycott in response He later went to jail and his home was bombed Eventually a federal court injunction ordered the segregation of Montgomery buses The Montgomery Bus Boycott In 1957 King formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference SCLC which became a major civil rights organization e The SCLC was in favor ornonvioient cnange as intiuenced ov Gandhi s teachings r The NAACP stressed using legal actions in Courts SitIns and Freedom Rides The rst sitins began in Greensboro North Carolina in 1960 and spread to other states meeting with success Sitin techniques were used on interstate buses and at bus terminals Court had outlawed segregation on interstate transportation it still continued Birmingham and the Dream King organized demonstrations against segregation in Birmingham Alabama in the spring of 196 e Police responded With ire noses dogs and cattle prods r The demonstrators Were seen on television across the nation singing We snaii Overcome 7 Late in August l963 King led the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom which brought 200000 to the Lincoln iviernonai e ilting s ramous i nave a dream speech ilteved the historic evert Birmingham and the Dream Eighteen days later a bomb was thrown into Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham killing four young black girls attending Bible class The march and the bombing helped la the foundation for the passage ofthe strongest civil rights legislation since Reconstruction The Legislative Breakthrough The Civil Rights Act of1957 created the Commission on Civil Rights and strengthened the civil rights division ofthe Justice Department The Civil Rights Act of1964 lnl 63 JFK proposed the Civil Rights Act but his assassination left the job undone ArterJFK s November assassination tne House passed tne bill onivto nave a rnaratnon filibuStErdElayitin tne Senate On July 2 LBJ signed it intEI lavvvvith tnese rnaiorprovisions t Pruhibns raciai and reiidious discrimination in nuoiic accommodations The Legislative Breakthrough 2 Pruhibits empiovers and unions trom discrimination based on race coior sev reiioion or nationai orioin estne same votirro registration standards reoardiess ot race Permilslhe attornev oerrerai to entorce deseoreoation Permilslhe executive branch ottne tederai government to wrtnnoid tunds trom puoiic or private proorams tnat discriminate 23 9 s o i entorce tair empiovment standards The tegtstatwe Breakthrough 7 r otmmmnn omgmpmmm m mmmgmuummkm IV ehcuufgu omgmmwm mmrmmm mhmrmmumcommumge mum The tegtstatwe Breakthrough m va am A m was 7 mm mt mm awlllvmtavtx wt um mwmammnamu M mam mm wuwxmxamhmlma n kg m my gramme Km39mmsss The tegtstatwe Breakthrough The tegtstatwe Breakthrough The Legislative Breakthrough Redrayhng congressional distrl s 7 in the eaW mun me an eh maluer39black districts were mm in the Smith at the pruddlng unhe Justice Department in EDMEIYN tn the ymme Rights Act aha in make pussmie the election m muve were my shaped in Amea ehcah rEpresematiyes Same meetlhaluual 7 ln1993lhe sumeme 0mm ruled So that districts sthat can t mm with the almbu ed in anything but ah e untu separate yutevs by vac unal unless they serve a campeihhe state interest This umhmh by Justice sahma O Cunmr a ecled vemsmcts in reyas Louisiana aha Geumia The Legislative Breakthrough a he 0mm struck duyyn Geuruia s redistricting piah arile wee plans 1m cungressiunal districts in Teyas aha Nunh Carulina 7 Speaking mnhe 0mm Justice KEVWEW said When the state a Slunsyute s t v neheae in the EIWEHSNE that yutevs m a particular race umm he same puimcai interests aha Will were the same candidates at he pulls The Urban Riots The authors explain that life for A 39ican Americans did not visibly improve 39om all ofthis legislation and ghetto li was characterized by poverty and 39ustration What followed were the 1965 Watts riot the assassination of Dr King in April 1968 and further riots in more than one hundred cities Black Power Black Pride During the late 19605 voices of militants had drowned out those who were more moderate especially alter King39s assassination Stoker Carmichael popularized he term quotblack powerquot as quota call to community It advocated that blacks gain political control over their communities This racial pride gave rise to slogans like Black is beautifulquot and an emphasis on terms like soulquot or h 39soul brot er Black Power Black Pride A number of police shootouts between The Million Man March on the mall in Washington DC in October 1995 was organized by Louis Farrakhan ofthe Nation of Islam 7 l Farrakhan is controversial because ofhls in ammatory olleri artlrSernltlc rhetoric and Black Panthers were killed in the two groups 7 ll The march s organizers emphasized racial pride and responsibility Democracy Under Pressure Af rmative Action The Supreme Court Rules Affirmative Action The Affirmative Action The Supreme Court Rules Supreme Court Rules s affirmative actionprograms of government The Civil Rights Act of1964 barred universities and universities and business designed to favor others 39om rece minorities and remedy past discrimination constitutional iving federal funds from discriminating Th sident Kennedy in a 1961 executive order was the rst president to call for affrmative a 39 prohibiting discrimination against minorities by contractors who r cei e federal funds The order also told them to hire and promote minorities e 964 law also panned discrimination by employers and unions 7 Many employers urllorls and uniyersities went further giying preference to minorities applying for admission and lobs Supporters of af rmative action sought not just equality of opportunity but equality of results Bakke and Weber Bakke and Weber The Battle ls Joined The Battle ls J0lned Opponents of affirmative action argued that it was a Allan Ba ke a white man graduated 39om college form of reverse discrimination against 39 with an engineering degree and a 3 grade point r The Fourteenth Amendment had extended equal protection average served with the Marines and worked with the law 0 a NASA He decided that he wanted to bec me a e The Ciyil nghts Act of 1964 outlawed any form of physician d SCW m O e Bakke applied to medical sc 7 W e afflrrnatlve action programs unconstitutional ittney favored a placllt or Hispanic person oy ra wnite one7 nool at tne Uniyersity of Callfornla at Dayis and was reiected thCe 7 ln Davls s special d issions pro ram 16 out of 1 00 slots were reserved for minority students witn mucn lower scores 7 Fiye years alternis nrstapplication tne Supreme Court ordered Bakke admitted by a 54 yote i Tne decision upneld 55 El tne rignts or colleges and uniyersitiesto giye preferen minorities ii Furbade rigid racial quotas llkE tne one at uc Dayis Bakke and Weber Bakke and Weber The Battle ls Joined The Battle ls Joined 7 Fiye years alternis nrstapplication tne Supreme Court ordered Bakke admitte y a 54 yote i Tne decision upn NEE El 0 the Supreme Court ruled that Congress could that 10 percent of federal WE meme pu lic works contracts be awarded to minorityowned rms The Court viewed the practice as a wa overcoming past discrimination Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation su In 198 constitutionally require minorities ii Furbade rigid racial guotasl llkE tne one at uc Dayis eld tne rignts or colleges and uniyersitiesto led to higher pay The Court ruled 52t a e Rights Act of1964 was design d to help minorities and not prohibit private affirmative action program Bakke and Weber The Battle ls Joined In 1987 in a broad endorsement of af rmative action s Id the Supreme Court ruled that employer cou promote women and minorities ahead of white men e ev n when there is no evidence of prior discrimination Bakke and Weber The Battle ls Joined But in 1995 the Supreme Court questioned federal af rmative action programs in a case involving a Hispanicowned company 7 A Corltract t0 bulld guardrails alo Colorado was giyen to a ispani that a Whlte Corltractor offered a lower 7 The Court ruled that the Case be Sel lt baC federal Court Wlth lrlStruCthrlS that federal af rmatlve aCthl lS rograrns must be narrowlytallored to be Corlstltutlorlal ng a rederal nignway in c company despite tne fact bid to tne lower e a in tne tne concept or arrirmatiye action no longer enioyed puolic suppon e o in Caliromia in l995 tne regents banned a e c in l996 Caliromians approv banned raC an and educ Bakke and Weber The Battle ls Joined The authors believe that the Supreme Court olten reflects the political environment of the times wake ortne l994 Republican capture or Congress ortne uniyersity system action in admissions ed Proposition 209Wl1l0l1 d gender prererences in hlrlrlg contracting fflrrnatlve e atlorl Bakke and Weber The Battle ls Joined d in l996 a rederal court ruled against tne Urllverslty or Texas raClal prererences program roradmission to law scno lb use it acted to tne detriment ofwhltes and non minorities The Supreme Court let tne decision stand 7 e in l998 yoters in Wasnington State banned state sponsored arrirmatiye action programs 7 r Two years later Florlda governorJeb Busn derended nis a tne top 20 percen ornign sc 2003 tne Supreme Court upneld tne principle or minority students 5eelltlrlg admission to colleges and urllverSltleS Democracy Under Pressure Equal Rights A Balance Sheet Equal Rights A Balance Sheet T e fact that millions of Americans both black and white hoped that retired General Colin Powell an A rican American would run for president in 1996 was a milestone Th color ofa person39s skin was no longer a barrier to seeking the nation39s highest of ce Equal Rights A Balance Sheet By 2004 there were 39 African Americans in the House of Representatives and more than 9101 others in elec ive of ces throughout the nation Three African Americans served in the cabinet and another sat on the Supreme Court 7 Four hundred fortyfive Amcan Americans were mayors or orcities r A federal holiday is nOW observed for Dr Martin Luther King Jr 7 Retired General Colin Powell held the highest rnilitary post atic and Reverend Jesse Jackson ran rortne Democr oresidentiai nomination Equal Rights A Balance Sheet V thin the civil rights community emphasis has quotshi ed from protest to politicsquot All ofthe gains re ect only part of the picture 7 Urban ghettos still exist 7 in loos nousing education and income black people are more likelyto be disadvanta ed Less than 2 ercent or all eiected omciaiswere black Other rninEIrity gruups Were not sharing equally in the suciety s oenerits Women in i993 eamed 73 cents ror every duiiar males Were paid e Wniie inequalities remain tnere are some signs Equal Rights A Balance Sheet orcnange e num er or successful blaEVvDWNEd businesses had increased With the size or the black middle cass America can be described as a multicultural suciety While uthers see danger in diversity and a luss or natiunal identity Althuugh ours is a nation or cultural diversity there orten is Persistent economic inequaiities continue to Exist Presiden Kennedy warned that tnis is not a sectionai issue We are conrronted primarily With a morai issue Equal Rights A Balance Sheet 7 HOW the United States responds to these issues may Well decide its future