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ONLINE American Government POLS 1101
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ll l American Government and Politics Today Chapter 10 The Media and Cyberpolitics 2 El The Media s Functions I Entertainment I Reporting the news I Identifying public problems iI Setting the public agenda CI The investigative function I Socializing new generations I Providing a political forum I Making profits 3 IE History of the Media in the us I The rise ofthe political press I Development of massreadership newspapers I The popular press and yellow journalism I The age ofthe electromagnetic signal I The revolution of electronic media TV asting I Talk show politics and Internet broadcasting I The Internet blogging and podcasting 4 El The Primacy of Television Currently the most influential type of media is television In 1963 the major networks devoted only eleven minutes a day to national news a 157minute show minus ad time Today i i i i M J II lo I I 39I m 5 El The Primacy of Television cont I Television s In uence on the Political Process Viewers can actually see news and history as it is happening 6 The Media and Political Campaigns I I IIUW 39 39 39 L 39 especially television There are three types of television coverage employed by a campaign in Advertising in Management ofNews Covera e I Planning political events to accommodate the press I Developing a good Working relationship with reporters spin or in Political Debates 7 IE The Media and Political Campaigns cont l Political Campaigns and the Internet a t r Yheu r r an ssr Web sites to convey their messages as well as solicit contributions The Internet also has been a useful tool for voters with one study reporting that one h ofvoters had used the Internet to obtain information about elections sl l The Media and Political Campaigns co nt The Media s Impact on the Voters El A limitation on the media 5 impact is that many viewers pay Selective attention and mostlynotice coverage that confirms their own beliefs The media 5 focus on the quothorserace aspects of the contait limit5 coverage of the issues 9 El The Media and the Government I By focusing attention on controversial actions the media can sometimes pressure the government into changing course I The media and the president I Setting the public agenda print wl l Government Regulation of the Media I The Federal Communications Commission FCC has far more control over the broadcast media than it does over I Controlling ownership ofthe media El Media conglomerates El Reevalua ing the r I Government Control of Content El Control of broadcasti 9 El The Second Gulf War and embedded reportersquot I The Public s Right to Media Access HIE Bias in the Media I Do the Media Have a Partisan Bias I A Commercial Bias 12 El Questions for Critical Thinking El How has the role of media evolved in recent times Wnat topics a e more likely to receive national news coverage Wh is is so El Why are First Amendment protections so important Do you support any limitations on First Amendment protections Wnat about television or radio shows that incite violence or demonstrate hate Should these shows be limited Who should get to decide what is acceptable Why is this important ll l American Government and Politics Today Chapter5 Civil Rights 2 El Civil Rights Introduction I Refer to those things that the government must do to provide equal protection and freedom from discrimination for all citizens I Traditionally thought of as rooted in the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution 3 El Civil Rights Introduction cont I Early attempts at true protection were unsuccessful because the Supreme Court believed that it was not within its purview to stop non governmental discrimination Since the 19505 the Court has enabled the government to offer broader protections to citizens equality in social and economic life 4 IE Slavery In the United States I Ending servitude E The Thirteenth Amendment 1865 prohibit5 Slavery within the United States E The Fourteenth Amendment 1868 stabliShed that all per50n5 born in the United State are citizen5 and no State 5hall deprive citizen5 of their right5 under the Con5titution E The Fifteenth Amendment 1870 e5tabli5hed the right of citizen5 to vote 5 El Early Civil Rights Legislation I The Civil Rights Acts of 1865 to 1875 El Aimed at the Southern states iI Attempted to prevent states from passing laws that would circumvent the amendments I The Civil Rights Cases 1883 El Invalidated much of the civil rights legislation in the CivilRights cases el l Challenges to Civil Rights Legislation Plessyv Ferguson ii SeparatebutEqual Doctrine VotingBaniers 39 imary the grandfather clause poll taxes literacy tests Extralegal Methods of Enforcing White Supremacy 7 The End of the SeparatebutEqual Doctrine I Brown v Board ufEducuti39an ufTupeka iI Overturned Plessy v Fergusun I With All Deliberate Speed iI States were ordered to eliminate segregation policies with all deliberate speed SIEI School Integration I De Iacto segr ation racial segregation that occurs because of past social and economic conditions and residential racial patterns Dejure segregation racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrativedecisions by public agencies CourtOrdered Busing I The Resurgence ofMinority Schools 9E The Civil Rights Movement I Martin Luther King s Philosophy of Nonviolence El Nonviolent marche5 and demon5tration5 I Another Approach Black Power T M r H h a MalcolmX M at d I I King They alSo re5i5ted the impu15e to cultural a55imilation that wa5 implied by the integra tioni5t philoSophy 10E The Climax of the Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Legislation I The Civil Rights Act of 1964 in Voter registration in public accommodations in public schools in employment I The Voting Rights Act of 1965 I Urban Riots I The Civil Rights Act of 1968 and Other Housing Reform Legislation 11 El Consequences of Civil Rights Legislation I Political Participation by African Americans I Political Participation by Other Minorities I Lingering Social and Economic Disparities 12 El Wome n s Struggle for Equal Rights l Early Womens Political Movements n Womens Suffrage Associations a a mm quotThe account of sex auras an by any a 13E Years by Country in which Women Gained the Right to Vote 14 IE The Modern Women s Movement I The Equal Rights Amendment I Additional Women s Issues El dome5tic violence El abortion right5 El pornography divided the movement rather than united it I Discrimination in the Courts I Expanding Women s Political Activities 15 El Women in Politics Today I Women in Congress I Women in the Executive and Judicial Branches I Continuing Disproportionate Leadership 16 GenderBased Discrimination in the Workplace I Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 El This title prohibits gender discrimination in employment I Sexual Harassment El The Supreme Court also has held that Title VII includes prohibitions on sexual harassment 17 El GenderBased Discrimination In the Workplace cont I Wage Discrimination El Recent figures show a woman earns 76 cents for every dollar made bya man El The Equal Pay Act of 1963 El The Glass Ceiling 18 El Immigration Hispanics and Civil Rights Ellmmigration rates today are the highest they have been since their peak in the early twentieth century IZIBy 2050 minority groups collectively will constitute the majority of Americans 19E Illegal Immigration IZIMostly Latin Americans entering states bordering Mexico looking for work Ellssues include I Citizenship I Border Crime 20E Bilingual Education EIAccommodating Diversity IZIControversy over Bilingual Education 21 El Affirmative Action I Describes those policies that give special preferences in educational admissions and employment decisions to groups that have been discriminated against in the past I Regents ufthe University quuli nnia v Buldne 1978 El Quota systems that only considered the race of an applicant were unconstitutional I Adumnd Cunstrueturs Inc v Pena I State Ballot Initiatives 22 El Special Protection for Older Americans I Age Discrimination in Emplo ment ge 39scriminationin Employment Act of 1967 I the job r n Mandatory retirement has progressively been made illegal by laws passed in 1978 and 1986 23 El Securing Rights for Persons with Disabilities I The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 n Prohibits job discrimination against individuals with physical or mental disabilities Furthermore it requires physical access to public buildings and public services 24E Securing Rights for Persons With Disabilities cont II Limiting the ADA No longer covered are I persons Who wear eyeglasses I carpal tunnel syndrome a repetitive stress injury 25E The Rights and Status of Gay Males and Lesbians I Growth in the Gay Male and Lesbian Rights Movement I State and Local Laws Targeting Gay Males and Lesbians 26 El The Rights and Status of Gay Males and Lesbians cont I The Gay Community and Politics El Gay activi5t5 now play a role in both major partie5 Eleven openly gay men or leibian5 Sit in the Home I Gay Men and Lesbians in the Military I SameSex Marriages I Child Custody and Adoption 27E The Rights and Status of Juveniles I The presumption is that children are protected by parents I Depending on the jurisdiction and the issue children may be defined as those under ages that vary from sixteen to twenty one I Voting Rights and the Young I The Rights of Children in Civil and Criminal Proceedings ZBEI The Rights and Status of Juveniles cont Civil Rights of Juveniles u 39 39 m o 39 usually held contracts he or she y have entered into El Child cu5todyi55ue5 Criminal Rights orJuveniles I Dealing with Juvenile Crime 3 In r92 i 39 L n Ix minnr 39 L 39 a adult Another approach i5 to hold parent5 reiponSible for the crime5 of their children 29E Questions for Critical Thinking ElWhy was the Voting Rights Act necessary ElAre there any obstacles today to the civil rights of various groups in society ElShould affirmative action exist If you do not favor affirmative action how should society address the economic gap between men and women and whites and African Americans ll l American Government and Politics Today Chapter 18 State and Local Government 2 El The US Constitution and the State Governments I The United States Constitution is the supreme law ofthe land k we have seen before this means that any con ict between a state power and a legitimate federal power will always be resolved in favor ofthe national governmen I However this does not mean that the federal government can dictate all policies for the states States have the authority to lay taxes spend and regulate intrastate commerce Furthe more state governments can take actions t omote and safeguard he health mora s safety and welfare ofthe people the police power providing these actions do not violate the United States Constitution or the laws made by Congress 3 El State Constitutions ElWhy are state constitutions so long I Filled with speci c details I These authors did not want to leave anything up to the courts forinterpretation ElThe Constitutional Convention and the Constitutional Initiative 4 El The State Executive Branch ElA Weak Executive El Reforming the System ElThe Governor s Veto Power 5 El The State Legislature W h he exception ofNebraska all states have a bicameral legislature An important issue for determining the power of the legislature relative to he elected executive of cials is how o en the legislature is in session I Legisla ive Apportionment Term Limits for State Legislators I Direct Democracy El Initiative El Referendum Recall 6IE 7 The State Judiciary I Trial Courts I Appellate Courts I Judicial Elections and Appointments SIEI 9 How Local Government Operates I The legal existence of local government I Local government units a Municipalities n ies n TownsandTownships a Special Districts and School Districts 10E Consolidation of Governments I This has long been encouraged by many to promote ef ciency The major problem with consolidation is the resistance to elimination by effected governmental units I One type of consolidation has been the council of governments or COGs The purpose of many COGs isthe pursuit of federal grants ButC Gs can only recommend actions They do not have the power to make binding decisions on all ofthe governmental units who have joined the organization MEI How Municipalities Are Governed I The Commission Plan I The Council Manager Plan I The MayorAdministrator Plan I The MayorCouncil Plan 12g Machine versus Reform in City Politics I Machine politics was an important political structure in the nineteen h and early twentieth centuries I The operation of he government was controlled by a select group of men who exerted great control over city government Bosses controlled the party organization and therefo39e controlled the nomination process I By providing jobs and services to people within the city the machine was able to ensure the election ofthe party candidates 13g Governing Metropolitan Areas El A problem with government in metropolitan areas is that poor people olten are concentrated in the old central city which as a result has large expenses and a limited tax base L are usually uppu eu uy 39 nigner taxe orb 39 39 or who are members of a racial minority El If cities can easily annex outlying areas there may L 39 quot39 quot quot quot quot3 h quot i n o o El The creation of special districts to handle areawide problems is perhaps he least controversial solu ion MEI Paying for State and Local Government 15E 16E I State and Local Government Expenditures I State and Local Government Revenues I The Struggle to Balance State Budgets a Recovery from the Crisis a Entrepreneurial Federalism 17E Where Does the Money Come From 18g Questions for Critical Thinking ElWhat are the municipal forms of government that exist within the local city government How do these municipalities affect our daily routines ElName some of the problems associated with relying on local property taxes to finance education How will the availability of revenue impact the quality of education ll l American Government and Politics Today Chapter 14 The Courts Zl l The Common Law Tradition l American law stems from English legal tradition luwC0mm0n 39 A 39 quot quoty quot39 Jotler 39 F n Ii hlaw39 k law 39 39 Common law is based onstme decisis A n legalprecedent A A AA Ifaleal39 L L r r r The major advantages y iously 39 39 39 to this type of system are efficiency and stability sl l Sources of American Law I Constitutions I Statutes and Administrative Regulations I Case Law 4 El The Federal Court System I Basic Judicial Requirements rl Jurisdiction This isthe authority to hear and decide cases The Constitution says that the federal courts havejurisdiction in cases that meet one ofthe following criteria The case involves a federal uestion The case involves diversity of citizenship rl Standing to Sue 5 The Federal Court System 6 Types of Federal Courts I US District Courts I US Courts of Appeals I The United States Supreme Court I Specialized Federal Courts and the War on Terrorism r The F SA Court rl Alien Removal Courts 7 El Geographic Boundaries of Federal District Courts and Circuit Courts of Appeals 8 El Parties and Procedures I Plaintiff the person or organization that initiates a lawsuit I Defendant the person or organization against whom the lawsuit is brought I Litigate to engage in a legal proceeding or seek relief in a court of law to carry on a lawsuit 9 El Parties and Procedures cont I Amicus Curiae brief a brief a document containing a legal argument supporting a desired outcome in a particular case led by a third party 0 micus curiae Latin for friend of the courtquot who is not directly involved in the litigation but who has an interest in the outcome oft e case I Procedural Rules Civil contempt is failing to comply with a court s order for the bene t of another party Criminal contempt is r obstructing the administration ofjus ice or bringing the court into disrespect 10 El Which Cases Reach the Supreme Court lr When two lower courts are in disagreement lr When a lower court s ruling con icts with an existing Supreme Court ruling lr When a case has broad signi cance as in desegrega ion or abortion decisions r When a state court has decided a substantial federal ques ion MEI Which Cases Reach the Supreme Court cont a violatingafederallaw I a n u L 12g Cases before the Court I Granting Petitions for Review Review is granted by a writ of certiorari To issue a writ a minimum of four justices a the case should be heard by he Supreme Court the rule offourquot I Deciding Cases r Once the Court has decided to accept a case both parties in he case will submit legal briefs and usually make oral arguments r Ifthe Court is unanimous in the ruling one justice will be assigned to write the opinion ofthe Court If he justices are divided on the reasoning of the outcome there will be a majority opinion and dissenting opinions 13 El The Selection of Federal Judges I Judicial Appointments rr Federal District Court Judgeship Nominations rr Federal Courts of Appeals Appointments u reme Court Appointmen s I Partisanship and Judicial Appointments I The Senate s Role 14 El Pollcyma king and the Courts I Judicial Review the power ofthe courts to determine whether a law or action by the other branches of government is constitutional I Judicial Activism and Judicial Restraint I Strict versus Broad Construc ion r Strict construction ajudicial philosophy that looks to the letter ofthe lawquot when interpreting the Constitution or a articular statute d construction ajudicial pniru upny a law interpretation 15 El Ideology and the Rehnquist Court I The ideology ofthejustices determines the kinds of policy that he courts will make I The Rehnquist Court attempted to a limited degree to restore sates rights Notably the Court limited the rights of citizens to suet eir own states in federa courts I The Court has been relatively cautious on civil rights issues ruling that af rmative action is acceptable but within strict limits One striking ruling in support ofthe civil rights of gay men and lesbians however was the abolition of antisodomy laws in 2003 through Lawrence M Texas WEI What Checks Our Courts I Executive Checks n n r r 39 quot 39 39 use ofthe bureaucracy In rare cases a president may refuse to implement a decision More frequ ently presidents use their power of appointment to check the judiciary I Legislative Checks rr Constitutional amendments rr Revision oflaws I Public Opinion WEI Judicial Traditions and Doctrines I To a certain extent the courts also check themselves I Hypothetical and Poli ical Questions The tradi ion of refusing to adjudicate hypothetical questions serves as one check The doctrine hat many issues poli ical questions ought to be resolved by the elected branches of government is also a restraint I The Impact of the Lower Courts El lflower courts dislikea 39 they 39 quot pH39 39 quot 39 fashion as possible 18E Questions for Critical Thinking ElWhy do laws exist What happens if someone violates the law7 What if the law is not fair or just Who makes the lam7 ElShould judges be making policy Since they are not elected is it dangerous for those who do not face the public scrutiny in any meaningful way to directly make policy 19g Questions for Critical Thinking ElWhat checks do the executive and the legislature have on the judiciary Does the bureaucracy have any checks Does the public IIEI American Government and Politics Today Chapter1 The Democratic Republic Zl l Politics and Government ElKey Terms I Politics Who gets what when and how I Institution an ongoing organization that performs certain functions for society I Government institution in which decisions are made that resolve con icts or allocate benefits and privileges 3 El Why Is Government Necessary ElOrder Maintaining peace and security by protecting members of society from violence and criminal activity is the oldest purpose of government 4 Why Is Government Necessary cont 1 Liberty The greatest freedom ofindividuals that is consistentwith thefreedom of other individuals in the t society can be promoted by or Invoked against govemmen 5IEI Why Is Government Necessary cont ElAuthority and Legitimac I authority the right and power of a government or other entity to enforce its decisions and compel obedience I legitimacy is popular acceptance of the right and power of a government or other entity to exercise authority 6 El Forms of Government ElTotalitarian Regime government controls all aspects of the political and social life of a nation ElAuthoritarianism A type of regime in which only the government itself is fully controlled by the ruler Social and economic institutions exist that are not under the government s control 7l l Forms of Government cont ElAristocracy Rule by the best in reality rule by an upper class ElDemocracy A system of government in which political authority is vested in the people Derived from the Greek words demos the people and kratos authority 8 El Direct Democracy ElPolitical decisions are made by the people directly rather than by their elected representatives ElAt39tained most easily in small political communities 9 El Direct Democracy Today El Initiative a procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment El Referendum an electoral device whereby legislative or constitutional measures are referred by the legislature to the voters for approval or disapproval El Re ll a procedure allowing the people to vote to dismiss an elected official from state of ce before his or her term has expired 10E ls Direct Democracy Dangerous ElWhile the founders believed in government based on the consent of the people they were highly distrustful of anything that might look like mob rule Therefore they devised institutions to filter the popular will through elected elites MEI A Democratic Republic ElDemocratic republic and representative democracy really mean the same thing government based on elected representatives except for the historical quirk that a republic cannot have a vestigial king 12 El A Democratic Republic cont El Principles of Democratic Government I universal suffrage or the right of all adults to vote for their representatives I majority rule the greatest number of ci izens in any political unit should select the officials and determine El Constitutional Democracy I J L u be limited usually by ins itutional checks V thout such limits democracy could destroy itself 13g What Kind of Democracy Do We Have ElMajoritarianism ElElite theory ElPluralism 14 El Fundamental Values ElPolitical Socialization ElLiberty versus Order El Equality versus Liberty l Economic Equality l Property Rights and Capitalism 1 capitalism an economic system characterized by the private ownership of wealthcreating assets and also by free markets and 39eedom of con ract 15 El Tensions Over Big Government ElHow much power should the American government have and what role should it play in the lives of citizens ElKatrina ElTaxes ElNational security policies 16 El Ideologies Liberalism vs Conservatism El Conservatives tend to favor limited governmental involvement in the economic sector Economic freedom is seen as a necessity for the good of the society On social issues conservatives advocate governmental involvement to preserve traditional values and lifestyles El Liberals tend to favor governmental regulation of the economy to benefit individualswithin the society On social issues lberals advocate a limited governmental role Social freedom is seen as a necessity for the good of the society WEI Ideologies 18E 19E 20E 21E 22E 23E 24E 25 IE 26E 27E 28E The Traditional Political Spectrum ElSocialism a political ideology based on strong support for economic and social equality Socialists traditionally envisioned a society in which major businesses were taken over by the government or by employee cooperatives ElLibertarianism a political ideology based on skepticism or opposition toward almost all government activities Classical Liberalism ElLiberal once meant limited government and no religion in politics The term evolved into its modern American meaning along with the political evolution of the Democratic Party which was once the party of limited government but has become the party of relative economic equality The Traditional Political Spectrum The Ideological Grid El We can break down the electorate into cultural and economic liberals cultural and economic mi cultural 39 39 39 quot 39 conservativeseconomic liberals oters H mm quot 39 support based on polling data V J 1 I Conservative Popularity However the term conservative as a sdfapplied label is more popular than any other label except moderate Other Ideologies El Communism revolutionary variant of socialism that favors a partisan and often totalitarian dictatorship government control of all enterprises and the replacement of free markets by central plann39ng El Fascism a twentiethcentury ideology often totalitarian that exalts the national collective united behind an absolute ruler and rejects l beral individualism values action over rational deliberation and glorifies war Ideologies in the Islamic World ElWhile communism and fascism are the historical ideologies that totalitarianism was coined to describe our current international problem is with radicalslamism as exemplified by Al Qaeda The Changing Face of America ElAging ElPopulation Growth ElEthnic Change I Changes in Hispanic Community ElWomen in the Workforce The Aging of America US Population Questions for Critical Thinking ElDo you think a direct democracy is a rational option for governing in the United States Describe the forms of direct democracy that exist and discuss the pros and cons of these mechanisms 29E Questions for Critical Thinking ElDo you think some people in American society equate security and order with protection against fellow citizens who are racially culturally or economically different If so why ElDo you think protection against discrimination should be considered a security issue as well as an issue of equality Justify your answer ll l American Government and Politics Today Chapter11 The Congress 2 El Why Was Congress Created l Fear that power in the hands of a single individual would be abused and the people would suffer l The national legislative power that was vested in Congress was to be a bicameral two Lhouse institution Each house was intended A 439 39 39 The 39 39 A by the people and would i I uu iii no w i i Iqu 39 i w the people TL L would be at least one step removed from the people 3 El The Functions of the Congress I The lawmaking function I The representation function The ruste View ofrepresentation El The instructed delegate View of representation I Service to constituents 4 The Functions of the Congress cont I The oversight function Reviewing actions of the Executive Branch I The PublicEducation Function I The Con ict Resolution Function 5 The Powers of Congress I Enumerated Powers Article 1 Section 8 ofthe Constitution 1 iirlatzyi nondin hnrrnuin A quot 39 39 39 ol nilhaiy anarm and navy A d laie ell L A 39 L structure I PowersoftheSenate Constitutional Amendments l The Necessary and Proper clause 5F 6 HouseSenate Differences I Size and rules I Debate and filibustering I Prestige 7 8E Size and Rules Because the House is so large it operates under stricter rules for debate I The Rules Committee provides special rules under which specific bills can be debated amended and considered in the House 9 Debate and Filibustering EIFiIibuster the Senate s use of unlimited debate as a blocking tactic EIMembers of the Senate are generally able to achieve more prestige than members of the House because of the smaller number of members 10 El Congresspersons and the Citizenry A Comparison I In comparison to the general population the members of Congress are significantly different both demographically and economically The members of Congress are older wealthier and better educated than the general public There are relatively feN women and members of minority groups in Congress Finally there is a disproportionate number of lawyers in both houses of Congress The current congressional salary is 157000 11E 12 El Congressional Elections I Candidates for Congressional Elections 1 Candidates for congressional seats can be selfselected or recruited by the local political party Usually the party attempts to select a candidate that has many ofthe social characteristics ofthe population in the district I Congressional campaigns and elections 1 Campaign funding 1 Effects of Presidential elections I The Power of lncumbency 13E HIE The Power of lncumbency 15 El Congressional Apportionment I House seats are apportioned among the states every ten years following the census la n n L L n I I El Redistrictil137quotquotL quot 39 u 39 f L 39 ui EriLI 16E Congressional Apportionment cont I Gerrymandering I Redistricting after the 2000 Census I Minority majority districts WEI The Original Gerrymander 18 The Fourth Congressional District of Illinois 19 El Perks and Privileges I Permanent professional staffs I Privileges and immunities under the law I Congressional Caucuses Another source of support 20 El The Committee Structure I The Power of Committees El Type5 of Congremional committee5 El Standing Committee5 El Joint Committee5 El Conference Committee5 El Hou5e Rule5 Committee I The Selection of Committee Members 21E 22 IE Formal Leadership I The majority party controls the legislative process including the selection of Congressional leaders I Leadership in the House El The Majority Leader El The N nority Leader ll Whips 23 El Leadership in the Senate El Vice President El Majority Leader 24 El Congressional DecisionMaking I Party membership is a major determinant of how members vote but it is not the only factor at work I The Conservative Coalition I llCrossing over 25g 26 Howa Bill Becomes a Law For a bill to become law it must pass through both houses of Congress All quotmoney bills or spenoling rneasures rnust originate in the House House of Representatives El Introduction El Floor Action quotquot39 39 39 39 quot L L 39 L theHouseRules Committee the leadership schedules action HIE 28 How a Bill Becomes a Law co nt l Conference committee D If there are differences between the House version of the bill and the Senate version of the bill the bill will be sent to a conference committee Members of each chamber selected by the leaders will attempt to reach a compromise on the bill D The House and Senate vote on the bill as reported by the conference committee 29 I How Much Will the Government Spend Preparing theBudget Congress Faces the Budget mhrm39 quotinquot z I A J quot be quot bi an awn 39 39 congressional action 30 El How Much Will the Government Spend cont 39 film the passage by Congress of a spending bill specifying the anuunt of authorized funds that actually will be allocated for an agency s use I Budget Resolutions 31g The Budget Cycle 32 El Questions for Critical Thinking ElWhy did the framers of the Constitution create a bicameral legislature Was part of the reason for a twohouse legislature the idea that it would be more difficult to pass legislation therefore a check on a runaway legislature What impact does this have today Is it easy for Congress to agree on legislation 33 Questions for Critical Thinking ElDo different rules for each chamber like the filibuster in the Senate help to balance power in the two Houses ElAlthough the problems have changed since 1789 have the basic ideas of representation changed If so in what ways ll l American Government and Politics Today Chapter7 Interest Groups Zl l Interest Groups A Natural Phenomenon I InDemacrtuy in America Alexis de Tocqueville wrote in no country of the world has the principle of association been more successfully used or applied to a greater multitude of objectives than in America 3l i Interest Groups If de Tocqueville was amazed at how associations had ourished in the United States in 1334 he would be t A A 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 United States 4 IE Why Do Americans Join Interest Groups I Free rider problem This is the difficulty interest groups face in recruiting members when the benefits they achieve can be gained without joining the group I Solidarity Incentives I Material Incentives I Purposive Incentives I Retaining mem ers 5IEI 6 7 El Economic Interest Groups Business interest groups Us Chamber of Commerce Agricultural Interest Groups American Farm Bureau Federation Labor interest groups American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations AFLrCIO Public Employee Unions American Federation of State County and Municipal Employees Interest Groups of Professionals American Bar Association The Unorganized Poor 8 El Other Types of Interest Groups I Environmental Groups I Public Interest Groups El Nader Organization5 El Other Such group5 include Common Cau5e and the League of Women Voters I Single issue focused groups AARP etc I Foreign Governments 9 10E Union Membership EIDiscuss some of the factors that have caused a decline in Union Membership in America What will the trend be going forward HIE What Makes an Interest Group Powerful I Size and Resources I Leadership I Cohesiveness lzl l Interest Group Strategies I Direct Techniques El Lobbying l mu hing Hue 39 El Building alliances El Campaign assistance members on 39 13E Interest Group Strategies cont I Indirect Techniqu El Generating public prssure El Using constituents as lobbyists El Unconventional forms of prssure marches rallies and demonstrations 14 El Regulating Lobbyists I The Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act 1946 required that individuals or organizations that receive money for the purpose of in uencing national legislation must register as a lobbyist or lobbying organization and registered lobbyists must make public quarterly reports about all lobbying activity I The Act was ineffective however as only fulltime lobbyists had to register 15 E The Reforms of 1995 I In 1995 Congress overhauled the lobbying legislation The new legislation includes the following provisions 1 A lobbyist is a person who spends 20 percent of the time or more lobbying Congress or the executive branch 1 Lobbyists who earn 5000 or more must register within 45 days of making contact with a member of Congress Kalil The Reforms of 1995 El Detailed reports must disclose the nature of the lobbying business twice a year El Subsidiaries of foreign companies based in the United States must register as lobbyists El T r 39 quot religious 39 quot rt 39 El Recent Lobbying Scandals Jack Abramoff 17E Interest Groups and Representative Democracy I Interest Groups Elitist or Pluralist However interest groups are often led by upperclass individuals which argues for elite theory I The existence of interest groups would appear to be an argument in favor of pluralism I Interest Group In uence lI Even the most powerful groups do not always succeed in their demands 18g Questions for Critical Thinking El How have labor interest groups traditionally sought to in uencepolicy El Should foreign interest groups be banned given that the interests of US citizens frequently are intertwined with foreign interests as employees for example El Wnat kind of incentive would motivate you to participate in an interest group Wnat are the incentives for the people that you know who are active in interest groups7 ll l American Government and Politics Today Chapter2 The Constitution Zl l The Colonial Background Separatists were dissatisfied with the Church of England and sought a place where they could practice their religious be ie s n n M I 39 39 y pt w mad he governed a a Each colony was separate with its own decisionrmaking government 3 El British Restrictions and Colonial Grievances I In 1763 the British Parliament began to pass laws that treated the colonies as a unit The major reason for these laws was to raise revenue to help pay off the war debt incurred during the French and Indian Wars 17561763 4 El First Continental Congress I The focus was to restore the political structure that was in existence before the passage of legislation affecting the internal operations of each colony by Parliament I Had the Crown and Parliament relented on many of their demands it is possible the Declaration of Independence would never have been issue 5 El Second Continental Congress I Established an army I Made Washington the general in chief and pursued the Revolutionary War 6 IE The Declaration of Independence I Natural Rights El Natural rights life liberty and the pursuit of happiness I Social Contract El Based on the idea of consent of quot and had the J to protect the natural rights of its citizens If the government failed to do so the people had the right to revolt 7IEI The Rise of Republicanism I Republicanism vs The Republican Party I While republicans were opposed to rule by the British they were also opposed to rule by any central authority 39 5 They were even skep Ical ofa permanent union of the state I Each state was seen as the sovereign authority and the only legitimate ruling force 8IEI The Articles of Confederation Our First Form of Government l States retained most of the power and the central government had a very limited role in the oveming process The loyalty most citizens had was to their state rst and foremost 9E The Confederal Government Structure Under the Articles of Confederation 10g Accomplishments Under the Articles 7 The primary reason for the establishment of the Articles was to organize the states so they could defeat the British forces and gain independence from Britain Once independence was granted there was less pressure on the states to organize for the collective good MEI Weaknesses of the Articles El Wth the creation of the Articles remained the lack of a strong central authority to resolve disputes between the states To organize the states forthe collective good including the organization of a militia was crucial to the development of the Constitutional Convention El Events such as Shays Rebellion convinced many political leaders of the need for a stronger central government 12E Framers of the Constitution ElRepublicans opposed any centralization of power ElFederalists favored a stronger government However there was no agreement among the Federalists concerning the structure and division of power for this new government 13 El Factions Among Delegates The beliefs of the delegates ranged from the nearmonarchism of Hamilton to definite decentralized republicanism Some of these last people left when they saw the federalist tenor of the proceedings MEI Politicking and Compromises The Virginia Plan ElConcentrated power in a lower house that was to choose the executive l Major weakness representation was strictly by population to the disadvantage of the small states 15g Politicking and Compromises The New Jersey Plan 7 A onestate one vote plan that would have created a relatively weak central government Again the executive was to be elected by the Congress 16E Politicking and Compromises The Great Compromise El Compromise between more populous states which advocated representation based on population and the small states which advocated representation equal for each state El Also known as the Connecticut Plan this provided for a bicameral legislature with one house based on population the other with equal representation for each state In this plan Congress did not choose the president 17 Politicking and Compromises The ThreeFifths Compromise 7 Northern states wanted to ban the importation of slaves while Southern states did not Southern states wanted slaves counted in the population for the purposes of determining the number of members each state sent to the House of Representatives The ThreeFifths Compromise provided that 35 of the slaves would be counted or each slavewould count as 35 of a person IBEI Working Toward the Final Agreement El The Madisonian Model I Separation of Powers The legislative executive and judicial powers to be independent of each other I Checks and Balances Government had considerably more power than under the Articles of Confederation However these men were distrustful of those who would hold this power and of the people who would select the governmental officials 19E Working Toward the Final Agreement cont An Electoral College meant that the president was not to be chosen by Congress but not by a popular vote either 20E 21 El The Final Document 7 A summary of the results popular sovereignty a republican government a limited government separation of powers and a federal system where both the national and the state governments each had their own sphere of influence 22 El Ratification The Federalist Papers An attempt to persuade the public to support the new form of government Federalist 10 and Federalist 51 provide an excellent view of James Madison s political theory concerning human nature 23 IE The March to the Finish ElThe vote by the Virginia ratification convention was essential and somewhat close ElThe New York vote was even closer and put the Constitution over the top ElAt this point North Carolina and Rhode Island had little choice but tojoin 24 E 25 El Support for the New Constitution El Beard s Thesis Hi5torian Charla Beard argued that the Con5titution wa5 put hrough by an undemocratic elite intent on the protection of proper El State Ratifying Conventions The5e convention5 were elected by a Strikingly 5mall part of the total population El Support Was Probably Widespread Still the defen5e of property wa5 a value that wa5 by no means limited to the elite The ueiier ie Ar 39 le5 wideipread zel l The Bill of Rights I A Bill of Limits The package was assembled by Madison who culled through almosttwo hundred state suggestions I No explicit limits on state government powers I Did not apply to state governments The restrictions only were applicable to the national government until the 14th amendment incorporated some of these rights 27 El The Formal Amendment Process 7 Every government needs to be able to cope with any new and unforeseen problem Any Constitutional change should however be taken on with extreme caution If the process to amend the Constitution is rigorous there should be ample time to consider the merits of such a change 28 29 El Amending the Constitution Although 11000 amendments have been considered by Congress only 33 have been submitted to the states after being approved and only 27 have been ratified since 1739 El Recent amendments have u5ually been accompanied by time limit5 for ratification El The National Convention Provision Such a convention could be called and could rewrite the entire Con5titution The product of Such a convention however would have to be rati ed by the 5tate5 in the 5ame way as any amendment 30E 31 El Informal Methods of Constitutional Change El Congressional Legislation El Presidential Action El Judicial Review El Interpretation Custom and Usage 32E Questions for Critical Thinking ElWhy did the British place restrictions on the colonies ElHow was the term people as used in the Declaration of Independence defined Did the members of the Second Continental Congress mean all people What about the rights of women Native Americans Slaves 33E Questions for Critical Thinking ElWhat would have occurred if one or more of the states had rejected the Constitution Could a single state have managed to survive outside the union of states ElWhat do you believe Madison would think about interest groups in modern society ll l American Government and Politics Today Chapter16 Economic Policy Zl l Introduction I A major economic policy issue is how to maintain stable economic growth without falling into either excessive unemployment or inflation rising prices I In ation a sustained rise in the general price level of goods and services al l Good Times Bad Times I The US economy experiences booms and busts The busts are called recessions Recession two or 39 1 39 v 39 39 I Unemployment D Full employment an arbitrary level of unemployment that corresponds to normal 39iction in the labor market ll Measuring unemployment I In ation I The Business Cycle reoccurring booms and busts t e economy 4 More than a Century of Unemployment 5 El Changing Rates of Inflation 1860Present 6 El National Business Activity 1880Present 7 Fiscal Policy I Fiscal policyis concerned with achieving economic policy goals through changes in spending or levels of taxation I Keynesian Economics ll Government Spending ll ov rnmentBor owi ll Discretionary Fiscal Policy I The Thorny Problem of Timing I Automatic Stabilizers 8 IE Deficit Spending and the Public Debt I The government funds its de cit primarily by selling US Treasury bonds Twenty years ago only 15 percent of these bonds were held abroad Today the figure is 40 percent 9 Deficit Spending and the Public Debt I The Public Debt in Perspective ll Net public debt L 39 all pa t federal quot 39 39 the total amount owed by the federal government to individualS bu5ine55e5 and foreignerS El Gross domestic product GDP the dollar value of all nal good5 and Service produced in a one year eriod I Are We Always in Debt 10E 11 E Net Public Debt as a Percentage of GDP 12E Monetary Policy I Monetary policy the utiliza ion of changes in the amount of money in circulation to alter credit markets employment and the rate of in ation I Organization ofthe Federal Reserve System I Loose and Tight Monetary Policies The Fed implements policy by increasing or reducing the rate of growth ofthe money supply El Increasing he rate of growth is loose monetary policy El Reducing the rate is tight monetary policy 13 El Monetary Policy cont I Monetary policy has a problem with time lags but the Fed can make a policy change more quickly than Congress I The Fed announces changes to monetary policy by raising or lowering the federal funds rate a governmentcontrolled interest rate for funds that banks borrow from each other 14 El Monetary Policy cont I The Fed Tackles In ation n Volkernomics I Monetary Policy versus Fiscal Policy If interest rates go high enough people will stop borrowing and in ation will subside Monetary policy cannot forcepeople to borrow money in a recession While monetary policy is more powerful against in ation fiscal policy is more effective against recessions because the government does the borrowing itself 15 IE World Trade I Imports and Exports 1 Imports goods and services produced outside a country but sold within its borders 1 Exports goods and services produced domestically for sale abroad I The Impact of Import Restrictions on Exports El 0 c 9 m m m x a E m a Free Trade Areas and Common Markets 16E World Trade Keeps Growing WEI The World Trade Organization I The WTO seeks to lower trade barriers worldwide El What the WTO Does The quotquot 39 quot 39 I The WTO and Globalization DThctn u fear Fr States nor any other country has a veto power within the WTO mecnani m 39 use I I I quot 39 Neither the United 18 El The Balance of Trade and the Current Account Balance I The balance of trade or the difference between the value of a nation s exports of goods and its imports of goods The US balance of trade has been significantly negative for many years I The current accountbalanceincludes the balance of trade in services unilateral transfers and other items It is also negative and has been growing more so I Are we borrowing too much from other countries 19E 20E Taxes as a Percentage of GDP 21g The Politics of Taxes I Currently Americans pay taxes that total somewhat less than 30 percent of the GDP I Federal Income Tax Rates 1 Loopholes and Lowered Taxes a Progressive and Regressive Taxation I Who Pays 1 Liberals tend to favor progressive taxes 1 39 39 Ia u I e 39 r 39 or even at or regressive zzl l Marginal Tax Rates 23E The Social Security Problem I Social Security was established in 1935 with the intent of providing a type of insurance for a large segment of the public I Social Security is not a pension fund I Workers Per Retiree 1 Initially for every recipient of Social Security there were forty workers paying into the general fund a onetoforty ratio Today the ratio is more like onetothree and it will get worse in future years MEI What Will it Take to Salvage Social Security El Rai5ing taxe5 El Reducing benefit5 payout5 El What do you think will happen to Social Security in 30 year5 60 year5 100 year5 25 26 El Questions for Critical Thinking ElWhy are the public and the economics profession on such different wavelengths when it comes to world trade ElHow much of a problem is it that the United Sates has become so dependent on money borrowed from foreign countries What might happen if foreigners stopped lending 27 El Questions for Critical Thinking Ells progressive taxation fair Support your argument that this form of taxation is either fair or unfair ElWhich of the proposals to fix Social Security have the most merit Which do you think would cause the most problems 1E American Government and Politics Today Chapter 13 The Bureaucracy Zl l The Nature of the Bureaucracy I A bureaucracy is a large organization that is structured hierarchically to carry out specific functions The purpose of a bureaucracy is the efficient administration of rules re ulations and policies Governments businesses and other institutions such as colleges and universities perforce have bureaucracies I Public and Private Bureaucracies 3E Presidents and Their Plans 4 Models of Bureaucracy I Weberian Mode in Hierarchy in Specialization in Rules and regulations in Neutrality I Acquisitive Model I Monopolistic Model I Bureaucracies compared 5 The Size of the Bureaucracy I Today there are about 27 million civilian employees of the federal government The two biggest employers are the US Postal Service with almost 800000 workers and the Department of Defense with more than 650000 civilian staff In recent years the greatest growth in government employment has been at the local level Federal employment has remained stable 6 E 7 E 8 E 9E The Organization of the Federal Bureaucracy I Cabinet Departments I Independent Executive Agencies I Independent Regulatory Agencies he Purpose and Nature of Regulatory Agencies in Agency Capt ure ii Deregulation and Reregulation I Government Corporations 10 Independent Executive Agencies MEI Independent Regulatory Agencies lzl l Staffing the Bureaucracy I Political Appointees he aristocracy of the federal government in The dif culty of ring civil servants I History of the Federal Civil Service in To the victor belong the spoils n The Civil Service Reform Act of 1 883 n The Civil Service Reform Act of in Federal Employees and Political Campaigns 13g Modern Attempts at Bureaucratic Reform I Sunshine laws require agencies to conduct many sessions in pu II El The 1966 Fr eedom of Informa ion Act opened up government les to citizen requests for information in particular about hemselves El Alter 911 wever quotquot quot 39 quot 39 quot 39 conceivably be used by terroris I Sunset Laws require congressional does not explicitly reauthorize a program it expires any illlUllllaliUll hat could review of existing programs to determine their effectiveness If Congress 14E Modern Attempts at Bureaucratic Reform cont I Privatiz t39on I Incentives for Ef ciency and Productivity e Government Performance and Results Act of 1997 n D process Saving Costs through EGovemment result ofthe political decisionmaking I Helping Out the Whistle Blowers 15g Bureaucrats as Politicians and PolicyMakers I The Rulemaking Environme iting periods and court challenges in Negotiated Rulemaking 16g Bureaucrats as Politicians and PolicyMakers cont I Iron Triangles threeriay alliance among legislators bureaucrats and interest groups that seeks to make or preserve policies that benefit their respective inte es I Issue Networks legislators interest groups bureaucrats scholars and experts and members of the media who share a po quot on a given issue may attempt to exert influence on the executive branch on Congress on the courts or on the media to see their policy position ena e WEI Congressional Control of the Bureaucracy I The ultimate control is in the hands of Congress because Congress controls the purse strings Congressional control of the bureaucracy includes the establishment of agencies and departments the budget process and oversight conducted through investigations hearings and review 18E Questions for Critical Thinking ElWhat could be done to eliminate iron triangles Elln modern times we tend to equate the term bureaucracy with red tape or inefficiency How does the goal of neutrality and the need for specialization help reinforce those images ll l American Government and Politics Today Chapter 8 Political Parties 2 IE What is a Political Party I Definition a group of political activists 39 t 39 i to operate and to determine public policy ll Parties versus interest groups 3 El Functions of Political Parties lI Recruit candidates to run for elective of ces at all levels of government lI Mobilize citizens to vote and participate in elections lI Bear the responsibility of operating government at all levels lI Providing organized opposition to the party in power is an essential role for a party that does not control one or another branch of the governmen t 4 El History of Political Parties l The Formative Years Federalists and AntirFederalists The Era of Good Feelings I National TworI arty Rule Whigs and Democrats l The Civil War Crisis l The PostrCivil War Period El quotRum manism and Rebellion El The Triumph of the Republicans 5 El History of Political Parties I The Progressive Interlude I The New Deal Era I An Era of Divided Government lI In the years after 1968 the general pattern was often a Republican president and a Democratic Congress El 2000 Presidential Election Red state blue state 6E Election 1896 7l Election 2004 8E The Two Major Parties Today t l The parties core constituen s l Economic beliefs El Recent economic convergence El Republican and Democratic Bud ets I Democrats have the reputation of supporting the leiswell off and Republicans the prosperous 9E 10E The Three Faces of a Party 1The people who identify with the party or who regularly vote for the candidates of the party in general elections ZParty organization I National I Convention delegates I National Committee I National Chairperson 11 El Three Faces of a Party cont 1 State party organization a Local grass roots organization Patronage and City Machines Local Party Organiza ions Today I 3 The Party in Government a Divided Govemmen n The Limits of Party Unity a Party Polarization 12E Why Has the Two Party System Endured oaan 39 39 39 39 39 39 Rd W394 quot JL VAtoinitiatea l Political ocialization and practical considerations The WinnerrTakerAll Electoral System El Prsidential Voting El Popular Election of the Governor5 and Pre5ident El Proportional Representation l State and Federal Laws Favoring the Two Parties 13 El The Role of Minor Parties in U 8 Politics I Ideological Third Parties I Splinter Parties I The Impact of Minor Parties I Influencing the Major Parties I Affecting the Outcome of an Election MEI Most Successful Third Party Campaigns 15g 16 El Mechanisms of Political Change I Realignment a process in which a substantial group of voters switches party allegiance producing a longterm change in the political landscape El The Myth of Domina El The My h of Prediclabili El ls Realignment Still Possible Dealignment a major dropoffin support for the parties El Independent Voters El NotSo lndependent Voters I Tipping 17E Party Identification 1937Present 18g Questions for Critical Thinking ElDo democratic governments need political parties If a democratic government has political parties will the structure always be a twoparty system What factors impact how many political parties will exist Ells party identification a majorfactorfor voters in presidential elections 19E Questions for Critical Thinking ElWhy is it difficult for independent candidates or minor party candidates to get elected to Congress ElWhat inferences can be made about the voting population through the closely divided elections of 2000 and 2004 ll l American Government and Politics Today Chapter17 Foreign Policy 2 El Facmg the World Foreign and Defense Policy I Foreign policy includes the techniques and strategies used to achieve external goals as well as he goals hem elves Some ofthe techniques used in carrying out foreign policy include diplomacy the total process by which states carry on political relations economic aid assistance to other nations in the form of grants loans or credits to purchase goods and technical assistance sending experts wi h technical skills in agriculture engineering or business to aid other nations 3 National Security and Diplomacy I National security the protection of the independence and political and economic integrity of the United States I Defense policy includes the directing of the scale and size ofthe American armed forces and considers he types of armed forces we need how many wars we need to be prepared to ght simultaneously and the type of weaponry that will be required I Diplomacy is the total process by which states carry on political relations with each other 4 Morality Versus Reality in Foreign Policy I Moral Idealism Thi iew quot agree on moral standards I Political Realism ii 39 39 39 g quot 39 quot 39 quotL dictators I American Foreign Policy A Mixture of Both in Every president has based his foreign policy on both of hese principles though some have tended to stress one or the other of the two 5 El Challenges in World Politics I The Emergence of Terrorism ii Terrorism and Regional Strife ii Terrorist Attacks against Foreign Civilians ii September I The War on Terrorism ii Military Responses D A New Kind of War Bush has enunciated a new doctrine of preemptive warquot to deal wi h terrorism Gigi Wars in Iraq I Saddam Hussein s annexation of Kuwait in August 1990 was the most clearcut case of aggression against an independent nation since Wortd War II I The Persian Gulf The First GquWar I The Persian Gulf The Second Gulf War I Occu ied Ira I Uprisings Spring 2004 7E 8 El Nuclear Weapons I America gained nuclear weapons in 1945 the Soviet Union in 1949 Britain in 1952 France in 1960 and China in 1964 These powers remained the only ones with open nuclear weapons programs until 1998 when Pakistan and India tested nuclear weapons I The US and the Soviet Union I Nuclear Proliferation 9E The New Power China I American policy has been to engage the Chinese in diplomatic and economic relationships in the hope ofturning e nation in a more proWestern direction I ChineseAmerican Trade T39es I ChineseAmerican Tensions 10 El Regional Conflicts I Cuba I Israel and the Palestinians D The collapse of the IsraeliPalestinian peace process I The IsraeliHabollah LebanonWar I AIDS in South Africa I African Civil War MEI Who Makes Foreign Policy I Constitutional Powers of the President DWEI39S ii Treaties and Executive Agreements ii TL 39 39 quot d iu m her legitimate 12 El Informal Techniques of Presidential Leadership ii These include accessing information from within the executive branch in uencing the budgetary constraints in all areas of appropriations economic aid military aid and humanitarian aid using the bully pulpitquot to build public support for programs committing the nation to courses of action 39om which it would be very dif cult to back down even if Congress wished to 13 Other Sources of Foreign Policymaking IZIThe Department of State IZIThe National Security Council IZIThe Intelligence Community I Covert Actions I Criticisms of the Intelligence Community IZIThe Department of Defense 14 El Congress Balances the President I Alter the War in Vietnam 19641975 Congress sought to restrain he president s ability to unilaterally commit forces to combat with the War Powers Resolution 1973 Presidents since however have oIten not consulted Congress before commit ing troops and that can create a situa ion in which Congress does not dare recall them Congress can sometimes take the lead for example by voting sanctions on South A 39ica to oppose that nation s former policy of racial discrimination known as apartheid 15 El Domestic Sources of Foreign Policy I Elite and Mass Opinion n D Both r 39 r 39 interest in foreign policy the attentive public I The MilitaryIndustrial Complex 1 The militaryindustrial complex is the term that describes the mutually bene cial relationship between the armed forces and defense contractors 16 El The Major Foreign Policy Themes I The Formative Years Avoiding Entanglements n The Monroe Doctrine n The SpanishAmerican War and World War I The Era of Internationalism n The C0 d War a Containment Policy 17E Europe During the Cold War 18g Superpower Relations I The Cuban Missile Crisis I A Period of Detente I The ReaganBush Years I The Dissolution of the Soviet Union 19 Europe After the Fall of the Soviet Union 20E Questions for Critical Thinking ElHow strong militarily was the United States in the 1790s Could the US have been very active in world affairs What was the major goal of US policy then Ells it easy for the president and Congress to set a course for foreign policy What kinds of measures can the US use to combat terrorism 21g Questions for Critical Thinking ElWhy will relations with China prove important in the years to come ll l American Government and Politics Today Chapter 6 Public Opinion and Political Socialization 2 IE Defining Public Opinion I Publ39c opinion is the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs shared by some portion of adults I Private opinion becomes public opinion when an individual takes some type of action to express an opinion to others public y I When there is general public agreement on an issue there is said to be a cunsensus When opinions are sharply divided there is divisive upinian 3IE 4 Political Socialization I The process by which individuals acquire political beliefs and attitudes I Sources of Political Socialization CI The Family and the Social Environment iI Education as a Source of Political Socialization iI Peers and Peer Group In uence iI Opinion Leaders Influence iI Media Presentation of Political Issues 5 El Political Socialization cont ElPolitical events can produce a longlasting impact on opinion formation Example the impact of the Great Depression on people who came of age in that period We call such an impact a generational e ect or a cohort effect 6 Political Preferences and Voting Behavior I Demographic In uences ducation El Economic Statu5 El Religiou5 Influence Denomination El Religiou5 Influence Commitment El Race and Ethnicity der El Geography 7E BIE 9E The Gender Gap 10 ElectionSpecific Voting Behavior Factors I Party Identification I Perception of the Candidates I Issue Preferences 11E Measuring Public Opinion I The History of Opinion Polls iI 18005 Straw Polls iI By the 19305 modern relatively accurate polling techniques were developed by George Gallup Elmo Roper and others IZEI Measuring Public Opinion cont I Sampling Techniques ii Representative Sampling D The Principle of Randomness I A purely random sample will be representative within the stated margin of error The larger the sample of the population the smaller the margin of error HIE Problems with Polls l Sampling Errors ia r r i IA39IAk r r r r had been interviewed I When can sampling errors be dangerous MEI Problems V th Polls cont I Poll Questions El 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 L quot gray Often people will attempt to please the interviewer I Push Polls ii Attempts to pread 39 L A quot39 39 r 39 2 quottab a 15E 16g Technology and Opinion Polls The Advent of Telephone Polling a 39 39 L A pollingandh 39 39 39 ponsand a J a Nonresponse Rates Have skyrocketed 17 El Technology and Opinion Polls cont I Internet Polling iI There are many unscientific llnonpolls on the Internet iI In time nonresponse rates to Internet polling could escalate like those of telephone po 5 18lil Public Opinion and the Political Process I Political Culture and Popular Opinion D A set of attitude and ideas about the nation and government Certain shared beliefs about important 39 39 I quot 39 culture quotL quoth H equality and property uppuu IUI quot 39 39 ei ice auu personal L39 L39 quot the nation together deipite xnln its highly diver5e population 19E Public Opinion and the Political Process I Political Culture and Support for Our Political System I Political Trust zol l Trends in Political Trust 21 El Public Opinion About Government I Trust in government peaked after 911 but fell back thereafter Over the years the military and churches have been the institutions receiving the highest levels of public confidence After 911 confidence in the military reached new highs Confidence in churches was hurt in 2002 by a series of sexual abuse scandals Banks and the Supreme Court also score highly while the media Congress labor unions and business come off more poorly 22E Confidence in Institutions 23E 24 El Public Opinion and Policymaking The general public believes the leadership should pay attention to popular opinion Leaders themselves are less likely to believe this I Setting Limits on Government Action El 1quot quot I 39 39 h t 39t 39 politician highly unpopular policiei I Taking into account the limits on polling 25 El Questions for Critical Thinking El In whatways have you been socialized politically Compare and contrast yourexperienceswith those of your classmates El In 2000 less than half of the adult population participated in the presidential election If the public continues to have minimal involvement in the political process can democracy continue to function Wnat are your thoughts on the future of democracy
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