Intro General Psychology
Intro General Psychology PSYC 1101
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10112007 Chapter 12 Personality Theory Research and Assessment De ng Personal39ty Consistency and Distinctlveness Personality Traits Dispositions and dimensions Mod T eFiveFactor el Openness to experience eableness Conscientiousness Psychodynamic Perspectives Freud s psychoanalytic theory Structure of personality Levels of awareness Conscious nconscious Preconscious Psychodynamic Perspectives Freud s psychoanalytic theory Con ict Sex and Aggression Anxle y Defense Mechanisms mm m mimtn m 11 Mm m m mmmmpmmuz mm Inmammumlllu Wmmmw lmmni mmJnd WHY 39 mmmws auwlpl m in mm mm an mm 10112007 Witnus I 1 mm v maximummus Whammmvl luvswim hi121 DIM Mummy um mm Freud on Development Psychosexual Stages Sexual physical pleasure Psychosexualsa e Oral A g s nal Phallic Latenc Genital Fixation Excessive grati cation or frustration Overemphasis on psychosexual needs during xated stage W in mm m WWW mum Other Psychodynamic Theorists Carl Jung Analytical Psycholo Personal and collective unconscious Archetypes Intro si nExtroversion Alfred Adler In ividual Psychology Striving for superiority Compensation Inferiority complexovercompensation Birth order m u A W mm mm WWW C Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives Pros The unconscious The role of internal con ict The importance of early childhood experiences ons Poortestability Inadequate empirical base Sexist views 10112007 Behavioral Perspectives Skinner s views Conditioning and response tendencies Environmental determinism Bandura s views Social leaning theo Cognitive processes and reciprocal determinism bservational learning Models Selfef cacy Mischel s views The personsituation controversy mm mm mm 1 R ummummmz 1 7 no1 le my me n 7 x D mmwmm mthm m pmw m m inva m mpmmm Behavior Envimnment Personalcognitive factors e expectations benefs selfef cacy m in am mmm mummy Evaluating Behavioral Perspectives Pros Based on rigorous research nsihts into effects of learnin and environmental factors Cons Overdependence on animal research Fragmented view of personality Dehumanizing views Humanlstic Perspectives Carl Rogers Person Centered Theory Selfconce t Conditionalunconditional positive regard ncongruence and anxiety Abraham Maslow Selfactualization theory Hierarchy of needs The healthy personality 10112007 Mm Sul wwum WWW Cungmcnte 5V1 MMI WHH VW S w mm mquot u 1 mm mm wmmu WNWquot Intelmeme 5w wulwldurwnl mm w lw h mum m m m wvawnam f mum mm WNW mum 1mm WWW umm mmw wWw L mm m u w m m WWW ampmm mm ammunww r1 1 m wwwmm u 1 11 w m mvumimulmxm M m 4 Jun vaHme w M WM m u u mnw M mu m vVIaMHf Evaluating Humanistic Perspectives Humanistic theories are credited with highlighting the importance of a person39s subjective view of reality They are also applauded for focusing attention on the issue of what constitutes a healthy personality They are criticized for lacking a stron research base poor testability and what may be an overly optimistic view of human nature Maslow had a hard time nding live people who had selfactualized Biological Perspectives Eysenk s theory 3 higher order traits Extraversion neuroticism and choticism Determined by genes Twin studies Novelty seeking and genetics The evolutionary appro ch Traits conducive to reproductive tness 10112007 Wit 1 u i39 39 Pros Wm Convincing evidence for genetic in uence M El on WWW E iii Conceptual problems with heritability estimates 39quotN39mv39x39JT i 1 quot7 7 397 Arti cial carving apart of nature and nurture No comprehensive biological theory mum quot am u u m malnavp mm Evaluating Biological Perspectives a Contemporary Empirical Approaches Terror Management Theory Con ict between selfpreservation and ability to foresee death Culture and selfesteem Anxiety buffer Szll mmmuml 5 m a V m a t mwnmmm mmmn Contemporary Empirical Approaches or Management Theory Increasing subjects39 mortality salience causes them to Punish moral transgressions more harshly Be less tolerant of criticism oftheir country Give greater rewards to those who uphold cultural standards Respect cultural icons more Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception 9112007 Sensation stimulation of sense organs Perce tion selection organization and interpretation of sensory input Psychophysics the study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological exper39ence mm mmquot m n w mmmuann an m mm 9112007 Psychophysics Basic Concepts Sensation begins with a detectable stimulus Fechner the conce t ofthe res ol Ahsolute threshold detected 50 ofthe time Just noticeable difference JND smallest difference detecta le e e aw size of JND proportional to size of inilial stimulus oi lineman 3 thabl Very low Medium mm mmwoumm Psychophysics Concepts and Issues SignalDetection Theory Sensory processes decision processes Sub imlna Perception Existence vs practical e ffects Sensory Adaptation Decline in sensitivity 9112007 mm stimulus andnun mum mm mm mum mm mm mmmmmn Vision The Stimulus Light electromagnetic radiation mp itu e perception of brightness Wavelength I erce tion of co or Purity mix of wavelengths perception of saturation or richness of colors mm ngttvvumui ummmm 9112007 The Eye Converting Light into Neural lmpulses The eye housing and channeling Componen s ornea where liht enters the ete I39 w w lris colored ring ofmuscle constricts or dilates via amount of 39ght Pupil regulates amount of light The Retina An Extension of the CNS Retina absorbs light processes images Receptor cells Rods black and whitelow light vision I n o m II n 2 9 m n n m S 6 E S u Lateral antagonism 9112007 madam imghtedm H NV 1 FigueM leardghmdnessandhra39gnahess 1mm er ms nu 8mm 9 WSW 9U Um 0m msk and Nudspnt Gawq wnmu NDHIUNJ 4 anzvmnmm Figlre M Theraina Adamath mde Mamavonn mnesonly Iamdamaaim o eyv mdsand cows quota ranch at light delc llon ne in darumlnulu h quotquotuquotlquotum Figure MI The messnldamdammnn 9112007 The Retina and the Brai Visual Information Processing Light gt rods and cones gt neural signals gt bipolar cells gt ganglion cells gt optic nerve gt op ic chiasm gt opposite ha brain Main pathway lateral geniculate nucleus thalamus gt primary visual cortex occipital lobe magnocellular where parvocellular w a Second pathway superior colliculus gt halamus gt primary visual cortex am mummymmmmm uu m mum Mm WM n w W W H 39mm gu 39 mma mummy rum in vnmr mum Hubel and Wiesel Feature Detectors and the Nobel Prize Early 196039s Hubel and Wiesel Microelectrode recording of axons in primary visual co ex of anim Discovered feature detectors neurons that respond selectively to lines edges etc Groundbreaking research Nobel Prize in 1981 Later research cells speci c to faces in the temporal lobes ofmonkeys and humans 9112007 Basics of Color Vision Wavelength determines color Longer red shorter violet Amplitude determines brightness Purity determines saturation man an mamnm summ mN I mm W nanmv mm mnmm mummy 9112007 Theories of Color Vision Trichromatic theory Young and Helmholtz Receptors for red green blue color mixing Opponent Process theory Hering rs ol redgreen blueyellow blackwhite Current perspective both theories necessary Red mans Re nish mum mange Mlow mm mums mm mm W M gm Mun O O ngnnx vuaiaruimmawmvimnin W 9112007 Perceiving Forms Patterns and Objects Reversible gures Perceptual sets lnattentional blindness Feature detection theory bottomup races 7 Form perception topdown processing Subjectlve contours 0 m m a m the whole is more 09 than the sum of its part Reversible gures and perceptual sets can result in very different perceptions Inpvdawn protexsmg Wilestlmullu mm manual hmmesn zhwtlha niture an Slimline not Mllblnesaedlklniuits 39lnm um bmnlululms newsman Mime nl stimulus anttumup pmmssmg am am uvvrlulhvammvmunwi mum xuhrntlwwntnun 9112007 Principles of Perception Gestalt principles of form perception gureground o proximity similarity c ntinuity closure and simplicity Recent rese arch Distal stimuli outside the body vs proximal stimu us sensory receptors energies impinging on stimuli Perceptual hypotheses Context am wvnmwiavlnunmanmuna 9112007 qunni mmupmwWmmammm A 4 1 rlt E xquotrz E 39 7 u mum mmm vmnmnmmuu 9112007 IHE CH mmquot cunthunt Depth and Distance Perception Binocular cues clues from both eyes together retinal disparity convergence Monocular cues clues from a single eye motion para lax accommodation pictorial depth cues Stability in the Perceptual World Perceptual Constancies Perceptual constancies stable perceptions amid changing stimuli Size hape Brightness Hue ocation in space 9112007 Optical Illusions The Power of Misleading Cues Optical Illusions discrepancy between visual appearance and physical reality Famous optical illusions MullerLyer Illusion Ponzo Illusion Poggendorf Illusion UpsideDown T Illusion Zollner 39 mes Room and Impossible Igures Cu r differences Perceptual hypotheses I ltu a a work The Ames Room Ames room NEEDSX va ANIMATION 7 0 0 Q 1 1 9 A 9112007 mm mquot at imvamm um Hearing The Auditory System Stimulus sound waves vibrations of molecules traveling in air 39 s A tud dne wavelengtn pitch uri timh Wavelength described in terms offrequency measured in cycles d Hz Frequency increase pitch increase a Wavulunln U k is l Ampllllld 31 nlsaun mum mama wvw RiunAn mm upw mmmuum Relalzd Wnenlluns mums n Than 9112007 The Ear Three D External ear pinna collects sound Middle ear the ossicles hammer anvil stirrup Inner ear the cochlea a uid lled coiled tunnel contains the hair cells the auditory receptors lined up on the hasilar membrane W mm mp wmwm umquot mm mm mien mm H V 6 and m n m mm mm mnmvmnz w muel mg um llve memmm m mmmmmm 9112007 The Auditory Pathway Sound waves vibrate bones ofthe middle ear Stirrup hits against the oval window of coc lea Sets the uid inside in motion Hair quot 39 39 ofthe basilar membrane Physical stimulation convened into neural impulses Sent through the thalamus to the auditory cortex temporal lobes Theories of Hearing Place or Frequencw Hermann Von Helmholtz 1863 Place th Other researchers Rutherford 1886 Frequency eory Georg Von Bekesy 1947 Traveling wave theory Auditory Localiz n Where Did that Sound Come From Two cues critical Intensity loudness T 39 sounds arriving at each ear Head as shadow39 or partial sound barrier Timing differences as small as 1100000 ofa second 9112007 m m m m mum Mam The Chemical Senses Taste Taste gustation Physical stimulus soluble chemical substances Receptor cells found in taste buds Pathway taste buds gt neural impulse gt thalamus gt cortex Four primary tastes sweet sour bitter and sal Taste learned and social processes any Ms W am m on 9112007 The Chemical Senses Smell Smell Olfaction Physical stimull substances carried in the air dissolved in uid the mucus in the nose lfactory rece or 399 O olf c I Pathway Olfactory cilia gt neural impulse gt t olfac ory nerve gt olfactory bulb brain Does not go through thalamus m m w mm mm 9112007 Skin Senses Touch chemical energy Impinging on Pathway Sensory receptors gt the spinal column gt brainstem gt cross to opposite Physical stimuli mechanical thermal and th skin side of brain gt thalamus gt somatosensory parietal lobe Pain receptors also free nerve endings Two pain pathways fast vs slow am An mm mm mm Other Senses Kinesthetic and Vestibular Kinesthesis knowing the position ofthe various parts ofthe bod Receptors in jointsmuscles Vestibular equilibriumbalance Semicircular canals 9112007 Chapter 2 The Research Enter rise in Ps39 cholow mm wamau vnm mmmmmm The Scien c Approach A Search for Laws Basic assumption events are governed by some lawful order Measurement and description Understanding and prediction Application and con rol The Scie i c Method Terminology Operational de nitions are used to clarify precisely what is meant by each variable Part 39 re the organisms whose behavior is systematically observed in a stud Data collection techniques allow for empirical observation and measurement Statistics are used to analyze data and decide whether hypotheses were supported mum mm mm I mum m ul m urnmum MnMm innmm mum bullymm WW mm mum Flinn mm tummyquot mm 1 l 4 The Scie i c Method Terminology Findings are shared through reports at scienti c meetings and in scienti c journals periodicals that publish technical and scholarly material Advanta es ofthe scienti c method clarity otfcommunication and relative intolerance 0 error Research methods general strategies for conducting scienti c s udies 9112007 mama mi Wm em iniii mam uu Milan migm inanimiii iniwi m ii mm in is imiw n mi Mm mm pm i We mm n mv f w my m t M d Stim niilbvmildlnnwmm llwl mum mu imuiimwwdim we Mutmtmi mmmm memequ mumd ldnhlnmilllnn ngn mm a mu uquot mi w m Gnuuth minimquot in mining new mamimmmwmm Experimental Research Looking for Causes Experimental Designs Variations per e manipulation of one variable under controlled conditions so that resulting Expuse a singie gruup tn Wu different eunditiuns changes in another variable can be observed 7 Reduces extraneuusvariabies Detection of causeandeffect relationships Manipuiate rnure tnan une independent variabie Independent variable IV variable 7 AHqu fur study uf interaetiuns between manipulated vanapies Dependent variable DV variable affected by manipulation How does X affect Y X Independent Variable and Y Dependent Variable Use mDrE tnan dne dependent vari pi a e r Obtains a mum edmpiete picture uf effectuf tne independent variabie nmmm idmi Experimental and Control Groups The Logic of the Scienti c Method Experimental group Control group Random assignment Manipulate independent variable for one group only Resulting differences in the two groups must be due to the independent variable Extraneous and confounding variables mm mnivuiltlanaftiiainnvnalerilhiIinmlvnmM 9112007 Strengths and Weaknesses of Experimental Research Strengths conclusions about causeandeffect can be drawn Weaknesses arti cial nature of experiments ethical and practical issues Statistics and Research Drawing Conclusions Statistics using mathematics to organize summarize and interpret numerical data Descr ive s a is Ics organizing and summarizing data lnferential stati Ics interpreting data and drawing conclusions 39velCorrelational Methods Loo ng for Relationships Methods used when a researcher cannot manipulate the variables under study Naturalistic observation Case studies rv 5quot eys Allow researchers to describe patterns of behavior and discover links or associations between variables but cannot imply causation Descriptive Statistics Measures of Central Tendency Measures of central tendency typical or average score in a distribution Mean arithmetic average of scores Median score falling in the exact center Mode most requently occurring score Which most accurately depicts the typical awn w Myquotammlammmm 20000 Mode mostfreuuenl 20000 25ooo Median middle 35 006 zomouo gnome 5 some Mean anthmehcaverage awn n MllurIavuntnltnnnn 9112007 Descriptive Statistics Variabi ty Variability how much scores vary from wilt WM 39wtlwlMW 7 each other and from the mean Standard deviati n numerical depiction of variability H lam um I High variability in data set high 1 quot 39 39 gt 5 rquotl vehl un hr D w n H v gt standard dev39a39 4 l A Low variability in data set low standard deviation andquot u new wmlltianwmnlMi 5pm milewellmltll rectilinear writ s39iw F quot 39 quot 15 n Prediction Not Causation 3 V Higher correlation coef cients increased 3 Z ability to predict one variable based on the as L2 other 2 SATACT scores moderately correlated 93 25 with rst year college GPA i 2 variables may be highly correlated but not causally relate 35 M91quot 35 Foot size and vocabulary positively z 37 3357 m correlated H vm ihlll Ilrllhllltlnatllitanalmaylltlan Do larger feet cause larger vocabularies Thet Descriptive Statis ics Correlation When two variables are related to each other they are correlated 7 M MN Correlation numerical index of degree of J L relationship 7 Correlation expressed as a number b n 0 and 1 Can be positive or negative Numbers closer to 1 or indicate stronger relationship mm d mm mm uuulrlltianilllvi htlun mum Mm 9112007 lnferential Stati 39cs Interpreting Data and Dravlnng Conclusions Ethics in Psychological Research Do the Ends Justify the Means Hypothesis testing do observed ndings The question of deception SUPPOIquot quot 9 hYPOthSSS The question of animal res Are ndings real or due to chance Statistical signi cance when the probability that the observed ndings are due to chance is very low arc Controvers amon pstcholo ublic h ists and the Ethical standards for research the American Psychological Association Very low less than 5 chances in 100 05 level Ensures both human and animal subjects are treated with dignity Evaluating Research Methodological Pitfalls Sampling bias Placebo effe Distortions in selfreport data Social desirability bias Response set Experimenter bias the doubleblind solution 9 m Flinn w ammum mum mllv y l x 1 WWW um Flinn is w Rummy mmquot m pawmmm quotmm Chapter 2 The Research Enter rise in Ps39 cholow 9112007 The Scienti c Approach A Search for Laws Basic assumption events are governed by some lawful order Goals Measurement and description Understanding and prediction Application and con rol mm mm mm I m m mm Mn WWW am WW quotmmquot mm quotquot quotquot quot39quot 1 an alumna mum M T quot 39 mm mum Riunl mm mmm mm Rmrulurtau vnm WWWmm 9112007 The Scienti c Method Terminology tud Data collection techniques allow for empirical observa ion and measurement Statistics are used to analyze data and decide whether hypotheses were supported The Scienti c Method Terminology Findings are shared through reports at scient c meetings and in sc i c journals periodlcals that pub sh technical and scholarly material Advanta es ofthe scientmc method clarity ogcommunication and relative intolerance 0 error Research methods general strategies for conducting scienti c s udies u N mm m mnmw mm n WM um w aquot mum Mm M Human 9112007 Experimental Research Looking for Causes Experiment manipulation of one variable under controlled conditions so that resulting changes in another variable can be observed Detection of causeandeffect relationships Independent variable IV variable manipulated Dependent variable DV variable affected by manipulation How does X affect Y X Independent Variable and Y Dependent Variable Experimental and Control Groups The Logic of the Scienti c Method Experimental group Control group Random assignment Manipulate independent variable for one group only Resulting differences in the two groups must be due to the independent variable Extraneous and confounding variables 9112007 mm WWW Wm mum mam m mmmw wm WWW mmquot a w my mum mum mmmmu meme mm mm mm mmdwwmm 1 WWW quotawakengm mm we mum mmmmm m a w mm mm aunlvnmM Experimental Design Variations Expuse a smg e gruup m We dw erent undmuns 7 Reduce extraneeusvanames Mampmate mare than me muepenuemvaname 7 AHqu fur study uf mteractmns between vanames Use mare than me dependemvaname r Obtams a mere cump ete pmre uf Effect uf the mdependent vaname nemmm vam mm 9112007 Strengths and Weaknesses of Experimental Research Strengths conclusions about causeandeffect can be rawn Weaknesses arti cial nature of experiments ethical and practical issues 39 39velCorrelational Methods Loo ng for Relationships Methods used when a researcher cannot manipulate the variables under study Naturalistic observation Case studies Surv Allow researchers to describe patterns f behav39or and discover links or associations between variables but cannot imply causation awn w Myquotammlammmm Stati ics and Research Drawing Conclusions Statistics using mathematics to organize summarize and interpret numerical data Descrip Ive statistics organizing and summarizing data lnferential statistics interpreting data and drawing conclusions 9112007 Descriptive Statistics Measures of Central Tendency Measures of central tendency typical or average score in a distribution Mean arithmetic average of scores Median score falling in the exact center Mode most requently occurring score Which most accurately depicts the typical 20000 Mode most lieuuenl 20000 25000 Median middle 15000 200000 300000 5 60mm Mean amnmetxcavevage awn tt MnunlavunhltnaM Descriptive Statistics Variabi ty Variability how much scores vary from each other and from the mean n numerical depiction a O S n Standard of variability High variability in data set high standard dev39a39 Low variability in data set low standard deviation 9112007 5pm milesveilmiril Set A Sal B Peilerliun anuievam wnd Street 15 11 31 v 33 5a 7 28 13 2 on 27 as 39 n 25 3k 23 an L8 35 M91 35 sunam 3 warm 3 H 39 mm a mm m in quotmm mm Descriptive Statis ics Correlation When two variables are related to each other they are corre a e Correlation numerical index of degree of relationship Correlation expressed as a number b n 0 and 1 Can be positive or negative Numbers closer to 1 or indicate stronger relationship 9112007 mm mm mmmm suwm 4 mm lt awn u litwrungwwutlanwmulntl Correlation Prediction Not Causation Higher correlation coef cients increased ability to predict one variable based on the other SATACT scores moderately correlated with rst year college GPA riables may be highly correlated but not causally related Foot size and vocabulary positively correlated Do larger feet cause larger vocabularies VJ Qty Qty Hourlu1wquotpummuumruuamwvlhtrunwrmnavmmI lnferential Stati cs Interpreting Data and Dravlnng Conclusions Hypothesis testing do observed ndings support the hypotheses Are ndings real or due to chance Statistical signi cance when the probability that the observed ndings are due to chance is very low Very low less than 5 chances in 100 05 level 9112007 Evaluating Research Methodological Pitfalls Sampling bias Placebo effects Distortions in selfreport data Social desirability bias Response set Experimenter bias the doubleblind solution mummy mum unwlu mule Flinn is w Rummy mmquot m pawmmm quotmm Ethics in Psychological Research Do the Ends Justify the Means The question of deception The question of animal research Controvers amon I stcholoists and the ublic Ethical standards for research the American Psychological Association Ensures both human and animal subjects are treated with dignity 9112007 Flinn w Etnummmu