Intro General Psychology
Intro General Psychology PSYC 1101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stuart White Sr. on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College taught by Etta Lee in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/217656/psyc-1101-abraham-baldwin-agricultural-college in Psychlogy at Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
10112007 Chapter 8 Language and Thought The Cogn e Revolution 19th Century focus on the mind Introspection Behaviorist focus on overt responses arguments regarding incomplete picture of human functioning Empirical study of cognition 1956 Simon and Newell problem solving Chomsky new model of language Miller memory Language Turning Thoughts into Words Properties of Language 5 olic Structured The Hierarchical Structure of Language Phonemes smallest speech units Morphemes smallest 39ng 50000 in English root words pre xes uf xes s meaning of words and word Objects and actions to which words refer tem 0 5 tax a sys frules for arranging words into sentences Different rules for different languages Language Development Milestones Initial vocalizations similar across languages Crying cooing habhlin 6 months babblin sounds bein to resemble surrounding language 1 year rst word similar crossculturally words for parents receptive vs expressive language um uwmva v1m unnum mm 10112007 Language Development Milestones Continued 1824 months vocabulary spurt fast ma g over and underextens39ons End of second ye combine words Telegraphic speech Mean Length of Utterance MLU End of third year complex ideas plural pas tense Overregularization Bilingualism Learning More Than One Language Research ndings Smaller vocabularies in one language mbine vocabularies average 0 o Slight disadvantage in terms of language processing speed 2nd languages more easily acquired early in life Greater acculturation facilitates acquisition Symauit nmpetenze main stale 1 1 1 1 1 m 7 7 Nam 1397 Em 1 15 737 Age ii arrival Can Animals Develop Language Allen and Beatrice Gardner 1969 Chimpanzee Washoe 160 word vocabulary Sue SavageRumbau h Bonobo chimpanzee Kanzi S mbols Receptive language 72 of 660 requests Theories of Language Acquisltion Behavio ist S inner learning of speci c verbal responses N Chomsky learning the rules of language Language Acquisition Device LAD lnteractionlst Cognitive social communication and emergentist theories Elnlu39glm 1 unwrauou J n mlnpmm mung development znvi mull uslwcllnu lemlnvuunnnl x mmummmumum mm 10112007 Problem Solving Types of Problems Greene 1978 three basic classes Problems of inducing structure Series completion and analogy problems Problems of ar gement Problems oftransformatlon ob Its and orcs proble Waterjar problem mm m mmpmmmum ImmIalvmmm mm Effective Problem Solving Well de ned vs ill de ned problems Barriers to effective problem solving Irrelevant Information Functional Fixedness l Mental 591 w Unnecessary Constraints mm in w tnvrammmvmmm Approaches to Problem Solving It 3 Algorithms Systematic trialanderror Guaranteed solution Heuristics S o cuts qunx1i xvmnunnmmmmahmvmmm ckward Searching for analogies Changing the representation ofa problem 10112007 Culture Cog ve Style and Problem Solving Field dependence relying on external frames of reference Field independence relying on internal frames of reference estern cultures inspire eld inde endence Cultural in uence based in ecological demands Holistic vs analytic cognitive styles Simon 1957 theory of bounded rationality aking Choices Add St Decision Making Evaluating Alternatives and Making Choices ve utility Subjective probability Table 83 Application ofthe Additive Model to Choosing an Apartment Rent l Noise level 72 Distance to campus 3 Cleanliness 2 Total 4 mi minimammmmumminmwmmt Heuristics in Judging Probab The availability heuristic The representativeness heuristic The tendenc to inore base rates The conjunction fallacy The alternative outcomes effect Emmi u w laminaquot mun Understanding Pitfalls in Reasoning About Declslons The gambler39s fallacy Overestimating the improbable Con rmation bias and belief perseverance The overcon dence effec a ing EvolutionaryAnalyses Flaws in De 39 39 Making and Fast and Frugal Heuristics Cosmides and Tooby 1996 Unrealistic standard of rationality Decision making evolved to handle real world adaptive proble s Problem solving research based on contrived arti cial problems Gigerenzer 2000 Quick and dirty heuristics Less than perfect but adaptive 10112007
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