The French Revolution and Haitian Revolution
The French Revolution and Haitian Revolution History 150C1
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by juan gomez on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 150C1 at University of Arizona taught by Minayo Nasiali in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Europe in the Modern World in History at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
The French and Haitian Revolutions Major theme citizenship struggles over the meaning of freedom and 0 Key terms from lecture o Gens de coueur OOOOOO Slave insurrection of 1791 The Radical Phase of the French Revolution Toussaint Louverture The Jacobins Revolutionary Culture The Vendee o Haitian Revolution 0 Key terms from readings 0 Napoleon o Napoleonic Code 0 Key terms from lecture 0 General notes Constitution and Bill of Rights 0 Document that declares how a country will be governed General inalienable universal rights of the people 0 Bill of Rights would be what the people are allowed to do 0 Constitution states how the government control the people 0 Bill of rights grants entitlement to the people Constitution came before Bill of Rights in the United States 0 Duke Mathieu de Montmorency speech at national assembly August 1 1789 quotTo raise up an edi ce it is necessary to lay foundations it is important to declare the rights of man before the constitution because the constitution is only the continuation the conclusion of this declaration the rights of man in society are eternal no sanction is needed to recognize themquot Declaration of rights should be before any constitution The rights are eternal and are more important than how a government should control the people 0 Malouet speech at national assembly August 1 1789 quotThe moment in which we nd ourselves requires more action and re ection than speechifying The nation is waiting for us it wants order peace and protective laws I know that Americans took man from bosom of nature and presented him to the universe in all his primitive sovereignty But American society newly formed is composed in its totality of landowners already accustomed to equality But we Sirs we have for fellow citizens an immense multitude of men without property who expect above all their subsistence from an assured labor right regulation and continual protection Liberty should be like the morning star which shines for everyone But I believe Sirs that is necessary in a large empire for men place by circumstances in a dependent condition to see the just limits on as much as the extension of natural libertyquot People go for declaration of rights before constitution during the debate of what to write rst before creating a country Creating a system of government with simple steps was the way to go 0 September 1791 National assembly succeeds in drafting a constitution Protests that one aristocracy was being replaced with another 0 The Moderate Phase of the Revolution 17891792 1789 king calls the Estates General The Third Estate forms a National Assembly and vows to form a constitutional monarchy Ongoing stalemate with the king The women march on Versailles and escort the king back to Paris 1791 The National Assembly writes a constitution 0 French colonies Colonized Haiti Planted sugar cane as a cash crop 17th century indigenous population was mostly replaced by Africans Most African slaves were born in Africa and born to America and were working there 0 Racial and Class Hierarchies in SaintDomingue in 1789 The blancs free whitesc20000 o Planters owners of plantations o quotpett blancsquot quotLittle whitesquot The gens de coueurfree people of color 0 C 30000 Slaves c 500000 0 Domestic Slaves c 100000 0 Field Hands c 400000 Maroons escaped slaves living in autonomous communities number unknown perhaps in tens of thousands o Gens de coueur Wealthy land owners Plantation owners 0 Estates General Group of plantation owner went to France to participate in the changes at the Estates General Multiple gens de coueur also went to France to attempt to raise their status They argued in a number of speeches that they should also receive rights Lobby for inclusion but argue that slaves should not be granted rights They stated that slaves were critical economy and did not need rights for the o Slave insurrection of 1791 Slaves in the northern part of the island begin an armed rebellion Gens de Coueur argued that they needed a good position to control the slaves in Haiti Slaves begin a revolt Tens of thousands of slaves begin a rebellion They planned it for months stockpiled weapons Burnt down plantations imprisoned plantation owners and killed them By 1792 slaves control most of the island During the insurrection many slaves invoke the Universal Rights of Man as justi cation for the uprising Invoked Universal Rights in order to attain liberty 2 different groups were using the Universal Rights in order to attain their goals at the same time Assembly in France decides to include the gens de coueun Even though the southern side did not revolt the overseers were kicked out and the slaves were running the plantations 0 Meanwhile back in mainland France National Assembly Emerging divisions between moderates and radicals In September 1791 National Assembly succeeded in drafting a constitution which ultimately re ects the position of the moderates The king is not cooperating he remains hostile to the revolution The king was suspected of conspiring with aristocrats that had ed the country He attempts to ee France with his family in June 1791 called The Flight to Varennes he Great failed escape o The Radical Phase of the French Revolution 0 Spring 1792 France is attacked by England Austria and Spain as well as a few other monarchies Other monarchies are scared that revolution might spread to their countries so they attack August 1792 armed mob marches to the Louvre where the king is stripped from his power and taken as a prisoner The Assembly will be dismissed and a new one will be elected The 1St republic established in September 22ml of 1792 The Prussian army attacks France Toussaint Louverture The Jacobins Radicals Create rst republic in France In control 17921794 0 Revolutionary Culture 0 The Vendee Haitian Revolution 0 Section 1100 001F The French Revolution 0 Key terms The Three Estates The Estates General Abbe Sieyes The National Assembly The Tennis Court Oath The Constitutional Phase of the French Revolution 0 Notes 0 Politics and Society in 18th Century France O 0000 O The monarchy was the most important political institution and the king was an absolute monarch France was under an absolutist monarchy Monarch was seen as being close to the divine Theory of divine right King was the incarnate of the divine on earth King s power came directly from god Theory of absolution stated king was not subject to law because he was the one who made them Of ce of kingship transcended As soon as the king died the successor became king Kings of France were accountable to god alone 0 The Three Estates Total Population 23 million 1Clergy 100000 people 0 Richest next to the king 0 Richest section of society 2Nobility 400000 people 0 Rich 3Third Estate 0 225 million people 0 Everybody else Peasants lawyers etc o If not a nobleman or clergy you re part of the third estate Legal system of who could have which privileges and paid taxes Church and nobility were exempt of taxes Church and nobility have the right to tax the third estate Taxation alongside the king s taxes The Old Regime o Origins of the Revolutions Individuals started to question the old regime Enlightenment long term factor Financial crisis Monarch became broke Inadequate system of taxation Aide given to the North American colonies 1787 situation is bad that Louis XVI is forced to call the Estates General Estates General Body that represented the Three Estates First Challenge to the power of the monarchy Estate General had not met since 1614 King admitted he was unable to run the country Met in 1787 Initially decided to be run as it was run in 1614 Representatives from The Three Estates were to be elected Political excitement spreads through France 0 Abbe Sieyes Author of quotWhat is the Third Estatequot 1789 Priest but not one of the rich ones What is the Third Estate What has it been in the political order Nothing What does it deserve to be Something Formed a critique on the form of government during the procedures of how the voting will work Turns to a debate of how the political system works Widespread popular support for a rules change Need to change voting procedures Unfair for clergy and nobility to get 1 vote and the third estate 1 vote Main was to change it with fairness would be to vote per head Vote by population 0 Third estate would have the most power No longer a question to distribute power National Assembly King was advised to accept the rules change Representing the Nation From the Estates General to the National Assembly Third Estate declared that it represented that nann They threatened the science club 0 The Tennis Court Oath 20 May 1789 They swore never to disband until France had a constitution A legal document describing a limit to royal power This act from the Third Estate pushed France into Revolution Power lied in their people instead of the king National Assembly and Stalemate with the King Not clear what form the revolution would take Had no power to enforce their will over the monarchy King is in charge of the army 20000 troops ordered to march into Paris King is accepting of some deals but wants to keep the Old Regime King was waiting for the moment to stop the assembly France has droughts riots and famine There was inadequate distribution of food King placing cannons on the highest hill near Paris civilians started arming themselves Civilians attacked a military base in which they found weapons 0 Taking the Bastille 14th ofJuly 1789 Looking for arms looking to liberate France King was hopeless in the face of popular revolt Nobility started to immigrate due to fears There is growing fear and violence in France Rebellions are in progress Lots of misinformation Things are becoming hard for the king to control King is reluctant to face what was happening Continues to refuse March on Versailles Civilians started marching to Versailles By 5pm on October 5th 1789 they grew to 20000 Crowd gathers at courtyards at Versailles to get the king to notice how they are desperate Daybreak October 6th 1789 group of women breaks into Versailles and they make it as far as the queen s bedroom King and Queen consent to go to Paris King and his family are escorted to Paris 0 The Constitutional Phase of the French Revolution 0 National Assembly debates Draft a constitution Draft a declaration af rming
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