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Principles of Chemistry I

by: Alta Jenkins

Principles of Chemistry I CHEM 1211

Alta Jenkins

GPA 3.65

Barnabe Miburo

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Barnabe Miburo
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alta Jenkins on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1211 at Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College taught by Barnabe Miburo in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see /class/217663/chem-1211-abraham-baldwin-agricultural-college in Chemistry at Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College.


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Date Created: 10/02/15
Cpt 3 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS amp REACTIONS Objective Describe explain predict and write balanced equations for chemical reactions 5H 31Chemical Reaction Thought teaser DEMO from CD1 combustion of propane Fate of old bonds Fate of Initial substances Number of atoms in starting substances and new substances RQ214 Considean the conect answer to the last question what physical property of substances is maintained rough a chemical reaction a The volume Equali in number of atomsof starting and ending su stances means equality in their volumes 939 The mass Equality in number of atoms of starting and e ding substances means equality in their masses The densig Equali in number of atomsof startin an ending su stances means equality in their enSIties Equot Chemical Reaction Ovenliew Definition a process in which substances are changed into other substances Components Reactants Starting materials for a reaction Products chemicals produced by a reaction Ex C6H1206 602 gt 6COZ 6HZO Observation All atoms found in the reactants are also found in the products Law of conservation of matter matter can be neither created nor destroyed A LAVOISIER Caution the law is valid in the classical meaning of a chemical reaction b C Copyright 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc 1 Copyright 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc Chemical Equation Case Study 2Fe 3H20 gt Fe203 3H2 De nition Mathematical equation used to show the relation between the reactants and the pro ucts ofa chemical reaction Rule all chemical equations must be balanced The 39s of atoms on the left 39s of atoms on the right Stoichiometric Coef cients Numbers preceding f rmulas in an equation use 0 show the of atomsmolecules of reactants and producis used In a reaction balance the chemical equation 32 Driving forces of Chemical Reactions What makes a reaction occur Driving Force Case Study 1 AgNO3aq NaCaq gt AgCIs NaNO3aq Aq aqueous solution At3aq NO3aq Naaq Caq gt AgCIs Naaq NO3aq eaction work 39 t cancel identical terms on both sides Driving forces of Chemical Reactions Case Study 2 CaNO32aq 2 NaCaq gt CaCI2aq 2NaNO3aq Ca2aq 2NO3aq 2Naaq 2Caq gt Ca2aq 2Caq 2Naaq 2NO3aq Reaction does not work Why Hint cancel identical terms on both sides 1 Driving Forces Continued a Formation of an Insoluble Compound Aka Precipitation reaction Product insoluble in reaction solvent Driving force product imbalance caused by withdrawal of the insoluble product from the ion count in the solution Solubility rules pg 154 table 41 Driving Forces Continued 2 b Formation of a as ex HZSO4I NaCaq gt NaZSO4aq HCg The gas escapes from reaction medium Driving force product imbalance caused by withdrawal of the gas product from the ion count in the solution Driving Forces Continued 3 c Formation of a weak or non electrolyte Egtlt NaOHaq HCaq gt NaCaq H20 Unlike reactants product does not dissociate in solution Driving force product imbalance caused by withdrawal of the weak electrolyte from the ion count in the solution Reactions Driving Forces Examples 68c d pg 179 Complete the reaction Does it work or not Hint check pg 154 c NH4ZSO4aq SrCI2aq gt d NH4Caq AgNO3aq gt Extra ex 67 pg 179 RQ215 Does Hie reaction CaCO3s 2HC aq gt CaC2aq H20 C02g work ustify your answer e formation of the gas that esca es is a stronger drivmg force than the solid t at stays In the reaction mix ure The formation of the gas iat escapes is a weaker drivmg force than the solid that stays in the reaction mxmre c Yes T e nnation of the gas that stays is a strongerdrivmg force than the solid that escapes In the reaction mixture 939 33 Types of Chemical Reactions Classification criterion type of particle exchanged in the reaction Case Study 1 NaCaq AgNO3aq gt AgCs NaNO3aq Case Study 2 NaOHaq HCaq gt H20 NaCaq Ca3se25tudy 3 2Fe 3H20 gt Fe203 33 Types of Chemical Reactions a Ion Exchange Reactions Reactants exchange ions Reactions happen without change in ON Ex1 Na2C03aq CaC2aq gt CaCO3s NaCaq EXZ KZSO4aq BaC2aq gt BaSO4s KCI2aq b AcidBase Reactions 1110ught teasers DEMO CD 1 Cassa Sludy 1 HCIaq H20 gt H30aq C a q Case Sludy 2 HNO3aq H20 gt H30aq N03aq Common reaclion characerislic of HCI and HNO3 C02 H20 gt H2C03 What type of substance does C02 generate in water 9i 1 Acid Definition molecule or ion that releases protons H Acidic compounds made of H and nonmetal anions from columns VI and VIIA Examples HCI H25 HF Polyatomic Anions see list on pg 95 Examples HNO3 H3PO4 Acids continued Acidic oxides oxides of nonmetals They generate acids after reaction with water Examples N02 503 N02 H20 gt HNO3 HNOZ 03 H20 gt H2504 2 Base Though Teasers Cag ftudy 1 NH3 H20 gt NH4 Case Study 2 NaHCO3aq H20 gt H2CO3 HOaq 2Naaq Common reaction characteristic of NH3 AND NaHCO3 Case Study 3 Na20 H20 gt NaOH What type of substance does Na20 generate in water Bases Definition molecule or ion that attracts H Basic compounds Compounds of N bound to C andor H using single bonds Examples H3CNH2 CH32NH CH33N 0H or C032 and metal cations Examples NaOH CaOH2 Na2CO3 g Bases Continued Basic oxides oxides of metals They form hydroxide bases after reaction with water Examples CaO LiZO Ca0 H20 gt CaOH2 LiZO H20 gt 2LiOH 3 Neutralization Definition Acidbase reaction a proton is transferred from a Bronsted acid to a Bronsted base ex 3NH3 H3PO4 gt NH43PO4 ex2 Na2C03 ZHCI gt H2CO3 2NaCl gt H20 C02 2NaCl Ion Exchange ampAcidBase Reactions Illustrations Examples 71d pg 179 Extra ex rest of 71 78 b pg 179 Extra ex 77 pg 179 82 a pg 179 Extra ex 81 pg 179 RQ216 What are the products ifany of this reaction NO Na20 2H20 gt Justify your answer HNOZ and NaOH which ract to make NaH and NOZOH N0 is an acidic and Na20 is a basic oxi e Na2N03 and H20 which ract to make NaNOZ and H20 N0 and Na20 attract one another HNOZ and NaOH which react to make NaNOZ and 20 N0 is an acidic and Na20 is a basic oxide on P n c OxidationReduction Redox Reactions Particle exchanged between reactants electron Demo Case Study 2Fe 3H20 gt Fe203 3H2 ON39 Lost electrons Losscausing agent Gained electrons Gaincausing agent Oxidation amp Reduction Continued Oxidation a process in which an atom loses electrons ex Na 1e Na Oxidizing agent substance that causes oxidation oxidizing agent contains the atom that takes electrons Reduction Definition process in which an atom or ion gains electrons egtlt Cl2 2e gt 2C Reducing agent Substance that causes reduction Reducing agent gives electrons Oxidation and reduction always occur simultaneous y One atom gives electrons and another one takes them Identi cation of a redox reaction Check for change in oxidation numbers ofatoms in the reaction nd the oxidation and reduction half reactions ex Zn 2HC gt ZnClZ H2 ON idized Oxidizing agent Reduced Reducing agent Extra ex 883 d pg 180 87 RQ217 Examine the following reaction KCIO3 gt KCIO4 KCI ON 152 172 11 What atom is oxidized what atom is reduced Which substance is the oxidizing which one is the reducing agent g RQ217 Continued Answers a Oxidiled atom Cl7 Loses electrons to form CI5 Reduced C1 gains electrons to form CI5 Oxidiled atom Cl5 Loses electrons to form CI7 Reduced CI5 gains electrons to form CI1 ET Oxidiled atom 06 Loses electrons to form O8 Reduced CI5 gains electrons to form CI1 34 Balancing Chemical Equa ons Check for change in ON No change gt nonredox reaction Change gt redox reaction a Balancing a nonredox eguation 1 Balance substances associated with the most complex molecu e lst 2 Balance the other moleculs as directed by the previous balancin Ex CaOH2 H3PO4 Ca3PO42 H20 Illustration CaOH2 H3PO4 gt Ca3PO42 H20 Most complex molecule Ca3PO42 3CaOH2 2H3PO4 gt Ca3PO42 H20 Balance the rest of the equation 3CaOH2 2H3PO4 gt Ca3PO42 6H20 RQ218 Examine the following reactions Equation 1 ANO33 Na2CO3 gt Al2CO33 NaNO3 Equation 2 Al2NO33 Na2CO3 gt Al2CO3 Na2NO33 Is equation 2 the balanced form of equation 1 Justify your answer RQ218 Answer Answers to RQ218 a No because the substances on the left of e arrow is not the same as on the rig t b Yes because the number of atoms on the left of the arrow is the same as on the right as in the original equation c No because the substances with changed subscripts are no longer the same as in the original equation b Balancing a redox equation Method used change in oxidation number Principle For a balanced equation total increase in ON total decrease in ON LEAST COMMON MULTIPLE of ON increase amp ON decrease Procedure Step 1 Assign oxidation s to all atoms Step 2 Determine 0N changes Find the LCM of on increase and decrease Find the coefficients needed to get the LCM Oxidation coefficient multiplies the ON increase to get LCM Reduction coefficient multiplies the ON decrease to get LCM Procedure Continued Step 3 balance oxidized and reduced species involved in redogtlt process multiply oxidized species by the oxidation coefficient multiply reduced species by the reduction efficient Step 4 Balance rest of the equation as directed by previous balancin Exam Ie Cu HNO3 gt CuNO32 NO 20 Balancing a redox equation Illustration HNO3 C2H6O K2Cr207 gt KNO3 C2H40 CrNO33 H20 ON s Oxidized Reduced LCM Balancing Extra ex KCO3 HBr gt Br2 H20 KCl Balancing redox equations Illustrations continued Extra exercises balance the following equa ons K2503 KMn04 HCI gt K2504 MnC2 H20 KCI K25203 C2 H20 gt K2504 KCI KBiO3 HCI MnCIZ gt BiC3 H20 KMnO4 KCI


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