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by: Aida Stark III


Aida Stark III
GPA 3.58

William Apple

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William Apple
Class Notes
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aida Stark III on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPE 2800 at Appalachian State University taught by William Apple in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see /class/217665/spe-2800-appalachian-state-university in Special Education at Appalachian State University.

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Date Created: 10/02/15
SPE 2800 SL Smiley Teachers Schools amp Learners Chapteri Discussion Teaching Your Chosen Profession The reward of teaching is knowing that your life makes a difference xxxxx William Ayers Challenging profession but Effective teachers know why they want to teach See table on page 7 Student variability differences among students in regard to their developmental needs interests abilities and disabilities Student diversify differences among students in regard to gender race ethnicity culture and socioeconomic status What does it mean to be passionate about teaching they possess a variety of schemata for seeing what is important and they have a broad repertoire of moves with which to quickly and gracefully act on the situation that they see Albert Einstein quote Believe it or not page 10 Influence of past teachers may be the principal reason you decided to become a teacher Desire to serve Very few people go into education to become rich or famous Tremendous dedication and concern for others page 10 Teach for America program Wendy Knopp 1989 Practical benefits of teaching hours summer etc Salaries and Benefits Cost of living moonlightn fringe benefits Job security and job outlook tenure job security granted to teachers after satisfactory performance for a specified period usually 25 years population of schoolage children by 2012 is SPE 2800 SL Smiley xxxx estimated to be 482 million LOTS ofjob opportunities over the next 10 years Job opportunities for teachers from diverse groups different races disabilities Consider the challenges as well as the satisfactions develop your personal philosophy of education and teaching build a repertoire of teaching strategies strengthen your leadership skills acquire a knowledge base of research and theory to guide your actions Classroom management must do this effectively consistently develop a leadership plan create a positive learning environment and enhance your communication skills Increasing school violence high teacherstudent ratio high studentmobility rate a high proportion of students move during an academic year Social problems that impact students poverty substance abuse teen pregnancy homelessness child abuse and neglect violence and crime suicide other health problems Stress increases as the PUBLIC calls on teachers to CORRECT these problems Family and community support schools parents communities all need to work together for children to develop their maximum potential Long hours 50 Job stress teacher burnout Professional empowerment leads to higher morale What is it like to be a teacher very complex creative mental with an inner dialogue Six basic realities of teaching 0 1 Unpredictable Outcomes The outcomes of teaching even in the best of circumstances are neither predictable nor consistent SPE 2800 SL Smiley O O 2 Assessing Students Learning It is difficult to assess what students learn as a result of being taught 3 Limited Influence on Students Behavior The teacher s ability to influence student behavior is actually quite limited 4 lmgortance of Teachers Attitude With the role of teacher also comes the power to influence others by EXAMPLE 5 Unpredictability and Immediacy of Teaching nteractive teaching is characterized by events that are rapidchanging multidimensional and fragmented 6 Unigueness of Teaching Teaching involves a unique mode of being between teacher and student a mode of being that can be experienced but not fully defined or described What society expects public trust varies GREATLY teacher competency and effectiveness proficient in use of instructional strategies curriculum materials advanced educational technology and classroom management techniques Teacher accountability understand how backgrounds attitudes and learning styles affect achievement Highstakes testing No Child Left Behind adeguate yearly progress AYP What accomplished teachers do can be described in 5 modes of teaching 0 O O 1 A Way of Being you take on the role and let it become a part of you 2 A Creative Endeavor continually shaping and reshaping lessons events and experiences of their students 3 A Live Performance it is Each day is unpredictable SPE 2800 SL Smiley o 4 A Form of Emgowerment teachers have more influence than students because they establish learning goals select methods set the pace evaluate students progress and decide whether students pass or tail 0 5 An Opgortunity to Serve altruistic dimension of teaching is at the heart of the motivation to teach the paycheck the public regard and the vacations have little holding power compared to the opportunity to serve Keepers of the Dream belief that education can improve the quality of life You should now be able to answer the following questions 1 Why do I want to teach 2 What challenges will I confront as a teacher 3 What is it like to be a teacher a general idea 4 What will society expect ofme as a teacher 5 How do accomplished teachers view their work SPE 2800 SL Smiley Teachers Schools amp Learners Chapter 2 Discussion Learning to Teach Three kinds of knowledge needed to teach o 1 Selfknowledge effective teachers understand themselves and are sensitive to students needs must be able to tolerate ambiguities and be able to reduce anxiety about being observably effective loneliness or isolation need time to interact and observe colleagues 0 2 Knowledge of students you must know student characteristics such as aptitudes talents learning styles stages of development and readiness to learn new materials YOUR expectations will directly affect student achievement 0 3 Knowledge of subject assumed to be extensive pedagogical content knowledge joint product of wisdom about teaching learning students and content Using education theory and research goal is to learn how to apply this knowledge to your own teaching understand the why Barak Rosenshine research on cognitive processing 6 basic steps 0 1 Present new material in small steps so that the working memory does not become overloaded o 2 Help students develop an organization for the new material SPE 2800 SL Smiley o 3 Guide student practice by a supporting them during initial practice and b providing extensive student processing 0 4 When teaching higher level tasks support students by providing them with cognitive strategies 5 Help students to use cognitive strategies by providing them with procedural prompts who what why when and modeling the use of these 0 6 Provide for extensive student practice Importance of reflection problemsolving orientation to create optimum learning environments for students Five views of Teacher Knowledge Base 0 1 Personal development view Teachers who appear in charge of their own lives who radiate power tranquility and grace in their actions are going to command attention and respect People will follow them quot 2 Researchbased competencies 3 State standards outcomebased or performance based teacher education 0 4 Jobanalysis approach Star Teachers persistence protecting learners and learning application of generalizations approach to students atrisk professional vs personal orientation to students burnout causes and cures fallibility organizational ability physicalemotional stamina teaching style explanation of success student rapport readiness to believe that education will provide students with the best chance of making it National Board for Professional Teaching Standards NBPTS Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium INTASC 10 standards on page 51 Educational reform movement in 1983 O O O SPE 2800 SL Smiley xx xxx Holmes Group Professional Development Schools PDSs Holmes Partnership NBPTS National Education Association NEA American Federation of Teachers AFT Schoolbased teacher education extensive field experiences Professional standards boards many teachers teaching out offield Lessons to learn from observing in classrooms M experiences meaningful with focus and conducted with clear purpose see motivation chart on page 55 Classroom experiences microteaching teaching simulations video cases practicum classroom aides student teaching Reflective teaching log journal see page 60 Experience in multicultural settings different racial and ethnic backgrounds students with exceptional needs 00 You will be challenged to reach out to all students Teach them they are persons of worth and can learn Be sensitive to differences while at same time treat them fairly Induction programs internship programs substitute teaching 270000 substitutes daily across US Develop a teaching portfolio Priceless MENTORS Mentoring Professional Development selfassessment inservice workshops teacher centers professional developments schools PDSs student teachers becoming a mentor graduate study Professional Opportunities on the Internet mylabschoolcom You should now be able to answer the following questions 1 2 3 What knowledge do you need to teach What are five views of the teacher knowledge base How do reforms in teacher education affect you SPE 2800 SL Smiley 4 What can you learn from observing in classrooms 9 How can you gain practical experience for becoming a teacher 95 How can you develop your teaching portfolio N How can you benefit from mentoring relationships 9 What opportunities for continuing professional development will you have SPE 2800 SL Smiley Teachers Schools amp Learners Chapter 3 Discussion Ideas and Events That Have Shaped Education in the United States We educate and we are educated for some purpose we consider good We teach what we think is a valuable set of ideas How else could we construct educationquot Nelson Carlson amp Palonsky Events of the past shape the events of the future we as dedicated skilled educators must analyze these to evaluate more effectively current proposals for change Awareness of ideas and events that have influenced teaching is a hallmark of professionalism Considering your personal education philosophy 0 What should the purposes of education be 0 What is the nature of knowledge 0 What values should students adopt o What knowledge is of most worth 0 How should learning be evaluated Your behavior as a teacher is strongly connected to your beliefs about 0 Teaching and Learning 0 Students 0 Knowledge 0 O What is Worth Knowing Philosophical Areas Branches of philosophy 0 Metaphysics o Epistemology o Axiology ethics aesthetics logic Socratic questioning SPE 2800 SL Smiley o Deductive thinking general to specific inductive thinking specific to general 5 Modern Philosophical Orientations to Teaching 0 Perennialism intellect is the highest priority Bloom Hutchins Adler Essentialism basics Bagley o Progressivism childcentered Dewey Existentialism individual quest for meaning it s about ME Satre Greene 0 Social Reconstructionism schools should be role models for changing society tied to Progressivism Counts Humanistic Psychology personal freedom and choice awareness personal responsibility individual selfactualization derived from Humanism Behaviorism desirable human behavior can be product of design Watson Skinner Pavlov Constructivism uses studentsupported learning student is key to learning Schools of Yesterday 0 American Colonies 16201750 Parochial Schools Dame schools Horn Book Reading and Writing Schools Latin Grammar School Massachusetts Act of 1647 AfricanAmericans amp Native Americans 0 Revolutionary Period 17501820 Benjamin Franklin English Academies Sarah Pierce Female Seminaries O O SPE 2800 SL Smiley Thomas Jefferson Education of the people is the most effective means of preserving liberty University of Virginia Noah Webster Elementary Spelling Book The Old Blue Back The American Dictionary 0 Struggle for StateSupported Schools 18201865 Horace Mann Common Schools Normal Schools Catherine Beecher McGuffy Readers 6 in series hard work honesty truth charity and obedience Morrill LandGrant Act 1862 0 Changes in the Teaching Profession 18651920 Attendance Laws Booker T Washington belief that education could improve the lives of AfricanAmericans just as whites Poverty and ignorance have affected the black man just as they affect the white man But the day is breaking and education will bring the complete light Tuskegee Institute 1880 Kindergarten in 1855 Friedrich Froebel Margarethe Schurz opened first in her home at Watertown Wisconsin Professional Teacher Organizations NEA National Education Association 1857 AFT American Federation of Teachers 1916 0 Progressive Era 19201945 Progressive Movement improve the quality of American life teachers were guides not task masters John Dewey Laboratory School Maria Montessori Montessori School SPE 2800 SL Smiley Immigrants and Minorities Native Americans loss of traditional culture 0 Modern Postwar Era 1945present 3 trends Americanization Democratization Professionalization 1950 s National Defense Education Act of 1958 desegregation Brown v Board of Ed of Topeka 1960 s Kennedy s high hopes Teachers were capable professionals Implementation of curricular changes openeducation movement team teaching individualized instruction integratedday concept flexible scheduling nongraded schools Elementary and Secondary Education Act 1965 allocated funds based on number of poor children in school districts Bilingual Education Act 1968 Title VII 1970 s Accountability and Equal Opportunity back to basics Teachers couldn t be trusted Cookbook directions Low confidence BUT this led to More teachers have advanced training more high school graduates better instructional methods to reach diverse learners more materials available school buildings improved and better equipped Title IV Education for All Handicapped Children Act Public Law 94142 1975 mainstreaming 1980 s Great Debate Teacher bashing a nation atrisk publications calling for reform Mortimer Adler William Bennett 1990 s Teachers as LEADERS in the profession bringing about CHANGE No Child Left Behind Act 2002 REAUTHORIZATION SPE 2800 SL Smiley You should now be able to answer these questions N ER 10 11 What determines your educationalphilosophy What are the branches ofphilosophy What are 5 modern philosophical orientations to teaching What psychological orientations have influenced teaching philosophies How can you develop your own personal educational philosophy What were teaching and schools like in the American colonies 16201750 What were goals of teaching during the Revolutionary Period 17501865 How was the struggle won for statesupported common schools 18201865 How did compulsory education change schools and the teaching profession 18651920 What were the aims of education during the Progressive Era 19201945 How did education change during the modern postwar era 1954present Point to remember Teach for STUDENTS SPE 2800 SL Smiley Teachers Schools amp Learners Chapter 4 Discussion Social Realities in Today s Schools Primary purpose of schools provide students with academic knowledge be prepared for LIFE beyond school Prosocial values honesty patriotism fairness civility Education is primary means of producing enlightened citizens Service learning opportunities to serve communities Magnet schools Rural Suburban amp Urban schools differences Need children to recognize selfworth School culture physical environment practices of schools self contained classrooms openspaced classrooms departmentalization traditions classroom culture up to YOU Successful schools Achievement Students are learning to solve problems think creatively learning to LEARN School effectiveness 0 Strong leadership High expectations Emphasis on basic skills Orderly school environment Frequent systematic evaluation of student learning Sense of purpose vision of excellence Teachers administrators parents students ALL WORK TOEGETHER Atrisk schools and students 0 Almost every community in America kids are living in a socially toxic environment O O O O O O SPE 2800 SL Smiley O O O 0 00000 0 Extreme stress poverty crime lack of adult guidance parenting High dropout rates low grades perform below grade level behavior issues can be older than peers retention The South chart on page 135 Risk of students lagging behind increases by 2 percentage points for every year in poverty Homeless students Latchkey kids 38 pm Substance abuse drugs and alcohol Violence crime gangs Teen pregnancy Suicide School programs for atrisk students 0 O O 0 Peer counseling Peer mediation Fullservice community schools Compensatory education programs Head Start Success for All Upward Bound Alternative school Schoolwithinaschool Outotschool time OST activities extracurricular activities Right Moves for Youth Community Involvement OOOOO Civic organizations Volunteer mentor programs Corporate education partnerships BeforeAfter school programs Tutors Lunch buddies Personal needs clothing medical glasses Meet family You should now be able to answer the following questions 1 What is the role of the schools in today s society SPE 2800 SL Smiley How can schools be described 2 3 What are schools like as social institutions 4 What are the characteristics ofsuccessful schools 5 What socialproblems affect schools and place students at risk 6 How are schools addressing societal problems How can communitybased partnerships help students learn N SPE 2800 SL Smiley Chapter 7 Key Terms Teaching Diverse Learners Diversity 0 Culture Cultural identity 0 Equal educational opportunity Bilingual education Limited English proficient LEP Multiculturalism Ethnicity 0 Race Minorities stereotyping Individual racism Institutional racism Afrocentric schools Socioeconomic factors Indian Education Act of 1972 1974 amendments Bicultural Monolingual Multicultural education Multicultural curriculum Sex role socialization Sex role stereotyping Women s Educational Equity Act of 1974 WEEA Gender bias Gender fair classroom SPE 2800 SL Smiley Chapter 8 Key Terms Addressing Individual Learners Needs Piaget s Model of Cognitive Development sensorimotor intelligence stage preoperational thought stage concrete operational stage formal operations stage Erikson s Model of Psychosocial Development Psychosocial crisis Kohlberg s Model of Moral Development Reasoning Character education Hierarchy of needs Intelligence and testing Multiple intelligences Learning styles Exceptional learners Students with disabilities Learning disability LD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD Attention deficit disorder ADD Special education Gifted and Talented TD Laws Education for All Handicapped Children PL 94142 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA 1997 Amendments to IDEA Individualized education plan IEP Mainstreaming Inclusion full inclusion Least restrictive environment Assistive technology Collaborative consultation SPE 2800 SL Smiley Chapter 9 Key Terms Authentic Instruction and Curricula for Creating a Community of Learners Classroom climate Classroom dynamics communication skills student interactions Positive learning environment Caring classroom Classroom organization Betweenclass ability grouping Withinclass ability grouping Cooperative learning Authentic learning tasks Allocated time Time on task Academic learning time Opportunity to learn OTL Block scheduling Classroom management Democratic classrooms Choice theory Assertive discipline Lee Cantor Direct instruction Mastery learning Constructivist teaching Modeling Scaffolding Information processing Inquiry learningdiscovery learning Peermediated instruction SPE 2800 SL Smiley 0 Group investigation 0 Peertutoring crossage tutoring 0 Curriculum explicit hidden null subjectcentered integrated o Extracurricularcocurricular programs 0 Tyler rdtiondle SPE 2800 SL Smiley Chapter 6 Key Terms Ethical amp Legal Issues in US Education code of ethics ethical dilemmas due process nondiscrimination teaching contract tenure dismissal collective bargaining g evance academic freedom tort liability negligence educational malpractice copyright laws fair use Digital Millennium Copyright Act DMCA Freedom of expression Censorship Search and seizure Buckley Amendment Corporal punishment Sexual harassment


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