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Notes Lecture 3

by: Keziah Notetaker

Notes Lecture 3 14407

Marketplace > Brooklyn college > Psychlogy > 14407 > Notes Lecture 3
Keziah Notetaker
Brooklyn college
GPA 3.4
Psychology 2100
Alison Barren

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Psychology 2100
Alison Barren
Class Notes
social psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keziah Notetaker on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 14407 at Brooklyn college taught by Alison Barren in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Psychology 2100 in Psychlogy at Brooklyn college.

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Date Created: 10/02/15
Lecture 3 Social psychologists use science to test the validity and reliability of observations and to examine relationships of variables Hindsight bias occurs When results seem predictable in retrospect 6 steps in the research process 1 Form a questionreal world observations current theories 2 Search the literaturefind relevant literaturescientific articles reviews books Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 3 Form a hypothesisstatement assumed to be true for purpose of testing its validity tentative can be tested empirically by collecting data 4 Create an operational definition Define all relevant variables and constructs with a statement of the precise meaning of a procedure or concept within an experiment 5 Collect and analyze data Collection surveys observational research experimental research analyze based on the question of interest 6 Propose andor revise theory Based on the outcome did you support your hypothesis propose a new theory updatevalidate start over Correlational Research Focus on prediction from knowing X can we predict Y correlational methods examine associations between two or more variables not cause and effect 0 Correlational coefficient Ranges from 1 to 1 correlations are positive when two things go in the same direction either up or down correlations are negative when two things cause each other to go in opposite directions Advantages Useful when unsure of cause and effect relationship Disadvantages Don t know if a is causing b b is causing a or c is causing a and b Observational Research Focuses on description and answers what is the nature of the phenomenon 0 Used to describe and measure people s behavior in everyday situations Direct Observation Observation of behavior watching someone walk Indirect Observation Observation of something leading you to infer something about behavior eg footprints Ethnography Attempt to understand group or culture from inside Archival analysis Examine accumulated documents or archives 0 Advantages Real world observation of behaviors easy to conduct and cheap provide evidence for rare behavior large amounts of data 0 Disadvantages Certain behaviors are hard to observe observers bias ensure good interrater reliability Survey Research Reporting of people s thoughts feelings desires and actions Be careful to use random selection Direct Questioning Identifying specific behaviors Indirect Questioning Agreeing to behaviors but not directly saying which behavior was engaged in 0 Advantages Easy to obtain data on many topics inexpensively sample large segments of population response to sensitive subjects if anonymous 0 Disadvantages lnaccuracy of responses wording of questions Experimental Research Focus on causality and answers is variable X the cause of Y 0 Direct intervention by researcher Examining FactorsVariables Independent variable Causes behavior Dependent variable Measure of behavior Experimental Research Follow the steps 1 Ask a question ie Do women eat less when they want to appear attractive 2 Search the literature women overestimate how thin men want them 3 Hypothesis women who are in the presence of a desirable male compared to undesirable will eat less 4 Operationally Define Independent and dependent variable CollectAnalyze Data 6 Either establish a theory or come up with a new hypothesis 0 lnternal validity The degree to which one can validly draw conclusions about the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable Be careful of o Extraneous variable Factors that might impact your results 0 Random assignments Make sure subjects have an equal chance of being placed in various independent variable groups 0 Demand characteristics Cues that influence subjects behavior External validity The degree to which results can be generalized to other situations field research or people using a representative sample Psychological realism extent to which psych processes triggered in a study are similar in real life Replication Repeating study with different people different settings 0 Metaanalysis Combining results from similar studies Ethics The APA Code Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct 0 Covers ethical principles of all activities that psychologists are engaged in The Institutional Review Board IRB Must abide by laws FDA etc Approves all research on humans Checks for technical validity Tries to minimize risks to participants Considers risks in relation to benefits At least 5 members Human Subject Rights 0 Informed consent Agreeing to participate after knowing the risks and benefits 0 Debriefing lf deception was used the researcher must tell the subjects about the true reasoning behind why certain methods were used and what actually happened during the experiment 0 ConfidentialityMilgram Obedience Study 1963


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