Notes Lecture 4
Popular in Psychology 2100
Popular in Psychlogy
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keziah Notetaker on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 14407 at Brooklyn college taught by Alison Barren in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Psychology 2100 in Psychlogy at Brooklyn college.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Lecture 4 Social Cognition How we think about the social world and select interpret remember and use information to make judgements about the world Automatic Thinking Unconscious and effortlessunintentional O Heuristics shortcuts to form judgement and decision 0 Inaccurate at times stereotyping Schemas Mental structures that organize knowledge and grow with development to group similar things chairs Stereotypes Schemas applied to social groups 0 Research case on racial stereotypes Payne 2001 Payne Shimizu Jacoby 2005 httppsychwustleduamcclabManuscriptsPayne20Shimizu20amp20JacobyPayne 20Shimizu20amp20Jacoby202005pdf How Schemas In uence Behavior Accessibility Schemas and concepts are more accessible easily recalled due to past eXperiences and goals Automatic judgements are usually based on our most recent eXperiences that are similarrelatable to the current situation Priming The process through which a schema can be made accessible via eXposure to that schema in subtle ways 0 Usually unconsciously 0 Research Project Bargh et al 1996 Participants given three words related to elderly Florida wrinkles and bingo another group given three neutral words not related to anything thirsty clean chair Participants were timed while walking from the research lab to the elevator upon leaving and those given the elderly words were much more likely to act elderly and walk slower httpwwwyaleeduacmelabarticlesbarghchenburrowsl996pdf page 7 Errors in Automatic Thinking Heuristics Mental shortcuts people use to make quick judgements rules of thumb Accessibility Availability Heuristic make a judgement based on the ease with Which we can bring something to mind Representativeness Heuristic Classifying something according to how similar it is to the typical case There are errors in both of these BaseRate Fallacy People tend to ignore the probability of a given event 0 Flying is still the safest form of transportation despite all the crashes that are reported like 911 Controlled Social Cognition Controlled Thinking Conscious intentional voluntary and effortful O Relies on time motivation and effort 0 Tends to be more accurate Counterfactual ReasoningThinking The tendency to imagine alternative outcomes to various events Which can in uence how people experience those events Thought Suppression and Ironic Processing 0 Trying to avoid thinking about something leads to overthinking about it 0 White Bear Study Wegner et al 1987 Participants told not to think about a White bear during free recall thought about it more than participants Who were not Thought suppression has paradoxical effects as a selfcontrol strategy Presentation In uences How We Think About the Social World Contrast Effects Perceiving a stimulus differently depending on a comparison 0 Sales for clothing groceries o Kenrick and Gutierres 1987 study Asked heterosexual males to rate their sexual attraction to current partners after seeing playboy images vs abstract art Framing Tendency to see an issue differently based on the way it is presented Impression Formation and Social Cognition Primacy Information presented early has a greater impact on our judgements because we form impressions quickly 0 The same set of descriptives organized in different ways will make you jump to different conclusions 0 Warm cautious intelligent skillful industrious is seen as nice 0 Cautious industrious warm intelligent skillful is seen as less personable Trait Negativity Bias Negative traits are more powerful than positive ones 0 Considered most useful from an evolution survival standpoint Implicit Personality Theory Assumes that certain traits and behaviors go together 0 A person with a positive trait like good social skills is thought to be intelligent and extroverted when these don t always go together naturally How Beliefs In uence The Social World Perceptual Confirmation Confirmation Bias Tendency to selectively search for information that con rms one s beliefs 0 Internet and social media sites support this by filtering newsfeed to include more of what you pick Selffulfilling Prophecy l The tendency to seek and create information that verifies your own beliefs about someone 2 Your expectations about someone s traits in uences how they act 3 As a result these actions elicit the behavior you expected con rming beliefs Can this be prevented Have a goal to be liked by the target person Behavioral confirmation can be broken if targets are aware of perceiver s expectations Perceiver s assumptions are highly inaccurate Cultural Differences in Social Cognition Analytical Thinking Style 0 Associated with Western cultural values Focuses on objects or people Holistic Thinking Style Associated with Eastern culture values Focuses on the Whole picture including relationships between people not just everyone as individuals Members of individualistic cultures 0 Prefer dispositional attributions 0 Think like personality psychologists 0 Make the fundamental attribution error more often Members of collectivistic cultures 0 Prefer situational explanations 0 Think like Social Psychologists 0 Greater situational focus is a matter of degree if several people look unhappy the neutral face will be seen as much sadder by a collectivist than an individualistic person
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