Notes Lecture 5
Popular in Psychology 2100
Popular in Psychlogy
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keziah Notetaker on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 14407 at Brooklyn college taught by Alison Barren in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Psychology 2100 in Psychlogy at Brooklyn college.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Lecture 5 Perception The organization identi cation and interpretation of sensory information in order to understand our environment Social Perception The organization identi cation and interpretation of sensory information plus social cues in order to understand our social environment 0 The study of how we form impressions of other people and how we make inferences about them Nonverbal Communication How people communicate intentional and unintentional without words 0 Includes appearance facial expression tone of voice gestures body positionsmovement use of touch and eye gaze O Helps express our emotions attitudes and personality Facial Expressions O Humans encode express nonverbal behavior and decode interpret meaning of nonverbal behavior through facial expressions 0 Expressions are 0 Functional Express emotion Convey attitude Communicate personality Are useful in physiological reactions Fear enhances perception an overall increase in awareness and disgust decreases perception look of disgust involves closing off nostrils o Evolved Increase survival Increase ability to accurately perceive and communicate information Paul Ekman 1969 Discovered 6 emotions that are universal 0 Happiness Sadness Surprise Fear Disgust Anger O httpwwwnbbcornelleduneurobiolandoldstudentprojectscs49095to96hjkimemotio nshtml Factors that Complicate Nonverbal Behavior 0 Affect blend Facial expression with parts of the face expressing emotions which are considered abnormal or different for those parts making interpretation dif cult ie Smizing smiling through the eyes instead of the lipsmouth 0 Display Rules Culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display ie smiling eye contact 0 Emblems Nonverbal gestures that have well understood de nitions within a culture usually direct verbal translations ie OK hand gesture when ipped is called ipping the bird and synonymous with the middle nger in Australia Implicit Personality Theory and StereotypeSchemas 0 Ideas of which traits go together partially depends on our culture 0 Develop over time and with experience like all schemas 0 Example The term Artistic is de ned as creatively skilled but is associated with the words intense creative and unconventional 0 Example The term Shi gu is de ned as worldly wise but is associated with the words socially skillful reserved and devoted to family Attribution Theory A description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people s behavior 0 Credited to Fritz Heider the father of attribution theory 0 A study of how we infer the causes of people s behavior 0 We usually make one of two attributions Dispositional internal SituationalCircumstantial external Internal Attribution O The causes of behaviors are driven by personal factors and are dispositional o From individual traits ability effort or personality External Attribution O The causes of behaviors are driven by outside factors and are situational 0 Assume that most people would respond the same way in that situation Example of internal vs external attribution Satis ed Marriages Partner s positive behaviors ie bringing owers home are connected with internal attribution they are so thoughtful Partner s negative behaviors ie laying around after work instead of chores are connected with external attribution they must be stressed after a long work day Distressed Marriages Partner s positive behaviors ie bringing owers home are connected with external attribution they must have been cheating Partner s negative behaviors ie laying around after work instead of chores are connected with internal attribution they are so lazy and inconsiderate Fundamental Attribution Error Overestimating the role of personal causes of behavior and underestimating situational causes of behavior Example Tribute to Rosa Parks day when there was a sign on the bus to stand in honor of her Several people sat and the majority of people standing assumed those sitting just didn t care when most of them hadn t even noticed the sign to begin with Example Alex Trebeck the host of Jeopardy is thought to be so smart when he always has the answers in front of him Why do we make Social Perception Errors Perceptual Salience Seeming importance of information that is the focus of people s attention connected to external attributions Our own behavior is perceptually salient We tend to be aware of our own situational external factors causing our behavior Other s behavior stands out as being caused by dispositional internal factors Factors that play a key role include Liking or disliking someone typically based on rst impression Actually knowing the person Selfserving Biases People are motivated to feel good about themselves Successes will be due to internal dispositional factors we always want the credit Failures will be due to external situational factors it s never our fault Motivation for selfserving attributions Maintaining selfesteem and selfpresentation Maintaining expectations if we expected a positive outcome
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