Chromosomes Notes BIOL 1010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by TylerElliot on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1010 at Ohio University taught by Kim Thompson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Environmental Science at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Chromosomes 921 925 0 Chromosomes Apportioned to Daughter Cells in Mitosis O O O Mitosis is a form of asexual reproduction where the parent cell divides and creates two daughter cells that are identical to each other and the parent Chromatin the threadlike chromosomal material of the nondividing cell Chromosome the structures visible during cell division 0 Phases of Mitosis and Cytokinesis O 0000 Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis During cell division chromosomes are divided into their two identical chromatids one of which are sent to the daughter cell and make it identical to the parent cell c Chromosomes Come in Matched Pairs O O Homologous pairs are the chromosomes in daughter cells that appear to be identical but are derived from different parents I Almost all mature plant and animals chromosomes occur in homologous pairs The 23rd set of chromosomes XY for males and XX for females determine the sex of the offspring Walter Sutton discovered the Chromosome Theory of Inheritance that states that the two members of each homologous pair of chromosomes carry alleles for the same genes and therefore effect the same traits Locus An allele s position on a chromosome It s address Fertilization The fusion of gametes egg and sperm to form a new individual with a unique combination of genes Sutton s theory wasn t entirely accepted because biologist s needed to learn more about whatever mechanism that prevents the doubling of chromosomes at fertilization if each parent gives an equal number of chromosomes Zygote the fertilized egg in a diploid cell c Meiosis is Cell Division that Reduces the Chromosome Number 0 O Gametes come from parent cells in cell division called Meiosis Meiosis multiplies the number of cells in cell division and reduces the number of chromosomes in each daughter cell by 12 I Daughter cells only receive one member of a homologous pair thus only one allele for each gene I Diploid cells have both members of a homologous pair I Haploid cells have only one member of a homologous pair 0 Phases of Meiosis OOOOOOOOOO Prophase 1 Metaphase 1 Anaphase 1 Telophase 1 and Cytokinesis Interkinesis Prophase 2 Metaphase 2 Anaphase 2 Telophase 2 and Cytokinesis Interkinesis 0 Cell Cycle 0 lnterphase and Mitotic Phase lnterphase was thought to be a resting place unlike Mphase which contains mitosis and cytokinesis lnterphase I G1 Organelles duplicate I S DNA replication and Chromosome duplication I G2 Cell grows and prepares for mitosis There are difference in cell types because cells don t all divide at the same rate Some like nerve cells don t divide at all The cell cycle is extremely regulated and when the cycle is disrupted a cell becomes unregulated and divides too rapidly which is how cancerous cells are formed 0 Some Genetic Traits Travel Together 0 Mendel developed his Law of Independent Assortment based on the 7 traits he studied in pea plants but pea plants happen to have exactly 7 chromosomes Chromosomes follow the Law of Independent Assortment not genes Thomas Morgan an embryologist discovered that the eye colour gene is located on the X chromosome which is sex linkage by studying flies Sex linkage is an example of a linkage group which is wear clusters of traits tend to be inherited in groups I Although traits within a linkage group tend to be inherited together there are a lot of times where they re inherited separately 0 Example Red hair and freckles Not everyone with freckles has red hair 0 Chromosomes can Exchange Parts During Meiosis 0 When chromosomes pair with their homologous mates in Prophase 1 there are specific places where a chromatid on one member of a pair is connected to a chromatid of its homologous partner I Chiasma are the points where homologous chromatids crossover I Crossing over resorts in exchange of genetic info between homologous pairs O 0 Broken ends of chromosomes can rejoin after switching places with corresponding broken ends on homologous chromatids Crossing Over This phenomenon of broken and healed chromosomes I Creates a new combination of genes What is the Chemical Nature of the Gene 0 Isotopes variants of elements that share all the same chemical properties but have a different amount of neutrons Hershey and Chase used radioactive isotopes that were specific to only protein and only DNA I 32 P and 35 8 Separate experiments with these isotopes were conducted E Coli was grown in 2 separate cases I 32 P was incorporated into their DNA in one case while 35 S was put in the protein capsules in the other case I Researchers separated the cells from their viral coats 32 P in the DNA found its way into the e Coli cells but the 35 S stayed only in the protein coat DNA carries genetic info
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