NTWRK & IT INFRASTRUCTURES
NTWRK & IT INFRASTRUCTURES CIS 3580
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vernie Tillman on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CIS 3580 at Appalachian State University taught by David Hunsinger in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see /class/217675/cis-3580-appalachian-state-university in Computer Information Systems at Appalachian State University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
CS3580 Study Guide for Chapter 7 Fall 2010 Be very familiar with key terms at the beginning of Chapter 7 in the hardcover book these are blue terms within the text What are the 2 basic services the Data Link layer provides It allows the upper layers to access the media using techniques such as framing Controls how data is placed onto the media and is received from the media using techniques such as media access control MAC and error detection List and define the 4 specific terms associated with the Data Link layer Erame The Data Link layer PDU Node The Layer 2 notation for network devices connected to a common medium Mediamedium physical The physical means for the transfer of information between two nodes Network physica Two or more nodes connected to a common medium What happens the frame as moves from source to destination It changes based on the medium used Define Media Access Control The technique used for getting the frame on and off media What can the control information tell you Which nodes are in communication with each other When communication between individual nodes begins and when it ends Which errors occurred while the nodes communicated Which nodes will communicate next List and define the three elements ofa Data Link Layer Frame m The packet from the Network layer Header Contains control information such addressing and is located at the beginning of the PDU Trailer Contains control information added to the end of the PDU List and define the 5 typical field types Start and stop indicator fields The beginning and end limits of the frame Naming or addressing fields Type field The type of PDU contained in the frame Quality control fields A data eld The frame payload Network layer packet What is the most common physical device that is used for the Data Link Layer NIC Describe the two sublayers of the Data Link Layer The upper sublayer defines the software processes that provide services to the Network layer protocols The lower sublayer defines the media access processes performed by the hardware What are the two functions ofthe Logical Link Control Frames the network layer packet Identifies the network layer protocol What are the two functions ofthe Media Access Control Addresses the frame Marks the beginning and ending of each frame What are the 4 organizations that define the Data Link standards International Organization for Standardization ISO Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers lEEE American National Standards Institute ANSI International Telecommunication Union ITU What analogy is made with the media access control traffic rules that regulate the entrance of motor vehicles onto a roadway What does the method that media access control uses depend on Media sharing If and how the nodes share the media Topology Howthe connection between the nodes appears to the Data Link layer What are the two basic media access control methods for shared media Controlled Each node has its own time to use the medium Contentionbased All nodes compete for the use of the medium What are two examples of controlled media access Token Ring FDDI What are two examples of contentionbased media access Ethernet V reless Why can controlled media access be inefficient Device has to wait its turn to access the media What is CSMA Carrier Sense Multiple access What is a data collision When two devices transmit at the same time What is CSMACD What is CSMACA Carrier Sense Multiple access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Define Half Duplex devices can both transmit and receive on the media but cannot do so simultaneously Define Full Duplex Both devices can transmit and receive on the media at the same time Define physical topology arrangement of the nodes and the physical connections between them Define logical topology the way a network transfers frames from one node to the next What logical and physical topologies are typically used in networks PointtoPoint MultiAccess Ring Define point to point topology connects two nodes directly together Define virtual circuit a logical connection created within a network between two network devices Which type of topology is used to determine the media access control logical pointtopoint topology Define logical multi access topology enables a number of nodes to communicate by using the same shared media What are the three types of media access control can be used in a multi access topology CSMACD CSMACA or token passing How does a data flow in a ring network From node to node until it reaches the destination What are the three basic parts ofa data link layer frame Header Data Trailer What are the typical fields in the frame header Start Frame field Indicates the beginning of the frame Source and Destination address fields Indicates the source and destination nodes on the media Priorihlmlla39ihl of Service field Indicates a particular tvpe of 39 quot service for processing Type field Indicates the upper layer service contained in the frame Logica connection control field Used to establish a logical connection between nodes Physical link control field Used to establish the media link Flow control field Used to start and stop traffic over the media Congestion control field Indicates congestion in the media Which part the network WANLAN is the data link address used in delivering LAN What is the difference between Data Link Address and Logical Address Data Link address only defines the machine it is not logically assigned Does a point to point link need a data link address No it only has one place to go Define error detection accomplished by placing a logical or mathematical summary of the bits that comprise the frame in the trailer Define Frame Check Sequence used to determine if errors occurred in the transmission and reception of the frame How could the CRC be correct and the frame contain errors The error bits could cancel each other out Do all protocols support using the FCS to determine errors NO What Layer 2 protocols will we study in this course Ethernet PointtoPoint Protocol PPP HighLevel Data Link Control HDLC Frame Relay Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM Which usually performs at a higher bandwidth LAN or WAN LAN What do Ethernet standards define Layer 2 Protocols and Layer 1 technologies What is the data link address MAC address How is the data link address expressed 48 bit Hexadecimal CIS3580 Study Guide for Chapter 8 Fall 2010 Be very familiar with key terms at the beginning of Chapter 8 in the hardcover book these are blue terms within the text What does the physical layer provide provides the means to transport across the network media the bits that make up a Data Link layer frame What are the four elements ofdelivering frames across the media The physical media and associated connectors A representation of bits on the media Encoding of data and control information Transmitter and receiver circuitry on the network devices What are the three basic forms of media Copper cable Fiber V reless What are the three concerns when the physical layer encodes bits the Physical layer encodes the bits into the signals for a particular medium it must also distinguish where one frame ends and the next frame begins What does the physical layer consist of hardware developed by engineers in the form of electronic circuitry media and connectors What are the organizations that are responsible for physical layer standards The International Organization for Standardization ISO The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE The American National Standards Institute ANSI The International Telecommunication Union ITU The Electronics Industry AIIlanceTelecommunications Industry Association EIATIA National telecommunications authorities such as the Federal Communication Commission FCC in the USA The technologies de ned by these organizations include what four areas ofthe Physical layer standards Physical and electrical properties of the media Mechanical properties materials dimensions pinouts of the connectors Bit representation by the signals encoding Definition of control information signals What are the three fundamental functions of the Physical layer The physical components Data encoding Signaling How are the bits ofthe frame transmitted by the physical layer 1 and 0 What is a bit time specific amount of time each signal has to occupy the media How are the signaling and receiving ends clocks synchronized in the LAN Many signaling methods use predictable transitions in the signal to provide synchronization between the clocks of the transmitting and the receiving devices What characteristics can be changed to represent bits on the medium Amplitude Frequency Phase What will happen if there is no agreement between nodes on the signaling method The transmission will fail Which medium uses Manchester encoding 1OBaseT Ethernet What method is used to signal start and end ofa frame in higher speed technologies Specific pattern of grouped bits What is a code group consecutive sequence of code bits that are interpreted and mapped as data bit patterns What are the three measures for Data Transfer Bandwidth Throughput Goodput What is the difference between throughput and goodput Throughput is the measure of bits over a given time and goodput is the measure of usable data transferred over a given period of time What type of connector is commonly used in copper cabling What is done to the pairs ofwires to minimize signal degradation due to electronic noise Shielding and twisting of the wires What are the other methods listed to limit the susceptibility of copper cables to noise Selecting the cable type or category most suited to protect the data signals in a given networking environment Designing a cable infrastructure to avoid known and potential sources of interference in the building structure Using cabling techniques that include the proper handling and termination of the cables What is crosstalk the interference caused by the magnetic field around the adjacent pairs of wires in the cable What is used to limit crosstalk Twisting pairs of wires What changes in the twist from one pair of wires to the next pair to improve the limitation of crosstalk The number of twists per meter changes What are some ofthe elements de ned by the TIAEIA 568A standard Cable types Cable lengths Connectors Cable termination Methods of testing cable Why is it wasteful to install less expensive but lower rated cabling If the decision is later made to adopt a faster LAN technology total replacement of the installed cable infrastructure may be required What are the three types of Ethernet cables Ethernet Straightthrough Ethernet Crossover Rollover What is a straightthrough used for Host to network device such as a hub or switch What is a crossover used for Connecting two hosts Connecting to network intermediary devices What is a rollover used for Connecting a computers serial port to the console port of a router with an adapter What happens ifyou use the wrong type of cable when connecting devices Communication will not occur What are the other two types ofcopper cabling 1 Coaxial 2 Shielded TwistedPair STP What has replaced the use of coaxial cable in today s Ethernet installations UTP What type of materials can be used for ber optic cabling Glass or plastic What is the encoding method for ber optic Light pulses What are the issues with implementing ber optic cabling More expensive usually than copper media over the same distance but for a higher capacity Different skills and equipment required to terminate and splice the cable infrastructure More careful handling than copper media What areas usually implement ber optic cabling Backbone and between buildings What are the major advantages of using fiber optic between buildings optical ber does not conduct electricity and has low signal loss How many cables are needed for each ber optic connection Why 2 they can only operate in one direction What are the two types of ber optic cables Single mode and multimode How do wireless media carry electromagnetic signals radio and microwave frequencies that represent the binary digits of data communications What is the major concern for wireless signals Security What are the 4 standards for wireless networks lEEE 80211 lEEE 80215 lEEE 80216 Global System for Mobile Communications GSM What are the two network devices necessary to implement a wireless network V reless Access Point AP Concentrates the wireless signals from users and connects usually through a copper cable to the existing copperbased network infrastructure such as Ethernet V reless NIC adapters Provides wireless communication capability to each network host What are the WLAN Ethernet standards lEEE 80211a lEEE 80211b lEEE 80211g lEEE 80211n Go through the Check Your Understanding questions at the end of Chapter 8 ofthe hardcover
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