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by: Gay Heller

Laboratory BIO 1101

Gay Heller
GPA 3.81


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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gay Heller on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1101 at Appalachian State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see /class/217683/bio-1101-appalachian-state-university in Biology at Appalachian State University.

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Date Created: 10/02/15
Biology 1101 Fall 2010 Review Exam 4 Chapter 12 13 and 14 This study guide is not meant to cover every detail from the lecture or text It is meant to highlight important points Exam 4 will cover Chapters 10 14 review sheets for chapters 10 11 are separate and at week 13 Online Office Hours Evening before the exam 910pm Go to ASU Learn to get on Review Session Dec 7 h Tuesday from 56 in RSW 183 Come with questions but please ll out your review sheets before coming I liedthere are several comprehensive questions on Exam 4 They are going to be Chapter 12 Mutations 125 Vocabulary Term Definition Mutations A CHANGE IN DNA SEQUENCING Missense mutation Example used A BASE CHANGE RESULTS IN A DIFFERENT AMINO ACID BEING INSERTED INTO A PROTEIN EX SICKLE CELL DISEASE llTHQ ONE BIG FLY HAD ONE RED EYE Nonsense mutation Example used WHEN THE POINT MUTATION CAUSES THE RNA TO STOP MAKING THE PROTEIN EX CYSTIC FIBROSIS llTHE ONE BIG Frameshift mutation Example used INSERTION OR DELETION OF 1 OR 2 NOT 3 NUCLEOTIDE BASES DISRUPTS THE READING FRAME OF THE BASES EX CYSTIC FIBROSIS llTHE ONE QBI GFLYHA DON ERE DEY Expanded repeated mutation Example used NUCLEOTIDE TRIPLETS BEYOND NORMAL RANGE EX HUNTINGTON S DISEASE CAG TRIPLETS FRAGILE X SYNDROME CCG TRIPLETS MOST FREQUENT CAUSE OF INHERITED RETARDATION llFLY ll FLY FLY FLY ll llFLY FLY FLY FLY FLY Spontaneous mutation OCCUR WO OUTSIDE CAUSE Mutagen ANY EXTERNAL AGENT THAT INDUCES MUTATIONS SUCH AS UV RADIATION IN SUNLIG HT XRAYS RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT FROM ATOMIC BOMB TESTS amp NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS CHEMICAL WEASPONS SUCH AS MUSTARD GAS amp CHEMICALS IN TOBBACCO 1 Review Exam 4 Chapter 1214 Somatic mutation OCCUR IN NONSEX CELLS ALL CELLS DERIVED FROM THAT CELL ON CARRY THAT MUTATION NOT PASSED TO OFFSPRING GermIine mutation OCCURS IN CELLS THAT GIVE RISE TO GAMETES HERITABLE EVERY CELL OF THE ORGANISM39S AFFECTED OFFSPRING WILL CARRY THE MUTATION Chapter 12 Mutations 125 Questions and concepts 1 What does it mean when a mutation is silent THE MUTATED GENE ENCODES THE SAME PROTEIN AS THE ORIGINAL GENE VERSION 2 What are point mutations SUBSTITUTION OF ONE DNA BASE FOR ANOTHER 3 What important benefits can mutations provide o NEW GENE VARIANTS ALLELES o EVOLVING VIRUSES CANNOT BE KILLED BY ANTIBIOTICS o LEARN HOW GENES FUNCTION o NEW CROP VARIETIES 4 Why do scientists induce mutation in research organisms TO CREATE NEW VARIETIES OF ORGANISMS EX CROP VARIETIES Chapter 131132 Evolution by Natural Selection Vocabulary Term Definition Evolution in general THE APE THING APE TO MAN Evolution biological definition OCCURSIN A POPULATION WHEN SOME ALLELES BECOME MORE COMMON amp OTHERS LESS COMMON FROM ONE GENERATION TO THE NEXT GENETIC CHANGE IN A POPULATION OVER TIME Convergent evqution SIMILAR CHARACTERISTICS BC THEY EVOLVED FROM SIMILAR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ALTHOUGH THEY ARE NOT CLOSELY RELATED ArtificiaI SeIection examples HUMAN CHOOSES A FEW DESIRED TRAITS amp ALLOWS BREEDING OF ONLY THE INDIVIDUALS WHO BEST EXPRESS THOSE QUALITIES EX DOMESTIC DOGS amp CATS DARWIN39S PIDGEONS Natural Selection DIFFERENTIAL REPRODUCTIVE PROCESS OF INDIVIDUALS W PARTICULAR GENOTYPES Adaptations FEATURES THAT PROVIDEA SELECTIVE ADVANTAGE BC THEY IMPROVE THE ORGANISM S ABILITY TO SURVIVE amp REPRODUCE Population GROUP OF INTERBREEDING MEMBERS OF A SPECIES THAT LIVE IN THE SAME AREA Gene pooI POPULATION S ENTIRE COLLECTION OF GENES amp THEIR ALLELS Fitness AN ORGANISM S CONTRIBUTION TO THE NEXT GENERATIONS GENE POOL 2 Review Exam 4 Chapter 1214 Chapter 131 132 Evolution by Natural Selection Questions and concepts 1 How did Aristotle explain life and its many forms INDIVIDUALS IN A SPECIES ARE BASICALLY IDENTICAL AND SPECIES ARE UNCHANGING 2 Distinguish between Special Creation Uniformitarianism Catastrophism o SPECIAL CREATION SUDDEN APPEARANCE OF ORGANISMS ON EARTH o UNIFORMITARIANISM THE PROCESSES OF EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION THAT ACT IN MODERN TIMES HAVE ALSO OCCURRED IN THE PAST PRODUCING PROFOUND CHANGES IN EARTH OVER TIME o CATASTROPHISM THEORY THAT A SERIES OF BRIEF UPHEAVEALS SUCH AS FLOODS VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS AND EARTHQUAKES WERE RESPONSIBLE FOR MOSTGEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS 3 How did the discovery of fossils and extinct life forms create a conflict between the ideology of special creation and scientific observations SCIENTISTS DID NOT WANT TO llDENY THE ROLE OF A CREATOR 4 What did the economist Thomas Mathus write about the Principles of Populations llFOOD AVAILABILITY DISEASE AND WAR LIMITTHE SIZE OF A HUMAN POPULATIONquot SINCE THE HUMAN POPULATION CAN BE LIMITED BY THESE HANDICAPS THEN OTHER NONHUMAN POPULATIONS CAN ALSO BE AFFECTED BY THEM THE INDIVIDUALS WHO COULD NOT OBTAIN ESSENTIAL RESOURCES WOULD DIE 5 Distinguish between llinheritance of acquired charactersquot Lamarck s hypothesis on evolution of life and lldescent by modificationquot Darwin s hypothesis on evolution of life DARWIN DIFFERENT ISLANDS OFFERED DIFFERENT RESOURCES TO THE FINCHES THEREFORE DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF FINCHES HAD DIFFERENT BILL TYPES SOME FOR EATING SMALL SEEDS AND SOME FOR EATING LARGE SEEDS OR INSECTS LAMARCK GIRAFFE S LONG NECKS GIRAFFE S INHERIT LONG NECKS TO REACH THE LEAVES AT THE TOP OF THE TREES YOU CANNOT INHERIT ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS 6 What experiences and observations lead to Darwin s publication llOn the Origin of Speciesquot DARWIN DESCRIBED HIS THEORY OF EVOLUTIN THROUGH NATURAL SELECTION 7 What were the 1860 Oxford Evolution DebateWilberforce Huxley Debate and the 1925 Scopes Trial about OXFORD EVOLUTION DEBATE BISHOP WILBERFORCE SIDED WITH CREATIONISM HUXLEY SIDED WITH EVOLUTION OCCURRED AFTER DARWIN PUBLISHED llTHE ORIGIN OF SPECIES DEBATE ABOUT llDESCENT FROM MONKEYS SCOPES TRIAL SCOPES TAUG HT EVOLUTION IN SCHOOL IT WAS A PLOY TO SPREAD THE WORD OF EVOLUTION 3 Review Exam 4 Chapter 1214 8 Natural selection works on what four features of a population o VARIATION INDIVIDUAL IS A POPULATION VARY FROM ONE ANOTHER o INHERITENCE PARENTS PASS ON THEIR TRAITS TO THEIR OFFSPRING o SELECTION SOME VARIANTS REPRODUCE o TIME SUCCESSFUL VARIATIONS ACCUMULATE OVER MANY VARIATIONS 9 What limits the mechanism of natural selection Or why isn t there a perfect organism SEVERAL FACTORS COMBINE TO PREVENT NATURAL SELECTION FROM PRODUCING ALL OF THE TRAITS THAT A SPECIES MIGHT FIND USEFUL 1 EVERY GENOME HAS LIMITED POTENTIAL IMPOSED BY ITS EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY EX HUMAN SKELETON HAS NO ROOM FOR SUDDEN APPEARANCE OF WHEELS NO MATTER HOW USEFUL THEY MAY BE 2 NO GENE POOL CONTAINS EVERY ALLELE NEEDED TO CONFRONT EVERY POSSIBLE CHANGE IN THE ENVIRONMENT 3 DISASTERS LIKE FLOODS AND VOLCANIC ERRUPTIONS CAN INDISCRIMINATELY WIPE OUT THE BEST ALLELE COMBINATIONS SIMPLY BY CHANCE 10 What enhances quotfitnessquot of a population THE ABILITY TO o OVERCOME POOR WEATHER CONDITIONS o COMBAT PARASITES amp PATHOG ENS o EVADE PREDATORS o COMPETE FOR RESOURCES 11 What are the four modes of natural selection DIRECTIONAL SELECTION ONE EXTREME PHENOTYPE IS THE FITTESTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT SELECTS AGAINST THE OTHERS EX POPULATIONS OF APPROX 100 INSECT SPECIES HAVE UNDERGONE COLOR CHANGES ENABLING THEM TO BLEND INTO POLLUTED BACKGROUNDS HABITAT CHANGES BACKGROUND COLOR CHANGES DISRUPTIVE SELECTION TWO OR MORE EXTREME PHENOTYPES ARE FITTER THAN THE INTERMEDIATE PHENOTYPE EX SNAILS LIVE ON TAN ROCKS ENCRUSTED WWHITE BARNACLES THE ANIMALS NEAR THE BARNACLES ARE WHITE AND CAMOUFLAGED AND THOSE ONE THE ROCK ARE TAN AND BLEND IN LIKEWISE HABITAT CHANG ES MIX OF LIGHT AND DARK COLORED ROCKS STABLIZING SELECTION EXTREME PHENOTYPES ARE LESS FIT THAN THE OPTIMAL INTERMEDIATE PHENOTYPE EX HUMAN BIRTH WEIGHT ILLUSTRATES THIS TENDENCY TO STABLIZE VERY SMALL OR VERY LARGE BABIES ARE LESS LIKELY TO SURVIVE THAN INTERMEDIATE SIZED BABIES HEALTH PROBLEMS RESULT FOR THE EXTREMES BALANCING SELECTION MAINTAINS GENETIC DIVERSITY BALANCED POLYMORPHISM 2 OR MORE ALLELES ARE KEPT IN BALANCE 1 COMMON WAY FOR A SINGLE GENE HETEROZYGOTE FAVORED a How do they affect phenotypes for a population 4 Review Exam 4 Chapter 1214 DIRECTIONAL FITTEST PHENOTYPE MIGHT BE RARE DISADVANTAGEOUS ALLELES GRADUALLY DIE OUT DISRUPTIVE SNAILS THAT DON T BLEND ARE EASILY SEEN AND EATEN BY PREDATORY SHORE BIRDS DISADVANTAGEOUS ALLELES GRADUALLY DIE OUT STABILIZING BY ELIMINATING THE EXTREMES THERE IS A REDUCTION IN THE VARIATION IN A POPULATION DISADVANTAGEOUS ALLELES GRADUALLY DIE OUT BALANCING MULTIPLE ALLELES OF A GENE PERSIST INDEFINITELY IN THE POPULATION 5339 In what type of environments do populations exhibit these forms of selection AN EVERCHANGING ENVIRONMENT c What is the heterozygote advantage A HETEROZYGOUS INDIVIDUAL HAS GREATER FITNESS THAN HOMOZYGOTES WHOSE TWO ALLELES ARE IDENTICAL Tying it together from Chapters 10 12 13 What is Cystic fibrosis AN INHERITED DISEASE THAT CAUSES THICK STICKY MUCUS TO BUILD UP IN THE LUNGS AND DIGESTIVE TRACT What type of genotype is associated with affected carriers nonaffected AFFECTED cc CARRIERS Cc NOT AFFECTED CC What are the symptoms for CF THICK STICKY MUCUS BUILDS UP IN THE LUNGS AND DIGESTIVE TRACT What types of mutations cause CF NONSENSE What is the advantage of being a CF carrier CARRIERS ARE PROTECTED FROM DIARRHEAL DISEASE What is the disadvantage YOU HAVE FUCKING CF What is Sickle Cell Anemia A DISEASE PASSED DOWN THROUGH FAMILIES IN WHICH RED BLOOD CELLS FORM AN ABNORMAL CRESCENT SHAPE CRESENT SHAPE CAN CLOG BLOOD VESSELS What type of genotype is associated with affected carriers nonaffected IT IS CODOMINANT SO BOTH GENOTYPES ARE EXPRESSED What are the symptoms for sickle cell anemia SICKLE SHAPED BLOOD CELLS CLOGGING OF BLOOD VESSELS What types of mutations cause sickle cell anemia MISSENSE What is the advantage of being a sickle cell anemia carrier CARRIERS ARE PROTECTED FROM MALARIA What is the disadvantage YOU HAVE FUCKING SICKLE CELL 5 Review Exam 4 Chapter 1214 Chapter 14 Speciation and Extinction Chapter 141 Speciation Vocabulary Term Definition Microevolution pg 269 RELATIVELY SHORTTERM CHANG ES IN ALLELE FREQUENCIES WITHIN A POPULATION OR SPECIES OCCURS ON A MUCH SMALLER SCALE Macroevolution LARGESCALE EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES SUCH AS THE APPEARANCE OF NEW SPECIES GENERA AND HIGHER TAXONOMIC LEVELS Binomial System CLASSIFICATION OF AN ORGANISM USING TWO WORDS Species A DISTINCT TYPE OF ORGANISM Biological species A POPULATION OR GROUP OF POPULATIONS WHOSE MEMBERS CAN INTERBREED AND PRODUCE FERTILE OFFSPRING Chapter 141 Speciation Questions and concepts 1 After 35 billion years of evolution what does Earth have to show for it o 3 DOMAINS o 6 KINGDOMS I 2100 MILLION SPECIES 2 How did Carolus Linnaeus binomial naming system help the scientific community HE NAMED SPECIES BASED ON BODY TYPE USING 2 WORDS HE ALSO DEVELOPED A HIERARCHIAL SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION GROUPED SIMILAR GENERA INTO ORDERS CLASSES AND KINGDOMS LINNAEUS CLASSIFICATION ORGANIZED THE GREAT DIVERSITY OF LIFE AND HELPED SCIENTISTS COMMUNICATE WITH ONE ANOTHER 3 Why are scientific names in Latin and what is an International Code of Nomenclature HAVING ALL THE NAMES IN LATIN HELPS SCIENTISTS WHO SPEAK DIFFERENT LANGUAGES TO COMMUNICATE BECAUSE THEY WILL STILL BE REFERRING TO THE SAME LIST OF ORGANISMS NAMING ORGANISMS BASED OFF GENOTYPES VS PHENOTYPES 4 What is taxonomic hierarchy o DOMAIN o KINGDOM 39 PHYLUM 0 CLASS 0 ORDER 39 FAMILY o GENUS o SPECIES 6 Review Exam 4 Chapter 1214 Chapter 146 Tree Diagrams Questions and concepts 1 What does a phylogenetic tree show Where is the common ancestor on the tree Image courtesy m IT DEPICTS SPECIES RELATIONSHIPS BASED ON DESCENT FROM SHARED ANCESTORS THE ANCESTORS ARE SHOWN AT THE TRUNK OF THE TREE Phylogenetic Tree of Life Bacteria Archaea Eucarya oipmmrud 5 2 How do tree diagrams represent macroevolution refer to figure 1414 Be able to identify extinctions and speciation s on a tree diagram A HORIZONTAL OFFSHOOT DEPICTS RAPID CHANGE LIKE THAT FOUND IN MACROEVOLUTION Chapter 145 Extinction Vocabulary Term Definition Extinction ALL MEMBERS OF A SPECIES DIE Mass Extinctions A GREAT NUMBER OF SPECIES DISAPPEARED OVER RELATIVELY SHORT EXPANSES OF TIME Background extinction RESULTS FROM THE GRADUAL LOSS OF SPECIES AS POPULATIONS SHRINK IN THE FACE OF NEW CHALLENGES Chapter 145 Extinction Questions and concepts 1 What causes extinctions FAILURE TO ADAPT TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE 2 How many mass extinction events have been recorded on Earth 7 Review Exam 4 Chapter 1214 Study guide exam 4 Ch 10 101 102 Term Definition Homologous chromosome not again Allele Alternative forms Recessive ts affect is masked if dominant is also present Dominant One that exerts its effects when ever its present Homozygous dominant 2 identical dominant alleles quot U recessive 2 identical recessive alleles Heterozygous Individual has 2 different alleles for the gene 2 parents quot 39 different genetic information Phenotype Outward expression of an allele combination Genotype The genetic makeup of an individual Generations P F1 F2 Standardized names for help keep track of heritance patterns P is the 151 set being mated F1 is the first finial generation and the offspring from the p U f2 is the offspring of f1 Monohybrid cross A mating between 2 individuals that are both heterozygous for one gene Punnett Square A diagram which uses the genotypes of the parents to reveal which alleles the offspring may inherit Test cross A mating between a homozygous recessive individual and one of unknown genotype True Breeding parents Parents with a particular phenotype produce offspring only with the same phenotype 1 Gregory Mendel o 1800 Austria Czech republic 0 Farmer and monk o Grew garden peas 0 Selectively crossed plants a Why did some traits disappear only to reappear a generation later b Selectively crossing plants arti cial evolution c Parent plants yellow and green seeds First generation all yellow Second generation some green and yellow Took 25000 peas His conclusion pea plants transmitted distinct units or elemental in predicable ratios 2 Pea plants a Easy to grow develop quickly they have many offspring it s easy to control their mating many of their traits are in 2 forms 3 The P generation was one tall TT and one short tt its result was all tall because tall is dominant and short is recessive making the F1 generation all tall The he crossed the F1 generation to create the F2 generation This resulted in l homozygous tall 2 heterozygous tall and one short cross one one tall t F2 cross 2 tall Tt 4 The test cross is used to reveal the genotype of a pea plant with dominant trait They will try to nd the plant without the recessive part by crossing a plant with a plant that is de antly recessive 5 Law of Segregation During gamete sex cells formation gene pairs separate This is evident in meiosis When a sperm or egg cell is being produced it under goes a reduction in the number of chromosomes by l 2 This will allow the normal number of chromosomes to occur in the offspring at fertilization 6 The punnet square only shows the probabilities A recessive allele is not Hidden or masked Recessive alleles code for nonfunctional proteins The dominant alleles code for functional proteins gt1 Section 104 and 105 Term Definition Incomplete dominance The 39 0 I 39 I is 39 quot between those of the Example used two homozygotes The red flower crosses with a white flower to make a pink flower Co dominance A heterozygote fully expresses two different alleles ABO blood type Examples used is determined by the I gene which has 3 possible alleles IA IB and i Pleiotropy A gene that has multiple phenotype expressions Arises when one Examples used protein is important in different39 39 39 39 pathways or affects more than one body part or process A single connective tissue protein abnormally causes Marfan Syndrome pg 205 Epistasis One gene affects the expression of another which may appear to Examples used disrupt mendel s laws Male patterned baldness hides the effects of the allele for a widows peak hair line Polygenic traits The phenotype reflects the activities of more than one gene Examples used The heterozygous phenotype is intermediate between those of the two homozygotes The red ower crosses with a white ower to make a pink ower A heterozygote fully expresses two different alleles ABO blood type is determined by the I gene which has 3 possible alleles IA IB and i N Type A people can have IAIA and IAi Type B has IBIB and IBi Type AB has IBIA Type O is ii a MM answered above already b IAIA and IBIB 4 AB Type IAi and IBIB 2AB and 2B Type IAIA and IBi 2AB and 2 A Type IAi and IBi The environment can alter our genotypes Remember the idea nature vs nature E a Temperature effects coat color b Height can be effected by nutrition and health care c Temperature can also effect skin color d Eye color one of the few traits unaffected by external conditions but by genetic When the frequencies of all the phenotypes associated with a polygenic trait are plotted on a graph they form a bell shaped curve V39 Chapter 11 Section 111 A Sex Determine Human Asize Centromeres A constriction in a 1 3 features identify each chromosome in a karyotype a Size b Color banding patterns c Centromere position 2 It allows us to study chromosomal diseases Section 113 Term Definition Autosomal recessive trait Disorder requires that a person receive the disease causing allele from both parents Autosomal dominant trait A person can inherit from either parent Pedigree chart symbols and Depicts family relationships and phenotypes Squares are males notations circles are females Colored shapes are ones with disorders and half filled shapes are carriers Carrier Has the ability to pass on a disease but does not have it themselves 1 Autosomal disorders such as polydactyly extra ngers or toes typically appear in every generation and recessive conditions like albinism may seem to disappear for one generation A recessive disorder requires that each parent have at least one copy of the allele either because they are homozygous recessive and have the disease or because they are in affected heterozygous carriers Ifboth parents are carriers then it seems to skips generations A person can receive the disease causing allele from either parent An affected individuals parent much have the disorder unless the disease causing allele can from mutation Genetic counseling allows 2 parents to see the possible outcomes for their children s health It shows what different outcomes can be possible with the combination of their genes N E 4 V39 Section 114 and 115 of the Y chromosome traits sex traits traits X inactivation 1 Females have 2 X chromosomes and males have an X and Y 2 The X chromosome has more than 1000 proteincoding genes most of which have nothing to do with sex determination The y has less than 100 a The embryo starts with rudimentary female structures then a copy of y chromosome gene develops into a male SRY


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