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by: Gerson Hartmann


Gerson Hartmann
GPA 3.69

Cheryl Claassen

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About this Document

Cheryl Claassen
Class Notes
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Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr

This 38 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gerson Hartmann on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 2300 at Appalachian State University taught by Cheryl Claassen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see /class/217687/ant-2300-appalachian-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Appalachian State University.

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Date Created: 10/02/15
Class content Quiz Where is tonalli located in the body How are names headdresses mirrors related to tonalli Next class Puzzle due upload too NO READING ASSIGNMENT Optional quiz on Nov 3rd Natural History of Soul Ihiyotl The Wind Aztecs and Mixtecs Quetzalcoatl presided over the fourth world Nahui ehecatl or 4 Wind the world destroyed by winds Mixtecs of Oaxaca called a similar deity who created the world humans and maize 9 Wind eheca Tezcatlipoca NU Vr39iuV x I quot ux in 7 DUL 25 gaggsg zal Tezcatlipoca called Night Wind Smoking Mirror He gave serious skin iHnesses Mine Wind Maya Ik wind T Vapors from menstruating pregnant Women known as Woman aires adulterers were powerful and destructive garbageair But also prostitutes and sex in general Gaseous residues created by improper acts lhiyotl exits from nether regions Glows smells Greenish stain Gas winds Animate beings with lives thoughts volition Composed of insubstantial material that only shamans can see appear as dwarves strange animals in Alta of Puebla winds divided according to sex character color age place of residence in landscape and position in hierarchy Most are male North winds strong gusts souls of sorcerers Winds live In hills caves ravines crossroads remote hollows places catching water in ruins Aire is the tonal of the place it inhabits Some aires are protectors bringing rain cures oversee crops Other aires cause illness infertility steal soul of unsuspecting person kill animals Shaman must go find soul offer black chicken or convince Xochitepetl to intercede Red color wards off evil Winds If one doesn t show respect for customs you Will be punished by chaneques little people guardians of the animals with frights from snakes horses Wind or water The milpa periphery may be smoked so as to protect food plants against Winds and diseases lhiyotl is located in liver passion sentiment Vigor With a malfunctioning liver the ihiyotl wandered causing harm to people who came in contact Could attract strong emotions such as jealousy anger hatred causing illness Guardian spirits of places particularly of caves To keep people from where they should not go Winds originate from caves breath of rain dwarves Punish disrespectful or selfish people may carry off souls to cave Aires are attracted to negative emotions but may also cause them Swearing cheating anger brings bad winds Attack weak tonallis Enter body through orifices causing many illnesses and misfortunes associated with the cold Also enter through open sores wounds Cause stumbling disfiguration of mouth palsy paralysis wind disease Detectable by coldness A second person in one body To cure Otomi curers leave gifts at place of offensea cloth doll with red cheeks and a chicken doll m m 0 A as de m mm mamas de Wm Wm D r mm mm NacmnaHnd vemsu Subdueccm n de nveshvacm n a J A J ml 9 i V w 1 H a h u Densidad de hahlantes 111 1007499 1 5007999 I 10004999 i 200072499 w 31 N n Otomi embroidery V a J 7 A 7 x M Lg t ur a quota 315 it Seed spirit of yarn Chili Otomi bad aires Curers cut the form of the diagnosed wind from bark paper then manipulate it to cleanse sick person Christian s Devil is the leader of malevolent undenvorld powers the ehecatl Christian Devil is the most important of the bad aires Rituals are held to cleanse amp align the spirit world in households amp communities of the Otomi On day 1 the malevolent spirits have center stage Although these spirits represent negative energies disease ill will etc They are considered as important as the good spirits amp are recognized fed amp honored in the initial phase of a 3 day ritual as well as in daily life After the spirits are nourished the shaman gathers the paper representations amp gives them to a runner who runs miles out of the village to bury the spirits beneath the soil appeased Winds as spirit of dead Night aire is ghoststhose who died violently or while purging sins Forgotten souls wander also Souls wander for 3 4 5 days Evident as shadowy doubles animals worms insects hair or foreign object on body If ghost can send 2 virtuous people to death it can rest in its tomb so be wary of cross roads corpses caves getting agitated Dead as dust devils whirlwinds Shoshone unexpected cold breeze or odor Disposingburning possessions of dead because the ghost hovers around the bones and objects Contact with these items can lead to Ghost sickness say the Navajo Corpse powder used in witchcraft bone fragments used in shooting or speck of ash from burned house used by witches Physical remains can attract breath soul to the grave and exude dangerous vapors Aztec cihuateteoZihatanejo Women who died in childbirth periodically returned to earth as violent spirits the cihuateteo Haunted crossroads at night possessed and paralyzed adults and stole children The negative image of the disruptive and predatory cihuateteo carved in stone and set by lonely crossroads served to heighten the nobility of their male counterparts the eagle warriors Warriors dyingmothers dying Sign jig T67 L arm guaLs 9 in 1 n ep ma quot 14 mum c A winds Shrines erected at crossroads the place for strong winds bad winds Ihiyotl as breath Chorti Maya say ihiyo is useful as a protective device Gives some immunity to sorcery witchcraft ghosts Located in Liver primarily Also contained in breath acquired at same time as tonalli in utero at bathing Breath and words nearly the same All three souls seen in breath To go to the Blowing Rock The story i Who When


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