PSYCH HIST, SOC & SCIENT FNDS
PSYCH HIST, SOC & SCIENT FNDS PSY 1200
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angelo Crist on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1200 at Appalachian State University taught by Timothy Ludwig in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see /class/217690/psy-1200-appalachian-state-university in Psychlogy at Appalachian State University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
1 Theories Example Low selfesteem feeds depression generate or re ne lead to lead to Concrete Level Orational definitions Hypomesized relationship Observed relationship Large Deviation VALIDITY Zick Rubin Lelitia Anne Peplau and Peter Salovey Psychology Copyright 1993 by Houghton Mifflin Company Reprinted by permission 15 20 25 3o 35 4o 45 50 A 70 l Mode Median Mean 4 One family Income per family in thousands of dollars 1359 1359 214 300 400 500 SAT scores Focuses in Social Psychology We cannot live for ourselves alone Herman Melville Social Thinking Social psychology scienti cally studies how we think about in uence and relate to one another Module 55 SelfSchemas Selfschemas are mental representations of our beliefs and views about ourselves Some have relatively unified selfschemas while others have differentiated self lnlimato Pel sriiiquotii Srjiciul Puljilii SChemaS fuel 51 it 5 4 141 2 13 Our selfschemas can have a strong Zlifj iit tn39 39ntfn i5333232iiaifolt iias i 392mStirliagftitatfh St impact on our emotional experiences public places At such times privacy is maintained by avoiding eye contact by standing shoulder to shoulder or back to back and by positioning a purse bag package or coat as a barriertospa alintrusions Selfschemas also contain information about future or possible selves Social Perception The process through which people interpret information about others form TWO People TWO Schemas impressions of them and draw conclusions regarding their behavior Drinks Hobby is Drinks Hobby is fine wine travel beer bowling Patron of Health Sports Smokes the arts conscious fan Reads Watches b k5 TV often o en I Sophisticated r 39 Workingclass stiff Examples of social schemas Everyone has social schemas for various types of people such as sophisticated professionals or workingclass stiffs Social schemas are clusters of beliefs that guide information processing Forming Impressions of Others Schemas help us to rapidly shape first impressions of others Schemas create a tendency to infer information about person based on limited observations We tend to assume others hold similar attitudes and values to ourselves 80 negative information attracts more attention and is given more weight than positive information in the shaping of first impressions Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations A teacher may wonder think whether a child s hostility reflects an aggressive personality dispositional attribution or a reaction to stress or abuse a situational attribution Dispositions are enduring personality traits So if Joe is a quiet shy and introverted child he is likely to be like that in a number of situations 5 13 395 o 9 5 E 2 tie Role of Schemas Our schemas about people can affect our perception of them We tend to process schema consistent information about people more quickly Schemas influence what we remember about others Schemas affect ourjudgments about the behavior of others Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations Attribution Theory Fritz Heider 1958 suggested that we have a tendency to give causal explanations for someone s behavior often by crediting either the situation or the person s disposition npa 39spmmpais 39mmm dun Fritz Heider Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors of others leads to fundamental attribution error We see Joe quiet shy and introverted most of the time but with friends and he is very talkative loud and extroverted Effects of Attribution How we explain someone s behavior affects how we react to it Tolerant reaction Situational attribution proceed cautiously allow Maybe that driver is illquot driver a wide berth t a I Dispositionalattribution quotCrazydriverll Unfavorable reaction speed up and race past the other driven craningto givea dirty loolr Fundamental attribution error o When something BAD happens We tend to overattribute the behavior of others to internal factors And overattribute your own behavior to external factors Actorobserver bias o When something GOOD happens We tend to overattribute the behavior of others to external factors And overattribute your own behavior to internal factors Biases in Attributions cont o The ultimate attribution error is a related cognitive bias Outgroup members receive little credit for positive actions Attributed to external factors lngroup members receive little blame for nega ive actions Attributed to external factors Attitude Belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in aparticular way to objects people and events If we believe aperson is mean we may feel dislike for the person and act unfriendly behavioral component Selfserving bias Cosnitiie new Attitudes Can Affect Action component women should beliefs ideas be WlV95r 0i workersquot Our attitudes predict our behavrors nnperfectly m j l because other factors including the external situation ectrve quot get angry Sexist attitude component when l seea also lll llellce bellaVlOf toward women emotions woman doing a feelings man39sjobquot Although Democrat leaders supported Bush s attack Belated build on Iraq under public pressure they had their private component hireawoman I predispositions managerquot reservatjonsl to act The three potential components of prejudice as an attitude Attitudes can consist of up to three components The tricomponent model of attitudes applied to prejudice against women would view sexism as negative beliefs about women cognitive component that lead to a feeling of dislike affective component which in turn leads to a readiness to discriminate against women 8 Actions Can Affect Attitudes Why do actions affect attitudes One explanation is that when our attitudes and actions are opposed we experience tension called cognitive dissonance or 23132213233 33321313 To relieve us of this tension we bring our attitudes gr3tgmg its M closer to our actions Festinger 1957 Conclusion Shifliflhi lii llllilf ll tillfln Design of the Festinger and Carlsmith 1959 study The sequence of events in this landmark study of counterattitudinal behavior and attitude change is outlined here The diagram omits a 19 third condition no dissonance in which subjects were not induced to lie The results in the nondissonance condition were similar to those found in the lowdissonance condition Favorable l2 Cognitive D1ssonance M C 39t39 quot ogni we on ll g Fiona s attitude Dissonance io jw a 3 Thetuition and Attitude 9 y 7 e S 8 0 Dissonance resolved Cl 3923 I dquot 39 5 g In tgt i ix x 3 i i V Maybethe u 7 Cognitive dissonance srhoolhasa t awareness that attitude and gt lt Hows behavior behavior are inconsistent Unfavorable 2000 l 00 Experimental condition CatBarisanitizers I High justification iow dissonance 9 Compliancequotby L FestingerandJMCarlsmith I H I h 5quot quot fromJournalafAbnarmaandSacralPsychagwgglgtj I Lowjustlflcatlon dlssonance 22 Attitudes Can Affect Action Small Request Large Request Not only do people stand for what they believe In the Korean war Chinese communists solicited attitude in but they start believing in what they stand cooperation from US army prisoners by asking them for to carry out small errands By complying to small Among errands they were likely to comply with larger ones FootintheDoor Phenomenon tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request Attitudes Cooperative actions can lead to mutual liking beliefs 23 24 Role Playing Affects Attitudes Zimbardo 1972 assigned the role of guards and prisoners to random students and found that guards and prisoners developed role appropriate attitudes 25 Prejudice Simply called prejudgment a prejudice is an unjusti able usually negative attitude toward a group and its members often of different cultural ethnic or gender groups Components of Prejudice 1 Beliefs stereotypes 2 Emotions hostility envy fear 3 Predisposition to act to discriminate 27 Racial amp Gender Prejudice Americans today eXpress much less racial and gender prejudice but prejudices still eXist Percentage answering yes 90 80 Would you vote for 60 a woman president Prejudice against women and blacks has fallen sharply SO in recent decades Do whites have a right 20 to keep minorities out of 10 their neighborhoods 0 1936 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Year 29 V Antisocial Relations Module 57 How Prejudiced are People Over the duration of time many prejudices against interracial marriage gender homosexuality minorities have waned Percent approving 100 of marriage between cm blacks and whites 60 40 20 1958 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2003 Year Nine out of 10 white respondents were slow at 26 responding to words like peace or paradise when they saw a black individual s photo compared to a whites Hugenberg amp Bodenhausen 2003 30 28 Gender Although prejudice prevails against women more people feel more positively toward women than men Women rated picture b feminized higher 665 for a matrimonial ad Perrett 1998 Cognitive Roots of Prejudice One way we simplify our world is to categorize We categorize people into groups by stereotyping them Foreign sunbathers may think Balinese look alike as Con ict Con ict is perceived incompatibility of actions goals or ideas Social Trap a situation in which the con icting parties by each rationally pursuing their selfinterest become caught in mutually destructive behavior Social Inequality When people have money power and prestige and others do not prejudice develops Social inequality increases prejudice Cognitive Roots of Prejudice Vivid cases like the 9 ll terrorists can feed stereotypes or prejudices terrorism Most terrorists are nonMuslims W A Game of Socral Trap By pursuing our selfinterest and not trusting others we can end up losers Personr ChooseA ChooseB g 55 5 g 55 5 E P bbl 3 5 oillcdm a 0 5 0 510 Lets have a MONEY AUCTION BID FOR THIS 1 BILL THE HIGHEST BID WINS THE DOLLAR EG IF THE HIGHEST BID IS 50 THEN THAT PERSON GETS THE DOLLAR FOR 50 BUT THE SECOND PLACE BIDDER ALSO HAS TO PAY WHAT THEIR BID WASAND DOESN T GET SQUAT Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company All rights reserved 18 37 Enemy Perceptions People in con ict form diabolical images of one another 5 r Saddam Hussein GeorgeBUSh Wicked Pharaoh EVII 39 Bystander Effect Tendency for any given Percentage 90 Fewerpeoplehelp tt t ifo hers se m bystander to be less llkely 393 eEphL39I 80 avaIIabIe e to give aid if other 70 Vex bystanders are present 60 A E egbx 50 Ri in 40 30 V 20 IO 0 1 2 3 4 Number of others presumed available to help 41 In and Out Groups lngroup People with whom one shares a common identity Outgroup Those perceived as different from one s ingroup Ingroup Bias The tendency to favor one s own group is H 38 Prosocial Relations Module 58 40 The Norms for Helping Social Exchange Theory Our social behavior is an exchange process the aim of which is to maximize bene ts and minimize costs I Reciprocity Norm The expectation that we should return help not harm to those who have helped us I Social Responsibility Norm Largely learnt a norm that tells us to help others when they need us even though they may not repay us in kind 42 Psychology of Attraction 3 Similarity Having similar views between individuals causes the bond of attraction to strengthen Similarity breeds content Sex Differences in Date and Mate Preferences Substantially above average Above average Average In a partner Below average Substantially below average Lowest acceptable Intelligence One Date Sexual Date Marry night relations steadily Female respondents Male respondents Source Kenan et ai i993 Male quotFemale Number of partners 5 0 r i i i rsrzsrsowmm mo mos yr yrs yrs yrs yrs yrs yrs yrs Time The gender gap in desire for a variety of sexual partners Buss and Schmitt 1993 Attitudinal Similarity and Attraction lZ Attraction U 8 1 mwoo l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Proportion of similar attitudes Source Adaptedi Nelson i965 Less than once a month Few times a week or month How often people think about sex Every day o v 1 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Percent of respondents Sex Biological reality Males Reproductionlnvolver mrnimal investment of time energy anti risk Females Reproduction involr39ts su stantlal investment of time energy and risk Males Some potential for uncertainty about ultetlrer offspring are really yours Females No potential for uncertainty about whether offsprlrtp rue really ynttts Evolutionary significance Behavioral outcome More interest in unnnnrntlled sex greater number of sex partners over lifetime Mattimite reprrxlnrtive success by seeking more sexual partners Less interest in uncommitted smaller numirtr of sex partners ovoiiietimt Mttituite reproductive success by seeking partners willing to truest material rtsuurres in your offspring lfparinrr Irrrprepnrneri hy anulltrr lotions Ittnsi rtnrlil man you lose reproductive aroused by threat odsexual opportunity anti rtaste nrarerial iniidelity resources on anothet39s offspring lipartner develops emotional Jealousy most reatltiy aroused comnritnreut to another nation by threat olerrtotiunai you this loss olreproductive infidelity opportunity and on of material resources for your offspring
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