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by: Moses O'Conner


Moses O'Conner
GPA 3.87

Dale Wheeler

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Dale Wheeler
Class Notes
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This 114 page Class Notes was uploaded by Moses O'Conner on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 1102 at Appalachian State University taught by Dale Wheeler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see /class/217701/che-1102-appalachian-state-university in Chemistry at Appalachian State University.

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Date Created: 10/02/15
SectionlOJ ReadthinSection OnequeationonEnmlwmbcfromthissec on 102 Pressure P mmasp ear To smbya mam 1 m2 column of air mass 104 kg Gravitational 7 7 7 7 7 7 force 1 atm pressure at surface We r MWWusulgvel 1 quot11 1000mbu SWAunoaphetlchmcme ned 11m760mm g7som 101mm Lmszsuosp mm I Laboratory Barometer Typical pressure in Boone 685 torr 685 mmHg Mercury in an open tube under vacuum is called a manometer V acuun1 Hg Atmospheric I pTBSSU re h I if Calculate the Pressure inside a vessel containing a gas P 6842 mmHg atm height Hg atm 1560 cm Open end height Hg gas 645 cm Ah 915 cm 915 mm 915 mmHg PP gas atm PHg P 6842 mmHg 915 mmHg gas P 7757 mmHg gas 731m 7757 mtan atm7757nnanvlil021aun 760 mmHg Convertmmllg a ldlopascals kPA kPa7757mmHg kPa 7757 mtan W1034km PV nRT at4396 volume tempentmc moles gas constant tunesth um liter Kelvin moles L K mol L atmK39 mo PVnRT PnRTV VnRTP nPVRT RPVnT TPVInR Robert Boyle 1627 1691 PV constant Boyle s Law m a volume ofgas meintained at coustant39l is inversely pmpmtional to the gas pressure PVconstant foragivensystem PIV1 szz constant Given Oxygen0oocupiu353mLummmHg Whatisthcvolumeofthiamoxygenumpleat umm g RV szz 724 mHQGSSmL 813 mmHgXVi v316m1 Given 0xygen0goccupiu355antmmmllg Cdcuhtetheprmutcaunneededmnduccthevolumeofthis oxygenampleto SmL PIV P3V3 724 um lg355mL 139225 ml P21140mmHg latm 150a1m 760 mmHg Charles39s Law change in T Charles39s Law Jacques Charles 1761823 TT TV LT W At what T does V 0 P Charles s Law of S 8 o E 3 O gt 0 300 200 100 O 100 200 300 Temperature C Extrapolation to Absolute Zero Absolute Zero m A I l 9 1 I m E E 2 E a 2 l I l I II I I I I I 250 200 15G 1CCI 5C39 0 5 100 150 200 250 mm 350 Ten39perature PC Ternperalura K First estimated in 1848 Since V a T 31 constant P a 5 N Wh evdmufBQi anpkhhuwd fmm 18 C to 175 C at constant pressure 3 E 136mL V2 T1 T2 291K 448K Vz209mL Volume vs moles at mum l and P V a of particles gas molecules V V V VOCn constant 1 2 n 111 112 nucleiI inohNIIs ImoleCl 0211PM c02me sun mtu 202 3 H2 1703 g NHa 7091 g 12 2241 2241 2241 Fortnyguntmthevolumeoftheguha41 3HWNW42NHW 0 C Smoleagu Imolegu v 2x11011533 3 2241 1 2241 b 2 224L 896 L 448 L 4moles gas 21110163 gas Boyle ohw W mum Charles san VITcomtant Avogudro sLaw Vnconstant Combined Law PV 11139 constant PVnT R gamunt STP Temperature 0 C STP Pressure 1 arm PV 1 ann2241 L 008206 Latm nT 1 mol2731 5K K Incl PV nRT WhatiathevohmeofRTgofcoantsm 11ml CO2 187 gc02 44 Olgco 2 J 0425 mol CO2 L atm 0425 mol0082 O6 27315K z quotRT K 39 quot101 953 L P 100 atm V Howmanygnmsofhelium occupySJLatSTP n PV 100 atm55 L RT 00820627315 K 02511101 He 025 mol HeM 10 g He lmolHe occupy 55Lat228 CInd687ton PV 0904 atm55 L n 020 me He RT 0082062960 K 400 g He 020 mol He 1 me He 080gHe Basketball Pressure Calculation A basketball was filled with air to 220 atm at 75 F It was taken outside where the temperature was 28 F What is the pressure of the air inside the basketball at this temperature 5 C 9 F 75 F 32 F 24 C 24 C 273 297 K amp220atm P2 T2 297K 271K P 1 P2 201atm Tl Weather Balloon Volume Calculation A weather balloon containing 185 L of helium was released from the ground where the temperature was 15 C and the pressure was 711 torr The balloon rose to 35000 ft where the temperature was 55 C and the pressure was 184 torr What was the volume of the weather balloon at this altitude 131V1 132V2 0936 atm185 L 0242 atmV2 T1 T2 288 K 218 K V2541L Densityowaeo 31 AtSTP V2241L n10000mole 4003 g 2241L 201786gL 23 0134 g 1250 2 2241L gL whemthetempenmism mdthepmssureisGSStom AssumeLOODmoleofSOw WhitisVP nRT 1000 mol0082 06291 K P 0901 atm 6407 g 265 L V 265 L d 242 gL dRT mmP mm P RT lZ5gofanunknownguwasplamdintoa300L askat 25 C Theptessuteinthe ukwus39ISStom Whatisthe mohrmassoftheunknowngas 125g L atm 2 dRT 300L008 06Kmol nun P 0967atm 293 K 105 gmol utmwhnmcumn mmmduphamoumm pieme omssm Whthenolumandthemdemht m nhdmw Wm 11nd C 11ml F 174gcm145md C 826gF19 008F435md F 1 Ea CF3 emlirical rml a 145 145 39 15003 Latin 008206 296K dRTo1350L Komol L880 1 P 1955a1m g C molar HESS 1380gmol emp39rical mass 6901gtml 2 CPS CzF6 molecuhr ammla HowmauyLowaatetequiredtocompletelymct with173LofCIlw L 020 173 L CsHsm 865 L om 3 8 Wl SCOmi 09 mumx mdumamogqmmmogo lMLCQhWaSTP 11130102 31mlC02 2241L 319988g02 5m 02 11ml co2 L C02 300 g 02 WW LC031003CH J 1261 02 11ml can 3m 30z 39 22411 152LCO 440973C3H 11nd 3311s 1m 30 115Lc02 x100913 yield co2 atSTP 12ch02 Whatisth yieldofthe reactionofloOgClIwith 3003011 Mchupmdueeduzsocmdmmmng lmol o2 311ml 02 319988g02 Sun 02 392 mol co2 3oo g 04 J0563 1m co2 nRT 0563 mol C02008206298 K P 0937 atm 1 15 L C02 147 L 02 V 147 L 02 x100782yiek1 02 106 Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures Each individual gas component exerts its own pressure called partial pressure John Dalton 1766 1844 2 partial pressures TOtal prCSSUtC PAlPBlPCletc PT PH2 PN2 PAr PT XA quot mole fraction ofgas A Amphofgah3 mdomeWmolAtmmd 0591110qu Ifthetotal pmureis39ns tomwhatia thepartialpressmeofeachgas 344mch2 00575 P 3 x 31 0675738torr498torr 2 S10tota39lmol N T 107m1Ar 0210 Ar s lommm PA Xmazr 0210733m 155m 05911101 Xe o12 t u x imm mol Pk th 012738torr 35m Partial Pressure of Water Wh 7fmg s Svar ebi Gt d39 i quot K003 K M n02 d SS M 1 a 39 if quota j r A Thehigherthe39l hegxutertbepu dpnume Hydrogen Collection over Water HT Zns 2HClltaq gt ZnClZWD 2g 400g of Zn reacts with an excess of HClltaq and 127 L of H2g is collected over water at 2200C PHZO 2200C 1983 mmHg PT 727 mmHg What is the 00 yield of this reaction gas of low water P P P solubility reacting T gas H20 solid 727 mmHg Pgas 1983 mmHg and liquid H Pgas 707 mmHg 0930 atm mol H2 400an 1quot Z 1quot H200612mo1 H2 6539an 111101 Zn ActualYkld n E 0930 aun127 L 0 0488m1H2 RT 008206295 K Percent Yield 00488 mo H2 x100 V798 1d H 00mm H2 We 2 3 107 KineticMolecular Theory J J P0 en 1211 Flint gy J 4 J J J K J J I 4 J J i L Vquot J a J K J a J 1 Moleculesuesepmtedbygreatdisunces d z 11000 10X distance between gas molecules Molecules possess mass but have no volume they are considered point masses States of Matter 17 Water llquld 7L 7 I amwc Icesolid l 2 Gumoleculesmovein constantnndomdirections Gumolecu esminvolvedinfnquem elasticme Themulenergofagasmpleisoommt 3 Ga molecules neither attract an repel each other 4 The average kinetic enetgy a T Anyzmesatthesame39l h ethesamem 107 KineticMolecular Theory Gas pressure is the result of collisions between molecules and the walls of the container the pressure depends on the frequency and strength of the collisions 107 KineticMolecular Theory Distribution of Molecular Speeds peaks mest probable speed of la fg St fIUmbef of molecules H BB 110 3 m 23 5H DIS 012 v 9 5 n5 394 1 So r ln 5 go HH LT4 As T the curve X 2 x 2 quot 5 10 10 10 attens out Molecular speed m s Haw stdoesamoleculemme Calculate the rootmean square mm speed the average molecular speed 3RT R8314JK rms 391 temperatureKelvin MM ManchurianWane Cdcuhnedlemopeedforsoauatm 3 RT 38314 293 K V MM Vo06406 kgmol Mthaatm515mlsecu150mpm Thermsforlle at20 C1350mlsec3000mph Rms Speed for Various Gases 53 0 u ltCU 58 28 543 80 H39H 0395 SE 8 45 83 so HH LL 5 x 102 10 x 102 15 x 102 20 x 102 25 x 102 30 X 102 35 gtlt 102 Molecular speed Ins GasDi usionagndunln xingofmolecules higher lower di usion occurs slowly because ofl gh collisionnl cquency 10quot collisions I sec average distance traveled by 3 molecule between collisions 108 Molecular Effusion Effusion escape of gas molecules through a pinhole into an evacuated space 108 Molecular Effusion It requires 283 sec for a volume of He to effuse through a pinhole What is the molar mass of an unknown gas that requires 809 sec to effuse through the same pinhole F 2 mm2809sec mm2 286 t1 mm1 283 sec 4003 gmol o mm2 4003 mm2 327 gmol 2862 2817 Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces IF 111 3 phases of matter gases liquids solids Density lowWL high glmL high gcm3 Compresslbillty high slight none Motion free molecules slide rotate in a easily fixed position Shape Assumes shape Assumes De ned shape and volume shape and volume Total disorder much empty space particles have complete freedom of motion particles far apart Cool or compress gt 4 Heat or reduce pressure ctr 9W ego Liquid Disorder particles or clusters of particles are free to move relative to each other particles close together Crystalline solid Ordered arrangement particles are essentially in fixed positions particles close together Intermolecular Forces attractive fOrces between molecules that are generally weaker than intramolecular forces Intermolecular attraction weak Intermolecular Forces IF WEAKEST STRONGEST London Dip39ole Hydrogen Ionic Dispersion dipole Bonding Bonding Forces also called Iondipole van der Waals a bit Forces stronger London Dispersion Forces attraction between nonpolar molecules that arise from temporary induced dipoles The strength of this force quotor the polarizability of the molecule Electrostatic quota attraction Helium atom 1 Helium atom 2 a Nonpolar Molecules Nonpolar molecules such as hydrogen chlorine carbon dioxide carbon tetrachloride sulfur hexafluoride and sulfur trioxide all haVe London Dis ersion Forces as their strongest IF Atom A Atom B No polarization I 0 Atom A Atom B Instantaneous dipole on atom A induces a dipole on atom B l 5 8 139 Atom A Atom B la Molecule A Molecule B No polarization 1 5 5 39 Molecule A Molecule B Instantaneous dipole on atom A induces a dipole on atom B FIS a5 Molecule A Molecule B b Dipoledipole Intermolecular Forces Dipoledipole forces attractive forces between polar molecules The stronger the dipole the stronger the IF Polar Molecules Polar molecules such as phosphorus tri uoride sulfur dioxide hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen bromide all have 00 dipoledipole forces as their 390 strongest IF 5 0 PF3 so2 HCN HBr 9 Iondipole forces attractive forces between an ion and a polar molecule ie water Hydrogenbonding I Hydrogenbonding a special type of IF between hydrogen and nitrogen oxygen or fluorine NH3 H20 HF 1 H 1 1 H a Stronger than dipoledipole Hyd rogenbonding Hydrogenbonding discovered by comparing boiling points Boiling point the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid atmospheric pressure London Dispersion lt Dipoledipole lt Hydrogenbonding lt Ionic lowest low high highest gases gasliq liquids solids Boiling Points Decreasing Molecular Mass Decreasing Molecular Mass 8le4 52 c TeH2 5 c GBH4 95 C SiH4 391 15 C 8H2 396000 CH4 468 C A U L E i r39 5 i Molecular mass Boiling Points Decreasing Molecular Mass Decreasing Molecular Mass SnH4 52 c TeH2 5 c GeH4 95 c SeH2 45 c SinI4 415 C SH2 eo c CH4 468 C 0H2 water 7 Predict bp of water 400 C A U L E i r39 5 i Molecular mass Boiling Points Decreasing Molecular Mass Decreasing Molecular Mass SnH4 52 c TeH2 5 c GeH4 95 c SeH2 45 c Sini4 415 C SH2 eo c CH4 468 C 0H2 water 7 Predict bp of water 400 C Why is the bp of water 100 C A U L 2 E 3 3i 5 Q lt Molecular mass Boiling Points Decreasing Molecular Mass Decreasing Molecular Mass SnH4 52 c TeH2 5 c GeH4 95 c SeH2 45 c SiH4 1 150cc 8H2 60 c CH4 391 2 water Predict bp of water 100 C Why is the bp of water 100 C HYDROGEN BONDING A consequence of hydrogenbonding is the low density of ice Sample Exam Question Arrange the following molecules in order of increasing boiling points CO 02 NaZCOS H2003 113 Properties of Liquids Viscosity a measure of a uids resistance to ow High viscosity slow ow Low IF usually predicts low viscosity High IF usually predicts high viscosity Surface Tension the amount of energy required to stretch or increase the surface of a liquid Free surface Liquid High Intermolecular Forces High Surface Tension Capillary Action Capillary Action spontaneous rise of a liquid in a capillary tube Two forces bring about capillary action 1 cohesion attraction between like molecules an intermolecular force 2 adhesion attraction between unlike molecules ie H20 and glass If adhesion gt cohesion then the liquid will be drawn up the side of the tube until adhesion gravitational force cmnm mam nc rmth my radio egmuct deay apillarity Demonstrati on Cohesion gt Adhesion If cohesion gt adhesion then the liquid creates an inverted meniscus ex Hg in glass container 39 II39lEI39 11ij met121111 GAE lvlap rimlfim condensation evaporation sublimation LIELE Er39faiallizatinl39IEEJ matting freezing fusinn cry39Stallizatinni39ij SOLID AH values water AHfus for ice gt water 6 kJmol AHvalo for water gt steam 41 kJmol AHvap gt AHfus since vaporization requires the breaking of IF bonds AHsub AH AH fus vap 114 Phase Changes Water vaporF E Liquid water and vapor vaporizatian 3 CI 1 3 9 5 Q E 0 E quot Liquid water Fl Heat added each division corresponds to 4 M Calculate the Enthalpy Change Calculate the enthalpy change upon converting 373 grams of ice at 110 C to water vapor at 1 14 C Specific Heat of ice 209 Jg K Specific Heat of water 418 Jg K Specific Heat of steam 184 Jg K AH 601 k Jmol 39 fus AH 4067 kJmol vap Calculate the Enthalpy Change Warming the ice AH mSthAT 3739209JIgK110K 0086 kJ Melting AH moIAH 0207mol601lemol 124 K Warming the water AH mXSthXAT 373g418JI9K100K 156 kJ Vaporization AH molAHm 0207mo14o67kJImoI 842 kJ Heating the steam AH mSthAT 3739x184JgK140K 0096 N TOTAL ENTHALPY CHANGE AHTOT 114 M Vapor Pressure the partial pressure of the vapor over the liquid measured at equilibrium at a given T Vaporization occurs when liquid molecules have sufficient energy to escape the surface Withouta At equilibrium alanineon Will completely 39 evaporate over Pvalo IS constant Liq lt gt Vapor Witha The vaporvpressure at equilibrium is the CW The quotequilibrium vapor liquid will r pressurequot evaporate until equlibrium isac39hievecl A summarizes all conditions at which a SUbStanCe e XiStS as a S Olid CIU39id gas and plasma a E 8 G 11 m Temperature 116 Phase Diagrams Triple Point the set of conditions where all 3 lines meet The only set of conditions where all three phases can exist in equilibrium Critical Temperature the highest temperature at which a liquid can form Critical Pressure the pressure required to liquefy a gas at the critical temperature Critical Temperature Critical Temperature the highest temperature at which a liquid can form Critical Pressure the pressure required to liquefy a gas at the critical temperature For H20 6476K 706 F 2177 atm For N2 1261 K 335 atm For 302 Triple Point 564 C 511 atm Critical Point 311 C 730atm 3911 LL 5 U m a Eh I A 3 35 5 4 Temperature DC NOTE Solidliquid equilibrium slope gt 0 For H20 Triple Point 00098 QC 458 torr Critical Point 3747 0C 2177 atm Temperatme DC NOTE Solidliquid equilibrium slope lt 0 T B 1 ammmsnm m 0 O 3 l m d a I B m I a 117 Solids crystalline solids rigid long range order with atoms in specific positions amorphous solids lacking well defined order UNIT CELL basic repeating structural unit of a crystalline solid each corner lattice point represents an atom 391 l 1 13915quot i 13955quot Unit cell The crystalline SOlld represented by unit cells Lattice is called the crystal lattice Point All angles 90 Edge lengths are all equal a b c Primitive cubic simple Cubic Bodycentered cubic bcc Facecentered cubic fee Primitive cubic Body centered cubic Facecentered cubic U nit mp e Cubic Nwmbgr Mm i UH imp e Mbi z1tmn at u 391 b comers 2 k7 V L 39 1 quota 1 Z w Ma i N 1 Simph cubic Unit Gem Bodlyacemtered Cubic Nylmbw Mm i eelil Bedlyaaemtemd mbm quot i x 3mm lt8 E 83 r 3 2 at 11 at at center 8 L39DJfflf f if 1quot 3quot f j Bulivacuntcrud quotquotquotx J a c Lib 1c Unit Cem a FaCeamtergd Cwbic l D wmbgr 9 Emma ltgl l Famammtgmd Mbi r If 1 3921 7m 1 635 1M3 Q65 M24 3 4 I intumat atnm at T quot 8 amers a V Face centered KN cubic a Na 8 18 6 12 4 V f CI39 112144 Coordination Number each Na is in contact with 6 CI39 ions each CI39 is in contact with 6 Na ions Coordination Number each Na is in contact with 6 CI39 ions CN 6 each CI39 is in contact with 6 Na ions CN 6 Packing of Spheres Ways to pack identical spheres ie ping pong balls billiard balls bowling balls etc 1 Each layer directly on top of the previous layer Simple cubic Open Packing 2 most efficient way to pack spheres Second layer will fit into the depressions of the first layer A A A A A O 390 390 390 390 A A A v v V V V A A A A l I 390 390 390 39C Close Packing Third Layer There are 2 ways to pack the 3rd layer 1 3rd layer is directly above the 1st layer ABABABABABAB hexagonal close packing hcp Mg Ti Zn He Close Packing Third Layer There are 2 ways to pack the 3rd layer 2 3rd layer fits into the depressions of 2nd layer AN the depressions of the 1st layer cubic close packing ccp gt fcc ACAEAECBABA Al Ni Ag Close Packing Coordination Number 391 Cquotquot CI quot quot1 View from above Layer A 3 Layer B 6 Layer C 3 Total CN 12 Four Types of Solids molecular covalentnetwork ionic and metallic TABLE 117 Types of Crystalline Solids Type of Solid Molecular Covalent network Ionic Metallic Form of Unit Particles Atoms or molecules Atoms connected in a network of covalent bonds Positive and negative ions Atoms Forces Between Particles London dispersion dipoledipole forces hydrogen bonds Covalent bonds Electrostatic attractions Metallic bonds Properties Fairly soft low to moderately high melting point poor thermal and electrical conduction Very hard very high melting point often poor thermal and electrical conduction Hard and brittle high melt ing point poor thermal and electrical conduction Soft to very hard low to very high melting point excellent thermal and electrical conduc tion malleable and ductile Examples Argon Ar methane CH4 39 sucrose Dry Icem C02 Diamond C quartz Si02 Typical salts for example NaCl CaN032 All metallic elements for example Cu Fe A1 Pt Molecular Solids Molecular Solids lattice points occupied by molecules held together by intermolecular forces low melting points soft ex sugar aspirin ammonia Molecular Solids Molecular Solids Sugar Aspirin Ammonia I mp 777 C Covalentnetwork Solids Covalentnetwork solids are held together by an extensive 3D network of STRONG covalent bonds high melting points ex diamond graphite quartz E Q as E vo m Diamond Graphite Quartz solids 39 cationsanions metal nonmetal salts NaCl false facecentered cubic fcc CsCl false bodycentered cubic bcc high melting points soluble in water a CsCl


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