Introduction to Criminology Notes
Introduction to Criminology Notes CJA2225-01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Peter Wright on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJA2225-01 at Mansfield University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Joshua Battin in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminology in Criminal Justice at Mansfield University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Social Structure Social paradigm 1 you should concentrate on Anomie and strain Social disorganization Collective efficacy quotDeals with the social environment and is a macro level explanationquot Social Process Social paradigm 2 you should concentrate on 0 Social control 0 Social learning 0 Differential association Strain theory types Anomie theory 0 Institutional anomie General strain theory quotStrain theories deal with the con ict of goals and the means to achieve such goalsquot quotSocial class is the main focusquot Durkheim 1893 Said that rapid changed led to strain in a community Strain in community lead to anomic conditions anomie Assumes society maintains balance between goals and means Anomienormlessness breaks down prosocial goals and means Making it dif cult to identify proper goals and was to obtain them Anomie disrupts the means and goals balance 0 quotWe need a mechanical society vs an organic societyquot Mechanical society No need for a special workforce anyone can do any task Organic society The opposite of mechanical Everything requires a specialized workforceindividual quotCrime does not always occur due to disjunction of mans and goalsquot Anomie theory 0 People accept social goals but lack means to accomplish them So they look for alternatives maybe crime 0 Social setting can deter or cause crime Explains connection between poverty and crime quotAn Anomic Society is hard to identify What does it mean to youquot Merton 1938 0 Individual adaptation is a result caused by strain it can come in various forms 0 Universal focus on economic success and overall limited availability to achieve it causes strain 0 This is a micro level theory that explains individual behavior Social adaptation varieties 1 Conformist Agreeing to the means and goals and perusing both 2 Innovator Accepting the goals but ndscreates new means 3 Ritualistic Rejects the goals but still buys into and follows the means 4 Retreatist Rejects both the goals and the means of society 5 Rebellion Rejects both the goals and the means and instead creates their own quotInnovator and rebellion are most likely to cause crime but not alwaysquot Criticism of Merton39s work Why is wealth the only goal Success can come in many forms The goal and means in the end do not matter What we care about is the outcome and other disjunctions like crime Aging out of crime desistance quotConsider according to Merton an anomic society focuses more on the goal than the legitimate ways to achieve the goalquot Unit of analysis The unit you are analyzing what you are measuring Society and the person Merton offered individual adaptation to the stain theory Dif cult to measure and prove a disjuncture between goals and means 0 Can be easily measured with an individual but not an entire society Cohen 1955 Developed this theory because of the critisims against Merton Societal goal standard behavior Called quotmiddle class measuring rodquot 0 De ned by Academic achievement ambition rationality and courteousness industrious not just out to get money Cloward and Ohlin 1960 Deprivation of means and strain 0 Once this happens a differential opportunity is presented 0 Without this differential opportunity a negative opportunity to commit crime crime does not occur Subcultures can occur criminal con ict retreatist ect Agnew 1992 Said that all this strain and anomie theorizing was getting way to speci c Strain has a variety of sources and causes of crime lack of adequate coping is a big one Everyone one has strain in some way Agnew tried to simplify this theory This became the general strain theory called general for the obvious reason A good theory to explain crime for every class no matter how rich or poor Sources of strain the process of criminal behavior according to quotAgnew Failure to achieve positively valued goals Disjunction of expectations and achievements Removal of positivevalued stimuli money job family etc Presentation of negative stimuli the differential opportunity quotCrime delinquency anti social behavior all pose a likelihood of causing crime But it is not proven or guaranteed Still depended on coping skillsquot Institutional Anomie theory Messner and Rosenfeld 2001 Theorized that material goods pervade all aspects of American life The American dream causes anomie by constantly pushing for pre de ned success Theoretically explains why crime is higher in US than other countries unrealistic goals due to the lack of means and concentration of materialism Not to mention short term stupid choices to get recognition Consider the breakdown of non economic institutions Broidy 2001 Coping skills are the most important in handling strain Strain being present and not having positive stimuli is not the main reason crime occurs in this theory lack of coping skills are Coping skills come in the form of social institutions like family peers etc Policy implications of strainanomie Juvenile delinquency prevention and control act 1961 Improve education work opportunities and services War on poverty these things are supposed to help but we don39t do them very well
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