Chapter 10 Need to Know Information (Weight Management)
Chapter 10 Need to Know Information (Weight Management) NUTR 1000 002
Popular in Contemporary Nutrition Concerns
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Dinnsen on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 1000 002 at East Carolina University taught by Nancy Harris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Nutrition Concerns in Nutrition and Food Sciences at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/18/16
Chapter 10 Weight Management 1 Difference Between Hunger Appetite and Satiety Hunger Physiological need to eat unpleasant sensann Appetite Psychological desire to eat learned response pleasant sensation Satiety Feeling of satisfaction and fullness that consuming food brings temporarily halts the desire to continue eating 2 Basal Metabolic Rate What is it and how much does it contribute to an individual s energy needs Basal Metabolism The sum of all the involuntary activities that are necessary to sustain life including a Circulation b Respiration c Temperature maintenance d Hormone secretion e Nerve activity f New tissue synthesis Accounts for 5070 of the total energy used by the body 3 Body Mass IndexWhat it is and how it is used Correlates signi cantly with body fatness Does not distinguish between body fat and lean Ussue ls used to evaluate health risks associated with overweight or underweight BMl formula 703 x weightheightquot2 Adult BMl Guidelines a Underweight 185 or less b Normal 185 to 249 c Overweight 25 to 299 d Obese class 1 30 to 349 e Obese class 2 35 to 399 f Extremely obese class 3 40 or greater Health risks begin when BMI is less than 19 or greater than 25 4 Body Fat Percent How it is used and how it is measured Measured by a Hydrostatic weighing gold standard bAir displacement methods bod pod c Skinfold or fatfold measurements compare to standardized values d Bioelectrical Impedance Only lean tissue and water conduct electrical current fat is a poor conductor the higher the fat the greater the resistance to a very low intensity electrical current e Dual energy xray absorptiometrydexa measures two beams of xray energy as they pass harmlessly through the body is able to assess total body fatness fat distribution and bone density Used to tell how much fat an individual has in their body 5 Body Fat Distribution How it is measured and the difference between android and gynoid Affected by menopause in women smoking alcohol intake physical activity Measured through waist circumference the distance around your natural waist just above the naveD Males no larger than 40 inches Females no larger than 35 inches ANDRIOD OR CENTRAL OBESITY a Apple shaped b Upper body fat c Typical in males d Disadvantage increased risk for chronic diseases such as hypertension diabetes cardiovascular disease e Advantage easier to lose weight GYNOID OR LOWER BODY OBESITY aPearshaped bTypicaly found in females c Disadvantage Harder to lose weight dAdvantage is a benign obesity 6 Recommended components of a weight management program Optimal approach to obesity incorporates nutrition physical activity and behavior modi cation 7 Goals for a healthy weight loss program Cultivate reasonable goals regarding body size and shape Strive for slow steady loss of about 12 pounds per week Nutrition guidelines ensure overall nutritional adequacy emphasize nutrient density eat at least 12001500 calories eat smaller portions practice mindful eating Physical activity guidelines participate in some form of physical activity regularly use a balanced activity plan increase frequency intensity and duration of physical activity as reasonable Behavior modi cation guidelines selfefficacy believe in your ability to control your weight become aware of behaviors have a plan keep records make small changes eliminate inappropriate eating cues repeat positive behaviors and reward them develop social support systems Number of calories needed to add or subtract in order to gain or lose one pound of body weight 500 calories Characteristics of Anorexia Nervosa Selfstarvation Excessive weight loss Refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight De ned as a weight less than 85 of expected for age and height Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat even when underweight A distortion in perception of body shape and weight Undue in uence of body weight on selfevaluation Denial of the seriousness of a low body weight MAIN CHARACTERISTICS weight loss fear of loss of control involves denialdenies problem exists typically educated and middle to upper class most common in teenage girls and women age range 12 to mid 30 s male account for 510 of cases perfectionist parents set high standards competitive intense fear of gaining weight weight 15 or more below usual or desired involved in food rituals dysfunctional family dynamics overbearing mother emotionally absent father 10 abuse often present or in history sleep disturbances depression is common dry skin brittle nails dry hair complaints of constipation abdominal bloating have decreased gastric emptying cardiac abnormalities yellowness of skin amenorrhea joint pain decreased metabolic rate de ciencies in iron electrolyte imbalances Characteristics of Bulimia Nervosa Age of onset 17 to 25 Greater incidence in females than males Growing number of male athletes report these practices Denial is common Very secretive with behaviors Never overeat in front of others Person is not emaciated Low selfesteem Spends much time thinking about food and weight Frequent weight uctuations Complaints of lethargy bloating constipation Chronic sore throat hoarseness esophagitis caused by swollen salivary glands from infection and irritation resulting from frequent vomiting Calluses on hands ngers from vomiting Dental problems such as erosion of dental enamel hypersensitivity to heat cold acid Stomach ulcers Menstrual irregularities in fewer than 20 Electrolyte imbalances Binges followed by feelings of shame or guilt Is not a response to hunger is a compulsion to eat Experience lack of control over eating during binge episodes High achievers Perfectionists People pleasers Tend to be impulsive Emotionally dependent on parents
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