INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING PROCESSES ME 4563
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This 58 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gwendolyn Smith on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ME 4563 at Arkansas State University taught by Shivan Haran in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see /class/217729/me-4563-arkansas-state-university in Mechanical Engineering at Arkansas State University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
ME 4563 Intmduct m to Manufacturing Pmcesses Gel39 of Engineeth szamas State WWW ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamquot Bulk Deformation ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn M54563 17 s Ham What is Rolling 7 I A process of reducing the thickness or changing the crosssection of long workpiece By applying compressive forces through a set of rolls M54563 17 s Ham Some Rolling Facts Process developed in late 1500 s Accounts for over 90 of all metals produced by metalworking process by volume Various crosssectional shapes are achieved Major metal that is rolled is Steel followed by Aluminum Can be carried out Hot or Cold Machinery for Rolling called Millsquot have a variety of configurations Several parameters to be considered in practice in I c c Ill 4553 a a Ham 5 4 Rolling Pickling and mu mil nlllng a Cuntlnuous mung or Wm We and wire meM i Schematic outline of various at and processes Source American Iron and Steel Institute M54553 0 5 Ham E Rolling Products include Plates Sheets Rods Foil Pipes and tubes Shape rolled products such as channel I L T etc Other structural shapes also made lg Rolling Major Metals that are Rolled include 39 Steel 39 Aluminum Others like Copper Brass Lead etc Special applications Titanium and other exotic metals E s Rolling Direct Applications where rolled platessheets are used o Aircraft bodies Ship hulls Reactor vessel walls o Boilers Bridges 39 Tanks etc M54553 DniHamn Indirect Applications where rolled platessheets are used after further processing o o Locomotives Automobiles Appliances FoodBeverage containers Office equipment Construction etc etc Rolling Classifications of Rolling Material Rolling material is separated into classi cations based on the material39s crosssectional dimensions CrossSection Thickness V dth Bloom Square gt 6 in lt 2 thickness Billet Square or Circular lt 6 in lt 2 thickness Slab Rectangular gt 2 thickness Plate 025in ltxlt12in Sheets 0008 in lt x lt 025 in Foil lt0008 in ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn Q Rolling Wnat kind of Thickness are We talking about 7 Men Manufactured Rolled Plates normallv gt 6mm Rolled Sheets normally lt 6mm Andme range of applications Airoa Bodv re 2mm met Aluminum beverage ans ore 22 mthidlt 0002mm wok Wrapping Aluminum Foil Maw u rm Rolling Two Major types of rolling processes r e to produce Plates 1 Flat rolling a d Sheetso Profile or Shape rolling to pr uce all other possible shapes Maw u rm ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn RolHng Flat Rolling Process can be divided into THREE major types Hot Rolling Pack Rolling ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn Rolhng Flat Rolling Process u Converts a cast Structure into a wrought structure rolled above the rec rystallization temperature process in Which new equiaxed strain free grains are formed replacing old grains Carried out a room temperature betterfinish mechanical properties Two or more layers of metals are rolled together improves productivity Al foil Rolling Other Flat Rolling Process Sheets subject to a final pass strain in the sheets are removed sheets undergo yield point elongation during rolling also called skin pass 05 to 15 reduction in thickness To improve flatness Sheets may not be sufficiently flat due to various reasons such as roll gap and process parameters ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn 15 Rolling Preliminary Rolling Initial breakdown of Ingot or cast slab Flat Rolling Process Continuous Casting or Ingots ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn 16 Rolling Preliminary Rolling n About 6quot square in cross section various lengths Thinner rectangular cross section various lengths thinner version ofa bloom Smaller square cross sections various lengths M54563 17 s Ham 17 Flat Rolling Process Continuous Flat Rolling Process A Schematic Elaams swmmng Harixanhl Vervczl mm o i o o i l Li Humming M54563 17 s Ham 18 Rolling Flat Rolling Process Products Hot Strip pickling Cold MIII acid bath Rolling Directly to Plates Rolling Pre Rolling gtTubes ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamquot Rolling Flat Rolling Process Products Hot Rolled Coldd rawn Bars Bars Rods Wire amp Wire products Tube Seamless Rounds Tubes ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn Rolling Flat Rolling Process Products Structural Shapes Rails ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamquot Rolling Other Rolling Operations Consists of these major categories Shape Rolling Ring Rolling Thread Rolling Rotary Tube Piercing Tube Rolling ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn Rolling Other Rolling Operations A Shape Rolling Raw materials is usually the Bloom Straight structural shapes such as bars of various cross sections channel sections lbeams and rails Rolled by passing the stock through a number of sets of rolls specially designed for these applications Designing the roll systems for this application takes experience and care as material failure is fairly frequent in case of poor designs Ill 4553 HISHZIZII 23 Shape Rolllng Slage 1 Siege 2 Stage a 7 Stages in the shape 39 i rolling of an Hsection part gt lt 39 Various other structural sections Booming r615 Edging rollS leghing ltorlzuntal such as channels and and vertlcal rolls pheamsy 3 also Stage 4 Stage 5 Sage 6 rolled by this kind of I I process lnellnediate llorizomal Edging tolls 39 Shlng ltuttmtttal and verLical lolls 4nd veniczll rolls Ill 455 HISHaIal 24 Shape Rolling A Shape Rolling mm 0 s Halal 25 Shape Rolling A Shape Rolling Rolling out an angular section Maw 12 s Halal 26 Shape Rolling A Shape Rolling Rolling out a VSection M54563 on s Haran 27 Rolling B Ring Rolling Smaller diameter thick ring is expanded into a larger diameterthinner ring System consists of two rolls one which performs the rolling and the other to support and guide With each rotation the thickness is reduced as the rings come closer together M54553 on s Haran 28 Ring Rolling Main mlr mi lwiii WWH mimliiiv iull a 5 a Schematic Illustration of a ring rol ing opera ion ic ness reduction results in an M inquot Vinrkwm increase in the part diameter b Examples of crosssections that can be formed by ring rolling Edging mil Ill 4553 a 5 Ham 29 Ring Rolling B Ring Rolling Variety of cross sections can be ring rolled with shaped rolls Short production runs material savings closer tolerances favorable grain flow Rockets turbines gearwheel rims bearing races etc M54553 0 5 Ham Rolling B Ring Rolling ME 4563 Dr 5 Hanan 31 Rolling B Ring Rolling ME 4563 HI 5 Hanan 32 Rolling B Ring Rolling Examples xJTJQ M46453 0 S Halal Thread Rolling C Thread Rolling I Threads or gear teeth formed on round rods by rolling I Flat reciprocating dies and round rotating dies are used I Good for external threads High production rate for screws olts I No loss of material smaller diameter rods to start with I Greater strength due to cold working as compared to a regular thread cutting process I Ductility of material is crucial as well as good lubrication in the process I Typically faster at three times the cutting process ME 4653 Dr S Halal Thread Rolling c Threadrolling processes quot a and c reciprocating anlng die al dies L b tworoller dies T eaded fasteners suc made economically 2 by ese processes at Iaxlmmly ryllmlilml mm high rates of m clilludl lml productlon m km l i ll Work ml WM M5455 Dr 5 Ham Thread Rolling a Features of a l Dlmneur or m machined or rolled ead thr U 1 quot39 Grain owin hlumr Ml machined and rolled I E 78L threads Unlike machining which cuts through the grains ofthe metal the rolling of threads Mmllmml or Inllml ilurrml favorable grain ow Rolled lhrLad M54553 Dr 5 Halal Thread Rolling C Thread Rolling Material is notwasted rmmaam CutThread Rolled Thread M54553 Dr 5 Halal 37 Thread Rolling C Thread Rolling M5455 Dr 5 Hm 38 Thread Rolling C Thread Rolling ME 4563 Dr 5 Haran Thread Rolling Examples WW ME 4563 Dr 5 Haran 40 20 Rolling D Rotary Tube Piercing A hotworking process used to make long thick wall seamless tubing When a round bar is subject to radial compression tensile stress develops in the center of the rod l Can be demonstrated using a round eraser and rolling it on the table l ME 4563 Dr 5 Hanan 41 Rolling D Rotary Tube Piercing When subject to cyclic compressive stresses a cavity begins to form in the center By means of piercing this hole with a mandrel of required diameter the hole size is expanded l Special roll arrangement with the mandrel are used High quality defect free bars must be used for this process ME 4563 Dr 5 Hanan 42 21 Rolling Rotary Tube Piercing A Schematic il b r H Rotar Tube iercin is y p 9 Rolls are normally arranged In a also called the k d t I Mannesmann process s ewe manner axes a an ang e ME4563 DLSHaIan 43 Rolling Rotary Tube Piercing 3 Stainless Steel Seamless Welded Gabon 1 Alloy Steel Seamless Welded ME 4563 Dr 5 Hanan 22 Rolling Schematic illustration of 39 ube E Tube Rolling rolling processes with xed mandrel with moving man 39 re with out I pilger rolling 0 er a mandrel and a pair of shaped rolls 8 Workpiece v 45 M54553 0 5 Ham Rolling Spray Casting Spray casting Osprey process in which molten me al is Induction rheated ladle Atomizer mandr H nilrogen gas seamless tubing and pl o 39 Recipient urce Szekely Scienti c American July 1987 substrate Deposition chamber M54553 0 5 Ham Rolling Mills Rolling Mills Several types of Rolling mills amp equipment are built using diverse rolls arrangement Equipment for Hot and Cold rolling is essentially the same except the process parameters roll materials lubricants and cooling sys em Very capital intensive Highlyautomated M54563 17 5 Ham Rolling Mills Rolling Mill M54563 17 5 Ham Rolling Mills M54653 In 5 Haran Rolling Mills Roll Arrangements TwoHigh Mill Two and Threehigh Mills Used in hotrolling for initial breakdown passes on cast ingots or in continuous casting process Threehigh reversing mill used as a two stage rolling process ThreeHigh Mill M54653 In 5 Haran Rolling Mills Roll Arrangements FourHigh Mill Fourhigh Mills Based on principle that smaller rolls lower roll forces and power as well as spreading of sheets easily replaced when broken 0 worn I Drawbacks small rolls deflect more have to be supported by other rolls as in the fourhigh and cluster arrangements Cluster rolls Sendzimir most suited for cold rolling M54553 0 5 Ham Rolling Mills Schematic illustration of a fourhig rolling mill and showing its various features The sti hess ofthe housing the rolls and maintainin the thickness ofthe rolled strip Screw or hydraulic mechanism Housing Backup rolls gt Work rolls Backrup rolls M54553 0 5 Ham Rolling Mills Roll Arrangements Schematic illustration of Various roll arrangements a twohigh b ee high c fourhigh d cluster Sendzimir mill l Bathing healingir 7 l lousng omen ml17 is an m Bearing Ali nll Flm swim 39 mmmmdim inmrmLliml l mu m w J i 0mm mil 4 Dr i 75 1 I m m ka mll 7 Driven mil Mum DLEHami 53 Rolling Mills Roll Arrangements Tandem Mills Strip is rolled continuously through a number of stands to smaller gauges with each pas Each stand has its own set of rolls and controls A groups of stands is called a Train M54553 DLEHaIai 54 Rolling Mills Roll Arrangements Tandem Mills Dimensions at different stages S and 1 Z 3 4 5 Ill 4553 a s Halal 55 Rolling Mills Rolls Strength and Resistance to wear Made of Cast iron cast steel amp forged steel Tungsten carbide for smaller diameter rolls Forged steel among the best materials greater strength stiffness and toughness Rolls are ground to fine finish for cold rolling Polished for special applications Rolls for hot and cold rolling are not interchangeable M54553 0 5 Ham 5B Rolling Problems with Rolls in Practice Because of forces acting on them rolls nd rgo geometric changes As a result there are problems with the resulting rolled product Mum a 5 mquot Effect of Roll Forces L39J The forces result fromt e resistance ofthe material to deformation and cause 7 Roll bending Nun flat material 7 amheved sheet 7 ucklmg 7 Roll flattening Punrtuler ances increased forces larger suntan Iorquc area Mum a 5 mquot Roll Force Compensation Rolling forces set the energy required forthe process and the size of the equipment required Roll Forces can be decreased by Reducing friction use of Lubricants Using smaller diameter rolls eg in the Sendzimir mill Smaller reductions per pass lesser Residual stresses Increasing the temperature via Hot rolling Provide backup rolls four high Camber rolls to compensate ro deflection Bend rolls back ME 4553 Dr 5 Haran 59 Reducing the Roll Force Lowering the friction Friction is lower for cold rolling than for hot With effective lubricant Cold Rolling friction 02 to 03 Hot Rolling friction 02 to 07 Choose the right material for rolls Modify the lubrication parameters Type Amount Method of Application Reduce the Roll Radius This also lowers the energy Reducing the roll radius shortens the length of contact However rolls will be more prone to deflection see defects ME 4553 Dr 5 Haran 60 30 Reducing the Roll Force Use Lower Reductions This may increase the number of required passes thus requiring More time Possibly more equipment requirements Possibly more energy Increase the Work piece Temperature This lowers the yield point This allow recrystallization and reduces strain hardening Apply Tension Either side will reduce the force If applied at the entrance term ed back tension If applied at the exit termed front tension ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn Rolling Mills Lubricants Lubricants Normally none used for rolling Ferrous alloys Graphite may be used sometimes Waterbased solutions are used to cool the rolls Nonferrous alloys are hotrolled with variety of lubricants such as oils and fatty acids Cold rolling is carried out with lowviscosity lubricants such as mineral oils paraffin etc ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn 31 Rolling Vibration and Chatter 39 Significant effect on product Quality and Productivity 39 Chatter self excited vibration can occur in rolling as well as other processes extrusion drawing machining etc 39 Related to the dynamics of the rolling action 39 ln Rolling predominantly occurs in Tandem mills 39 variation in thickness poor surface finish high levels of scrap 39 frequencies related to the resonance as well as other natural frequencies of the system 39 Controlled by process parameters distance between roll sets width ofjob speed of rolling increasing damping etc ME 4563 Dr 5 Haran W u Rolling Problems with Rolls Roll Flattening The forces of rolling will flatten the rollers elastically similar to tires on the road surface Roll radius Modulus of elasticity roll forces This flattening causes an increase in the contact area The increased contact area causes the forces to increase Roll Flattening can be reduced by 39 Using a roller material with a higher modulus of elasticity 39 Reducing the roll force ME 4563 Dr 5 Haran Rolling Problems with Rolls Roll Deflection Roll forces tend to bend the rolls leading to a strip that is thicker at the center than at the edges Solution Grind the rolls such that the diameter at the center is slightly larger than at the edges This is known as giving them CAMBER In practice this would generally be around 025 mm or less on the radius Camber is only correct for a given load on the roll thickness of the strip Hence normally done for a large batch due to economic reasons Ill 4553 a s Halal E5 Rolling Problems with Rolls Roll Deflectin Rolls a Bending ofstmight V cylindrical rolls r0 Slrip thicker 11 center force b Bending ofrolls ground with camber producing a strip with uniform thickness lrip with uniform thickness M54553 0 5 Ham BB Rolling Problems with Rolls Spreading Rolling plates sometimes causes the wid to increase considerably Side This increase is called SPREADNC 9quot In Controlled with high widthtothickness ratio roll radius to strip thickness ratio decreasing friction between rolls and material Spreading can be observed when dough IS rolled mm a rolling pin M54553 0 5 Ham Defects due to Rolling Successful Rolling depends upon various factors including material properties process variables and lubricatio Defects on the surface of the rolled material structural defects within the rolled material Surface Defects inclusions and impurities in the material scale rust dirt roll marks etc caused due to prior treatment and working of the material Remedy precondition the material by cleaning it by various means M54553 0 5 Ham Defects due to Rolling Structural Defects distort or affect the integrity of the rolled product Wavy Ed es Edges are thinner than the center caused by bending of the rolls the edges elongate more then the center and are restrained from expanding freely they buckle Cracks in the Rolled Product usually caused by low ductility and barreling in the edges amp middle Alligatoring resulting from inhomogeneous material deformation during rolling and defects in the original cast ingot itself M54553 0 5 Ham Defects due to Rolling Schematic a c illustration of typical defects in at rolling39 a wavy edges Rolling duecuon b zipper cracks in the center ofthe rip c edge cracks d alligatoring M54553 0 5 Ham Defects clue to Rolling r tluq sr a c I d Cewkfk l Cw chm 43 Win K ha e WON us Possibl t 39ects when culling will inm ciem camber ME 4553 Dr 5 Hanan 71 Defects clue to Rolling cake hm IIPct In bl c cal tting s Pl Hz s Possible edema when roll Axe manhunt ME 4553 Dr 5 Hanan 72 36 Defects due to Rolling Taking care of wavy edges M54563 17 5 Ham Defects due to Rolling Taking care of wavy edges quot M54563 17 5 Ham Hot Rolling ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamquot 75 Hot Rolling Hot Rolling is done between 100 and 200 degrees F above the recrystallization temperature for most metals Hot rolling gives a nal product with a ne grain size and little strain hardening This provides increased material yield strength This also provides increased ductility by breaking grain boundaries closing internal defects and breaking inclusions ME 4m Dr 5 Hamn 76 38 Hot Rolling Advantages ozo Stresses lower ozo Forces smaller 9 Power requirements less a No work hardening ozo Large deformations possible ozo Breaks up the cast structure into preferable forms ozo Closes porosity ozo Sometimes the only way to create sheet ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn 77 Hot Rolling Disadvantages a Higher friction o Rolls need to be cooled ozo Material handling dif cult ozo Personnel must be protected from heat ME 4m Dr 5 Hamquot 78 39 Hot Rolling Causes changes in the grain structure of cast or of largegrain wrought metal Hot rolling is an effective way to reduce grain size in metals for improved strength and ducti ity Defnrmed elongated 0 grains New grains ng growl New grains forming Reciystallizalion r m 39 Wrought lngot Wmught product with with nonuniform product with small uniform grains large grains grains Ill 4553 HISHaIzi Hot Rolling some points 39 The nal product has little directionality however 39 lfthere are nonmetallic inclusions they will not recrystallize and may impart directionality 39 Alloying elements that have a high recrystalliztion temperature may cause the sam effect 39 Thinner sheets will have more directional characteristics 39 The nal product has few residual stresses however 39 Nonuniform cooling can induce substantial residual stresses 39 The edges may warp due to rapid cooling especially in more complicated shapes l beam Flanges do th39 39 The fnal surface is rougher surface will contain diffcult to remove hightemperature oxides termed mill scale tolerances can usually be held to 2 5 ofthe speci ed dimensi Ill 4553 a 5 Halal Casting 8 Hot Rolling a schematic Ladl cuminunus aslin Rnuqhmq mill Hnt rnllina sinnmmq mill menu S Mmsan lllustvatiarv ME 41563 Dr 5 Haran Hot Rolling Mill Design Basically the same as cold mills but designed for higher temperatures and are reversible Typically have edging rolls to control thickness Often have a warm mill at the end Warm mill H t 11 o rm Tak Slab I I Roller table ME 41563 Dr 5 Haran erui roll Hot Rolling Mill Design Basically the same as cold mills but designed for higher temperatures and are reversible Typically have edging rolls to control thickness Often have a warm mill at the end H 0t mill Warm mill Takeu roll Slab I I 6 Roller table ME 4553 Dr 5 Haran 83 Hot Rolling Process Example Start with 12in thick slab 20 feet long Hot mi converts to 2 in thick slab 120 feet long with 11 passes six fonNard and 5 reverse Front end sheared off to eliminate alligatoring Warm mill converts this to rollof sheet 025 in thick 960 feet long Rolls more easily handled by overhead cranes to transport it to cold mills than 1000 ft long slabs ME 4553 Dr 5 Haran 84 42 Overall Process for Sheet and Plate Cast ingot Scalp not always Reheat and homogenize uniform Hot roll in reversing mill to 12 in thick Cut off ends alligators Warm roll to 012 in thick Heat treat to recrystallize sometimes Cool Cold roll to finish thickness Heat treat where appropriate Results in material which must be further worked M 4563 a 5 Haran ES Hot Rolling Long Products clients from vamus processes at semi M 4563 a 5 Haran EB 43 Hot Rolling Flat Pro d ncls Yuba Mm Metallic Cua nu Ruch sual senn l I oucms rmmvnmm musss amp scmn M46453 0 S Halal Hot Rolling ME 4653 Dr S Halal Hot Rolling Closer Look Hot Rolling M46453 0 S Halal Hot Rolling Continuous teel Casting Line rolling out billets ME 4653 Dr S Halal Hot Rolling Wl quot Continuous Rolling of Billets M54663 Dr 5 Hanan 91 Steel Slabs from slab caster Steel Billets M54663 Dr S Haran 92 46 Hot Rolling Hot rolled strips being coiled ME 455 0 s Halal 93 Hot Rolling Rolling of Rails Maw 12 s Halal g4 Hot Rolling Hot Cutting the rolled Rails ME 4563 Dr S Halan Hot Rolling Section of the Mill where rolling is taking place ME 4563 Dr S Ham1 48 Rolling Further Processing Profiled color coated steel sheets Usection long bars mm 0 5 Mann g7 Rolling Further Processing Wire rods in coil Usection long bars Maw 12 s Halal 98 Cold Rolling Cold Rolling Ill 4553 a 5 Halal BB Cold Rolling Hot rolled coil is commonly cold rolled also known as cold educe The strip is first decoiled uncoiled and then passes through a series of rolling mill stands whic apply pressure to the strip and progressively reduce its thickness down to as low as 015 mm The strip is then recoiled Cold rolling processes are also used to improve the surface quality of the steel Cold rolling also has the effect of hardening steel so cold reduced strip is subsequently anneale a process of very carefully controlled heating and cooling to soften it M54553 0 5 Ham mu Cold Rolling Advantages Deformations of 50 to 80 Work hardening increases strength Excellent surface finish Excellent tolerance on thickness and shape Disadvantages High forces Small reductions give rise to surface stresses and nonuniform stress distributions ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn Cold Rolling Mill Design Input and output coils with tensioning control Shape meters consisting ofsegmented coils measuring force Tandem mis allow multiple reductions in one operation Laser inspection systems for surface finish inspection becoming popular especially for canstock Surface condition of rolls critical to maintain surface nish Roll bending almost essential to provide crown control ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn 51 g Cold Rolling Cold Rolllrlg 7 Schemath r m quotml eelr ram am we M mane arenu MEMJ Dr mm Cold Rolling CDld rdlled sheet can be pruduced ln varlDuS edndlndns such as sklnrrulled ddarrer hard hall hard lull hard dependlng an haw rndeh edld Wurk has been perldrrned rhls edld Wurklng hardness ls men ealled temper ln Sklrl Rulllng the metal ls reduced by a s m We and phenumenunwexcesslvestretchlrlg and errlkllrlg n subsequent DpEratlDrls ls Ellmlnated rhls makes the metal mDrE ddenle ldr lurther ldnnlng and stretchlng dperarldns MEMJ Dr mm m Cold Rolling Quarter Hard Half Hard Full Hard stock have higher amounts of reduction upto 50 This increases the yield point grain orientation and material properties assume different properties along the grain orientation However while the yield point increases ductility 9E63E PHard material can be bent perpendicular to the direction of rolling on itself without fracturing Half hard material can be bent 90 Full hard can be bent 45 Thus these materials can be used for in applications involving great amounts of bending and deformation without fracturing ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn 105 Cold Rolling Cold Drawing Another form of cold processing is cold drawing Steel rod is dragged at pressure drawn through a series of dies which progressively reduce the rod39s circumference to prod uce wi re The drawing process substantially increases the steel39s tensile strength Steel wires can be spun into huge ropes strong enough to support the world39s largest suspension bridges ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn 106 53 Cold Rolling ME 4553 DI 5 Halal 107 Cold Rolling YulIan mu Imm Mel mus Wmmnemln ME 4563 0 5 Halan 108 54 Cold Rolling Cold Rolllng M54555 Dr 5 Hamv Cold Rolling quot m fllwlrrquot quot Cold rolled COll belng 5pm We narrow smps Cold rolled COllS M54555 Dr 5 Hamv Rolling Aluminum Al Sheelbemg mlled um Mum Dr 5 mquot W Al Foil Roll Mum Dr 5 mquot m Independent Variables for Rolling For a given rolling setup Roll speed Draft amount ofthickness reduction or roll gap Billetthickness Billetwidth Billet material not always allowed to select Billettemperature Lubricant ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn 113 Dependent Variables for Rolling For a given rolling setup Roll force Power Speed of exiting strip Final strip temperature Maximum draft Roll strip contact length Sheet or plate shape ME 4553 Dr 5 Hamn 114 57 Control of Overall Properties Thickness Roll gap which impacts roll force and hence the dimensions of the mill frame V dth due to spreading of slab Edge rollers push material back Edge shears cut material off Length End shears Mechanical Properties Controlled by the microstructures which is controlled by the rolling parameters reduction temperature etc Ill 4553 a 5 Halal 5 Control of Overall Properties Tolerance Thickness Operator skillautomation au esmeasurethickness ut Ilnm w 7 Computers control roll gap Camber Roll bendingautomation Special segmented tension meters measure quotshapequot B 39 cti f Computers bend the rolls emng ma on one Surface finish Roll finish Mun vullv mum in mm T Applied forces 4gtT M54553 0 5 Ham MB
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