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Toddler Nutrition

by: Bridget Ochuko

Toddler Nutrition FDNS 4050

Marketplace > University of Georgia > FDNS 4050 > Toddler Nutrition
Bridget Ochuko
GPA 3.37
Nutrition Life Span
Alex K. Anderson

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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 10 in the textbook and go in depth on toddler nutrition and conditions needed to be healthy, along with commentary from lecture.
Nutrition Life Span
Alex K. Anderson
Class Notes
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Ochuko on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FDNS 4050 at University of Georgia taught by Alex K. Anderson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.


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Date Created: 10/02/15
FDNS Chpt 10 Notes 09282015 Toddler Nutrition Needs and Requirements Introduction Focuses on the growth and development of toddlers o By this time some pattern of meal eating must be established Pan snacks and meals around child s activities a Snack provides a limited amount of nutrients n Meals should include a variety of nutrients Todders should eat 3 meals a day with some snacks in between UMost don t eat 3 meals a day if a toddler is eating only one meal a day don t panic make sure that one meal has all the nutrients needed Appetite of toddler changes from infancy because their rate of growth decreases re ects on how much they eat o Must respect the child s appetite the child shouldn t be eating at the same rate they were when they were growing at the highest rate if they continue to do so the excess calories they consume will not be used up and it will distribute as fat throughout the body Feeding skills In toddler years bottles shouldn t be used more semiswallow or swallowing foods 0 Healthy food preferences children whose growth is stunted can be a result of not reaching nutritional needs 0 Increases probability of obesity Importance of Nutrition Status 0 During toddler years adequate nutrition is required to achieve full growth and development 0 Undernutrition impairs cognitive development and ability to explore environment Tracking Toddler and Preschooler Health 0 Economic and nutrition status of the US children 0 20 live in poverty 2009 o 75 million have no health insurance 0 34 live in singleparent families make them more likely to live in poverty Normal Growth and Development 0 De nitions of the Life Cycle Stage toddlers 13 years characterized by rapid increase in gross and ne motor skills 0 From birth to 1 year average infant triples birth weight Toddlers gain 8 oz and grow 04 in per month CDC Growth Charts 0 The simplest way to assess a child s growth development is through growth charts 0 Acute nutrition short term nutrition measured by weightfor age 0 Charts are Gender speci c Age speci c a set for ages birth36 months and 220 years 0 Chronic nutrition measured by Length or staturefor age a Results in stunted growth if child is below average Headcircumferencefor age n Particularly measures inadequate protein intake Weightforlength or stature n Measures wasting of child measurement of weight against height For a child s BMI must compare the raw score to the percentile children 2 years 0 Anything between 1 and 1 is considered normal anything above 2 is obese anything below 1 is underweight a WHO Growth Standards 0 O O O 0 WHO World Health Organization published growth standards for children from birth to 5 years International growth standards regardless of ethnicity or socioeconomic status Measure a breastfed child s growth pattern If children grown in an environment that has less restriction on them but are still breastfed grow at the same rate The conclusion was that no matter where a child is if heshe is optimally breastfed they will grow at the same rate Development of Feeding Skills of Toddlers Gross and ne motor development improved 0 910 months weaning form bottle begins 0 1214 months completely weaned 12 months re ned pincer grasp 1824 months able to use tongue to clean lips and has developed rotary chewing Adult supervision vital to prevent choking Feeding Behaviors of Toddlers O O O O Rituals in feeding are common May have strong preferences and dislikes Parents must make the conscious effort to transition toddlers to solid foods and to try different foods Serve new foods with familiar foods when child is hungry Food jag the child wants one food and one food only very common 0 Toddlers imitate parents and older siblings Appetite and Food Intake of Toddlers O O O Slowing growth results in decreased appetite Toddlersized portions average 1 tablespoon per year of age Nutrientdense snacks needed but avoid grazing on sugary foods that limit appetite for basic foods at meals Preschoolers O O O O 0 May prefer familiar words Serve childsized portions Make foods attractive colorful foods in a brightly lit room Strong avored or spicy food may not be accepted Control amount eaten between meals to ensure appetite for basic foods lnnate Ability to Control Energy Intake 0 Children adjust caloric intake to meet caloric needs 0 Avoid encouraging child to quotclean your platequot Healthful eating habits must be learned Temperament Differences Temperament the behavioral style of the child 0 Three main temperamental clusters 0 O O 40 quoteasyquot temperaments adapts to regular schedules and accepts new foods 10 difficult temperaments slow to adapt and may be negative to new foods 15 quotslowtowarmupquot slow adaptability negative to new foods but can learn to accept new foods Remaining styles are quotintermediate lowquot to quotintermediate highquot a mixture of behaviors Food Preference Development Appetite and Satiety Prefer sweet and slightly salty reject sour and bitter foods 0 Eat familiar foods 0 May need 810 exposures to new foods before acceptance 0 Food intake related to parent s preferences Feeding Relationship 0 Parent or caretaker responsibilities 0 What children are offered to eat 0 the environment in which food is served including when and where foods are offered 0 Don t allow the child to graze throughout the day in other words don t let them eat too many snacks and consume excess calories or not enough nutrients 0 Child s responsibilities 0 Child portions of foods 0 How much they eat it is up to the child to ask for more until they are full 0 Whether they eat a particular meal or snack Nutrient Needs Protein 0 13 years 11 gkgd or 13 gday 48 years 095 gkgd or 19gday Protein needs decline with respect to body weight as we grow because the rate of growth decreases Vitamins and Minerals 0 Most toddlers have adequate vitamin and mineral consumption except for iron calcium and zinc 0 There is a challenge with iron calcium and zinc with toddlers because although you don t need much the food they choose to eat doesn t include these vitamins and minerals There is little variety in their diet 0 As opposed to babies who get these nutrients from breast milk iron especially Common Nutritional Problems Ironde ciency anemia Dental caries Constipation Elevated blood lead levels 0 Lead and iron compete for absorption extremely important to not expose the child to lead 0 Food security 0 Food safety lrondeficien C y Anemia Prevalent problem among toddlers May cause delays in cognitive development and behavioral disturbances o Seen in toddlers because of food choices this affects growth and cognition o This is prevalent in minority children Diagnosed by hematocrit andor hemoglobin concentration o If the mother has adequate stores of iron the baby will have adequate stores for 46 months 0 With adequate breast feeding the baby can build up iron store 0 Formula with iron can do this as well 0 Preventing ironde ciency 0 Limit milk consumption to 3 servings or less 24ozday Milk can cause children to lose iron in blood Milk has a low glycemic index which lls the child up and causes them not to be hungry 0 Repeat screening recommended for children at high risk minorities and children from lowincome houses Should be tested at 912 months 6 months later and annually from ages 25 0 Intervention for Iron De ciency 0 Iron supplements 0 Counseling with parents 0 Repeat screening Dental Caries Prevalence 1 in 3 children ages 35 0 Causes 0 Bedtime bottle with juice or milk 0 Streptococcus mutants o Sticky carbohydrate foods 0 Prevention uoride supplemental amounts vary by age and uoride content of water supply Constipation 0 De nition hard dry stools associated with painful bowel movements 0 Causes quotstool holdingquot and diet 0 Prevention adequate ber and uid Elevated Blood Lead Levels Seen in 09 of children ages 15 0 Has been decreasing since NHANES 19992002 data 0 Low levels of lead exposure linked to lower IQ and behavioral problems 0 High blood lead levels may decrease growth 0 Reduce lead poisoning by eliminating sources of lead Food Safety 0 Young children especially vulnerable to food poisoning Food safety practices by FightBAC 0 Clean wash hands and surfaces often 0 Separate don t crosscontaminate 0 Cook cook to proper temperatures 0 Chill refrigerate properly Nutrition and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease 0 Limit dietary saturated fats trans fat and cholesterol Acceptable total fat intake ranges o 2 to 3 years 30 to 35 of calories 0 4 to 18 years 25 to 35 of calories 0 for children at high risk of CVD limit saturated fat to lt7 of calories and cholesterol to lt200 mg Vitamin and Mineral Supplements 0 A varied diet provides all vitamins and minerals needed 0 AAP recommends supplements for certain groups of children O From deprived families 0 With anorexia poor appetites or poor diets F39IT or a dietary program for weight management Who consume only a few types of foods 0 Vegetarians without dairy products Types of vegetarians n Pescatarian only eat sh n OvoIacto eggs dairy and milk a Vegans absolute no foods that come from animals n Lacto ony dairy and milk a Ovo ony eggs n Flexitarians vegetarians but sometimes will eat meat depending on the circumstances Dietary and Physical Activity Recommendations 0 Dietary guidelines 0 Offer a variety of foods limiting foods high in fat and sugar 0 60 minutes of vigorous physical activity each day MyPIate developed by the USDA for young children 0 Physical Activity recommendations 0 Children need active play several times a day Family walk after dinner walking the dog Riding a tricycle or bicycle Freestyle dance 0 Playing catch Hide and seek Recommendations for Intake lron meats forti ed cereal dried beans and peas Fiber fruits vegetable whole grains Fat follow Dietary Guidelines and MyPlate Calcium dairy canned sh with soft bones green leafy vegetable calciumforti ed beverages Fluids beverages foods and sips of water Recommended v Actual Food Intake 0 Dietary intake of children ages 25 Energy met or exceeded recommendations Consistently low mean intakes of zinc folic acid Vit D and Vit E Totale fat is 31 boys and 32 girls of calories Sodium intake is 22832331 mg recommended 2300 mg Other Concerns Crosscultural considerations 0 Build on cultural practices Reinforce positive practices Attempt change for more bene t 0 Vegetarian diets vegan and macrobiotic diet children ten to have lower growth rates but remain within normal ranges Guidelines n Several mealsday 3 meals 23 snacks n Avoid excessive bulky foods bran n Incude energy dense foods cheeseavocado n Incude omega3 fatty acids for fat I Sources of Vitamin 812 Vitamin D and Calcium should be included or supplemented Nutrition Intervention for Risk Reduction 0 Model Program Bright Futures Nutrition 0 Public food and nutrition programs 0 WIC o WIC s Farmers Market Nutrition Program 0 Head Start and Early Head Start 0 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program formerly Food Stamps Conditions and Their Nutrition Management During Toddler and Preschooler Age Introduction 0 Our focus is on toddlers and preschoolers at nutritional risk oCovers nutrition needs and services for children with o Foodaergies o Breathing problems o Developmental delays oThose needing nutrition support 0 Increasing numbers of children with developmental disabilities enter the healthcare system each year CDC reports that gt17 of the pediatric population have some type of developmental disability and require extra nutrition support Who are children with special health care needs 0 Criteria for quotchronic conditionquot or disability varies from state to state 0 Estimates range from 5 to 31 of children 0 90 of children with disabilities have a nutrition problem Eligibility for Early Intervention Services are Based on 0 Developmental delays 0 Cognitive physical language and speech psychological or selfhelp skills 0 Physical or mental condition with a high probability of delay 0 At risk medically or environmentally for substantial developmental delay without services Nutrition Need of Toddlers and Preschoolers with Chronic Conditions oGoal is to make sure that children with disabilities are meeting their needs o Look at the DRls and depending on the child s disability reduce or increase whatever particular nutrient will meet their needs o DRls are a starting point for setting protein vitamin and mineral needs 0 Speci c conditions need adjustments 0 May cause poor appetite and increased caloric needs 0 May lead to over or underweight Caloric and nutrient recommendations should be customized for each child Growth Assessment 0 Repeated assessment is needed in order to provide the child with a disability with the highest quality of life possible for them Assessment answers the following o Is child s growth on track o Is child s food and nutrient intake adequate o Are feeding or eating skills age appropriate 0 Does diagnosis affect nutritional needs 0 When looking at the chart anything above the 5th percentile is ok as long as the child is consistently growing at that rate if below the 5th percentile there is something wrong with the child even if it is consistent Feeding Problems 0 Special health care needs cause feeding problems in young children combined with typical feeding issues of the average toddler or preschooler 0 Examples low interest in eating long mealtimes preferring liquids over solids food refusals Behavioral Feeding Problems Mealtime feeding problems are common with toddlers and preschoolers with behavioral and attention disorders 0 Behavioral disorders that affect nutritional status 0 Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD o ADHD may be suspected in preschool years but usually treated in the school years NutritionRelated Conditions 0 Failure to thrive F39IT Toddler diarrhea and celiac disease Autism Spectrum Disorders 0 Muscle coordination problems and cerebral palsy Pulmonary problems 0 Developmental delay and evaluations Failure to Thrive F77 o Inadequate weight or height gain with growth declines more than 2 growth percentiles 0 Organic v inorganic May result from o Digestive problems 0 Asthma or breathing problems 0 Neurological conditions 0 Pediatric AIDS 0 Recovery can include catchup growth 0 All require increased energy needs 0 When looking at the graphs If you see the child s weight plateauing or getting lower then it is important to seek medical help Todder Diarrhea and Celiac Disease 0 quotToddler diarrheaquot typically caused by sucrose and sorbitol content of fruit juices 0 Limiting juice may be recommended 0 Excess soda can also lead to diarrhea If changing the child s diet doesn t help then celiac disease might be the cause 0 Celiac disease results in diarrhea and caused by sensitivity to the protein gluten found in wheat and other grains 0 With celiac disease you should avoid gluten if gluten is continually fed then the diarrhea will be persistent Autism Spectrum Disorders 0 No speci c diet is recommended for prevention or treatment Glutenfree and caseinfree diets have been used by parents but not endorsed by professional societies Muscle Coordination Problems and Cerebral Palsy Cerebral Palsy 0 Group of disorders characterized by impaired muscle activity and coordination present at birth or developed during early cthhood Spastic quadriplegia a form of cerebral palsy 0 Reduced dietary intake results from child easily becoming tired while eating Meal pattern may be changed to provide small frequent meals and snacks to prevent tiredness at meals Foods recommended are easy to chew and soft Can occur at birth or later on in the child s life Triggered by not enough oxygen reaching the brain 0 The child shows symptoms of being extremely tired 0 Multiple small meals will help the child Pulmonary Problems 0 Examples of pulmonary breathing problems are brochopulmonary dysplasia and asthma 0 Breathing problems increase nutrient needs lower interest in eating and can slow growth 0 Children with these problems tend to have higher energy needs 0 Preterm infants at high risk of breathing problems 0 Recommend small frequent meals with concentrated energy Developmental Delay and Evaluation 0 Developmental delay may be suspected when 0 Speci c nutrients are inadequately or excessively consumed 0 May result from iron de ciency or lead toxicity 0 Physical growth may be impacted Food Allergies and Intolerance True food allergies seen in 2 to 8 of children 0 Common food allergies include milk eggs wheat peanuts walnuts soy shell sh Sources of Nutrition Services 0 State programs 0 Early intervention programs 0 Early childhood education programs IDEA Head Start 0 Early Head Start 0 WIC 0 Low birth weight follow up 0 Child care feeding programs


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