NHM 101 Notes- Week 6
NHM 101 Notes- Week 6 NHM 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Libo Tan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Intro Human Nutrition in Environmental Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Nutrition Notes Week 6 What type should we eat Seafood 20 Meat poultry eggs 70 Nuts seeds legumes 10 milk products good source 8g serving animal proteins good but high in saturated fat enough protein but not too much Trans bad Saturated bad DHA good EPA good Cholesterol bad Lipids contain Carbon Hydrogen and oxygen Widely different structures Defined by physical propertysolubility o Insoluble in water Types 1 Fatty acids 2 Triglycerides fats and oils9most common 3 Phospholipids 4 Steroids cholesterol9 most important Fatty Acids Building blocks of phospholipids and triglycerides All have same basic structure Chain of C and H with acid group COOH at end Differences Length of chain Saturation and location of bonds saturated fatty acid no double bond unsaturated fatty acid 1 double bonds MUFA monounsaturated 1double bond oleic acid in olive oil PUFApolyunaturated 2 double bond linoleic acid in veg oils Location of double bond identifies omega position of double bond closest to methyl group CH3 omega3 fatty acids 0 closest double bonds 3 C from methyl group omega6 fatty acids 0 6 C from methyl group Essential Fatty Acids 2 cannot be made in body but are required 1 Linoleic Acid an omega6 fatty acid a Supplied by vegetable oils meat 2 Linolenic Acid omega3 a Dark green vegetables axseed PLANT b Makes 2 other fatty acids EPA and DHA MARINE i Only small amounts ii Fatty cold water fish shellfish Triglycerides Most abundant in diet body Composed of 3 fatty acids attached to glycerol Condensation builds hydrolysis breaks down Solid or liquid at room temp o Oils liquid plant fish 0 Fats solid animal Saturated higher melting points fats Unsaturated lower melting points oils 0 All fats spoil when exposed to oxygen poly s spoil easier because of unstable double bonds Hydrogenation Double bonds saturated to single bonds by adding hydrogen molecules 0 Hydrogenation makes oils more solid 0 Longer shelf life 0 Trans fat results from the leftover fat after partial hydrogenation o Transfatincrease in bad cholesterol in the body most triglycerides stored in adipocytes fat cells as body fats 9main storage form of energy 9triglycerides are hydrolyzed to glycerol and free fatty acids Phospholipids Lipids with phosphate group structural composition of cell membrane Steroids multiple ring structure most common cholesterol animal sterol meat egg seafood poultry roles of cholesterol make vitamin D used by liver to make bile structural composition of cell membrane used to make steroid hormones sex adrenal Small Intestine 0 When fat enter CCK is released and signals the release of bile from the gall bladder o Bile acts as an emulsifier so the enzymes can act on the fat 0 Pancreatic Lipase hydrolyze triglycerides into monoglycerides and fatty acids In small intestine monoglycerides and free fatty acids reform triglycerides triglycerides phospholipids and cholesterol combine with proteins and are packed into particles known as chylomicrons 9cholymicrons are released into the lymphatic system and enter the bloodstream later to deliver dietary lipids to tissues insoluble fibers transport in watery blood stream made possible by lipoproteins Lipoproteins 1 Chylomicron 2 VLDL 3 LDL 4 HDL all vary in density 1 Chylomicrons deliver dietary lipids from small intestine to the rest of the body 2 VDL deliver indogenously synthesized lipids 3 LDL primarily cholesterol 4 HDL pick up cholesterol from tissues and return to liver for disposal High level of LDL high level of cholesterol in arteries athersclorosis HDL can clear cholesterol out of arteries Obesity o More dietary fatsmore caloriesmore body fat Cardiovascular Disease 0 Sattrans fats are associated with rise in LDL cholesterol and higher risk of CVD o Fats from animal 0 Trans fats margarine fried foods baked foods Unsaturated fats reduce LDL cholesterol and lower risk of CVD seafood nuts veg oils Omega3 PUFA helps prevent and increase in CVD Recommendations AMDR for fat 2035 of calories Cholesterollt300 mgday 1 egg SFA lt10 calories TFA little to none Adequate Intake 510 calories linoleic acid 0612 calories linolenic acid Actual Intake 0 fat calgt34 sat fat calgt 11 6 g trans too much linoleic too little linolenic women230 mg cholesterol men362 mg cholesterol reduce consumption of animal fats increase in unsaturated fats emphasize low fat low fat cooking methods Metabolism sum of total bodily chemical reactions Energy Metabolism all reactions with obtaining expending energy Anabolism building up of body compounds require energy Catabolism break down body compounds release energy Metabolism requires enzymescoenzymes coenzymes assist enzymes 0 B vitamins energy metabolism of glucose fatty acids amino acids ATP adenosine triphosphate Breakdown Carb glucose Protein amino acids Fats glycerol and fatty acids Anaerobic Oxidation of Glucose Under anaerobic conditions highly active muscles pyruvate lactate Much less ATP than aerobic exercise Major source of energy for intense exercise Ketogenesis during prolonged starvation activity of TCA cycle decreases most acetyl CoA produced from fatty acid oxidation is converted to ketone bodies
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