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BSC 116 Week 6 Notes- Lectures 17-19

by: Alexia Acebo

BSC 116 Week 6 Notes- Lectures 17-19 BSC 116

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 116 > BSC 116 Week 6 Notes Lectures 17 19
Alexia Acebo
GPA 3.7
Principles Biology II
Jennifer G. Howeth

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About this Document

A collection of the sixth week of notes from BSC 116 covering material from lectures 17-19.
Principles Biology II
Jennifer G. Howeth
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 116 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jennifer G. Howeth in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Principles Biology II in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/02/15
Lecture 17 Invertebrates greatest proportion of animals Phylum Mollusca 8 classes 0 Polyplacophora chitons o Gastropoda snails slugs o Biralvia clams mussels oysters o Cephalopoda squid octopus Many traits shared among mollusks 3 found in ALL taxa o Muscular foot 0 Organs visceral mass 0 Mantle over visceral mass shell Other traits o Mantle cavity 0 Calcium carbonate shell 0 Radula feeding Gonochoristic separate sexes Phylum Ecdysozoa Newer grouping of 8 phyla Discovery based on DNA All taxa molt outer covering go through ecdysis o 2 very diverse phyla I Anthropoda 1000000 sp 0 Insects Some extinct lineages I Nematoda 25000 sp Known Round worms unsegmented Aquatic terrestrial parasitic No circ System Anthropods covered by jointed exoskeleton covered by cuticle nonliving organic layer chitin over epidermis Thick some places thin others Provides points for muscle attachment 0 Segmented like annelids I Each segment has a pair of appendagesdiversified for function 0 Hard waterproof exoskeleton allowed for invasion of land Challenges Need specific structures for gas exchange 0 Gills trachea lumgs Molting for growth Open circulatory system with hemolymph Anthropods 3 extant subphyla subphylum trilobitimorpha extinct 1 Subphylum Chericeriformes a Arachnids b Horseshoe crabs c Cheliceral clawlike appendages 2 Subphylum Myriapoda a Centipedesmillipedes b Terrestrial 3 Subphylum Pancrustacea a Desapods lobsters crabs b Isopods pill bugs c Copeopods d Insects crustaceans dominant in ocean insects dominant on land freshwater o gt100000sp gt30 orders metamorphosis sexual internal fertilization ight wings extension of dorsal cuticle some helpful some not Nematodes tiny diverse round worms long and cylindrical but unsegmented o pseudocoelomates best known species parasites agricultural pests know much less about free living species Deuterostomia traditionally included all taxa with deuterostome development 9echinoderms Chordates lophophorates NOW only 1 echinoderms echinodermata starfish sea urchins 2 chordates chordata fish frogs chicken 1 Echinoderms Secondary radial symmetryquot Spiny skinquot quasi radial symmetry bilateral larvae water vascular system with tube feet no organs for water balance exclusively marine asexual sexual broadcast spawning rming 5 classes YOU DO NOT NEED TO KNOW SPECIFIC NAMES Lecture 18 All chordates share 4 diagnostic traits at some point in their development notochord long exible rod of cells I skeletal support hollow dorsal nerve cord develops from ectoderm brain and spinal cord pharyngeal slits o pharynx posterior to mouth 0 H20 enters mouthpasses through slits suspension feeding o Gills jaws etc Postanal tail muscular tail past anus o Facilitates movement aquatic 2 Chordate clades lack vertebrae all marine 1 lancelets a cilia to draw in H20 mucus secreted across pharynx slits trapped food intestine b small suspension feeder swim c partially buried 2 Turnicates a Chordate char Apparent during larval stage b Adults sessile suspension filter feeders basketlike pharynx with mucus to trap food Vertebrate Innovations Vertebrae Iaws Mineralized skel Lungs swim bladders Lobed finsappendages Legs Amniotic egg Milk 2 Clades of Iawless Vertebrae 1 Hagfishes No jaws Suck up worms dead fish Cartilaginous skull Reduced vertebrae Slime as defense against predators Marine rhrDFmFrs 2 Modern Lampreys a Iawless but have rasping tongue b Larvae resemble lancelets c Cartilaginous vertebrae d Parasitic e Marine freshwater Early Vertebrae Evolution Cartilaginous skullvertebrae o Skeletal support Other innovations o Mineralized teeth armor plates I Led to mineralization of skeleton o Dorsal and ventral fins 0 Semicircular ear canals Conondants lacked jaws have cartilage mineral dental hooks lawless armored vertebrates armored with mineralized bone Gnasthostomes vertebrates with jaws evolved from skeletal supports between gill slits Other innovations 0 Bones Increase in forebrain size Lateral line system 2 Extant Clades 1 Chondrichtyessharksrays 2 Osteichtyes bony fishquot Osteichtyes Gnasthostomes with bony skeletons Bony fish and tetrapods Lungs Other innovations 0 Flat bony scales 0 Slime secretion 0 Water into gills 2 Extant Clades 1 Actinopterygii 2 Sarcopterygians Sarcopterygians 4 Appendages Lobe fins pectoral pelvic fins with rod shaped bones surrounded by muscles 0 Axial walking 3 Extant Clades Actinistacoelocanths Dipnoilungfishes Tetrapods4legs Tetrapods Sarcopterygians with legs support and locomotion Amphibians oldest tetrapod lineage 3 Orders 1 Urodelasalamanderstailed 2 Anura frogs toads no tail 3 Apoda caecilians no legs Amphibiousland and water Some fully aquatic fully terrestrial Often aquatic larval stage tadpole Eggs dry out quickly 0 Must be wetmoist External fertilization Lecture 19 Amniotes Tetrapods with waterproof eggs amniotic egg major innovation that got tetrapods fully onto land 4 extraembryonic membranes 9able to survive away from water 2 Extant Clades 1 Reptiles including birds 2 Mammals including humans Amniotic Egg 4 extra membranes 1 Amnion holds embryo in uid a 9buffer against drying and shock 2 Chorion gas exchange 3 Allantois creates compartment for waste also functions in gas exchange 4 Yolk sac nutrient storage delivered via blood vessels albumen egg whitequot nutrients shell prevents dessication Also developed Skin less permeable to water gas Use ribs not throat to breathe reptiles mammals much less reliant on aquatic environment than amphibians Reptiles Parareptiles extinct Diapsids o Archosaurs dinosaurs and birds and crocs o Lepidosaurs o Turtles Synapsids mammals Reptiles Skinkeratin Generally oviparous lay eggs Exothermic body heated by environment Birds and mammals evolved from reptile ancestors Reptilian characters derived quotreptilesquot recognized by what they are not mammals endothermic Extant lineages of lepidosaurs 1 Tuataras 2 species endemic 2 Squamates lizards snakes Turtles hard to place Easy to recognize Either sister to archosaurs or diapsids Crocodilians crocodiles and alligators tend to be aquatic Birds aves sister to crocs rep by dinosaurs 2 major lineages of dinosaurs ornithischian extinct saurischian birds Theropods bipedal carnivores Trex some species had feathers keratin like scales of reptiles light weight for insulation coloration feathers evolved much before ight Archaeoptryx 9 first bird Arfoil wings long tail Teeth clawed forelimbs 10k species of modern bird modifications for ight No bladder small gonads air filled bones Endothermic high metabolism Keen Vision Fine muscle control Brain larger than other reptiles with similar body size Several modern ightless bird taxa Ratites ostrich emu Penguins ducks


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