Ch. 8 Intro to Metabolism Notes
Ch. 8 Intro to Metabolism Notes BSC2010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vrena Puentes on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC2010 at Florida State University taught by Steven Marks in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Biological Science 1 in Biology at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
92915 Ch 8 Intro to Metabolism Energy of Life Living cell is mini chemical factory where many reactions occur Cel extracts ATP amp applies energy to perform work Some organisms can convert energy to light The sum of all chemical reactions In an organism In a cell Begins with a speci c molecule amp ends with a product Each step is catalyzed by a speci c enzyme Release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds Exergonic releases energy Spontaneous Hydrolysis Consume energy by building complex molecules from simpler ones Endergonic requires energy Not spontaneous Dehydration reactions Synthesis of protein from amino acids is an example of this 92915 Forms of Energy rI D n 0 390 Q n rI lt to cause change Energy exists in different forms some can perform work energy associated w motion kinetic energy associated w random mvmt of atomsmolecules energy that matter possesses bc of its location or structure potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction Laws of Energy Transformation f l39 7 D U f l39 C Q lt 0 D 3 D n lt f l39 o 3 U 0 3 o 5quot O 3 U 1st law of thermodynamics energy of the universe is constant quotEnergy can be transferred and transformed but it cannot be created or destroyedquot 2nCI law quotEvery energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy disorder of the universequot Cels created ordered structures from less ordered materials Energy forms in an ecosystem in a form of light amp exists in the form of heat Photosynthesis vs Cellular Respiration 6 C02 6 H20 ll C6H1206 6 02 Glucose Photosynthesis l Endergonic releases energy I Cellular Respiration Exergonic needs energy ATP Free Energy Change energy that can do work when temperature amp pressure are uniform in a living cell A measure of a system s instability its tendency to change to a more stable state G Gibbs free energy of a system Cels are not in equilibrium they are open systems w a constant ow of materials Metabolism is never at equilibrium Where ATP perform the work is different than were H perform the work ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions A cell does 3 main kinds of work 1 Chemical 2 Transport 3 Mechanical the use of exergonic process to drive an endergonic one ATP provides energy for other reactions bc it is exergonic change in energy Excess energy that is leftover from reactions is released to the environment as heat The Regeneration of ATP ATP is a renewable resource regenerated by adding a phosphate group to ADP adenosine diphosphate Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction wo being consumed by the reaction a catalytic protein Ex of enzymecatalyzed reaction Hydrolysis of sucrose by the enzyme sucrase We cannot allow spontaneous reactions to simply occur wno input of energy Ea the initial energy needed to start a chemical reaction Often supplied in the form of thermal energy that the reactant molecules absorb from their surroundings Enzymes Lower activation energy for a reaction Specific to substrates reactants Do not affect the change in energy for the reaction s not used up in the reaction Both the magnitude of the Ea and the presence of an enzyme speci c for the reaction is why not all spontaneous reactions occur at once lF moving from R to L your activation energy goes from the bottom point of reactants now products to the peak of your enzymecatalyzed products now reactants in reverse reactant that an enzyme acts on Enzyme binds to substrate the region on the enzyme where the substrate binds brings chemical groups of the active site into positions that enhance their ability to catalyze the reaction The active site can lower an Ea barrier by Orienting substrates correctly Straining substrate bonds Providing a favorable microenvironment Covalently bonding to the substrate Enzyme Inhibitors bind to the active site of an enzyme competing w substrate bind to another part of an enzyme causing the enzyme to change shape amp making the active site less effective Ex poisons toxins pesticides amp antibiotics
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