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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joshua huber on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Vermont taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.
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Date Created: 03/18/16
Assignment #3 – NFS 143 Online Answer each of the following questions. Be careful to answer all parts of each question. 1. (3pts) Identify two specific problems with early infant formulas and briefly explain why you identified these as issues. Early infant formulas were known to be deficient in iron. Iron is an essential trace mineral that plays a fundamental role in the development of infants. This mineral is associated with brain, cognitive, and neurological development. Iron is also a major component of hemoglobin, which is a protein that helps RBC’s deliver oxygen to tissues throughout the entire body. The fat in early formula was also not absorbed well by infants. Fat is a crucial source of energy for infants because it is concentrated. The high caloric density of fat compensates for the small stomachs of infants. Infants that were fed early formulas were at risk of energy deficiency. 2. (3 pts) a. Why does formula have higher levels of some minerals? Formula has higher levels of some minerals due to low bioavailability. Bioavailability refers to the amount a given substance that is absorbed and readily available by the body. There are higher levels of some minerals to compensate for the expected low absorption within the infant. b. Why would the protein requirement for a breast feeding baby be a little lower than for an infant that is formula feeding? The protein requirement for breast-fed infants is slightly lower than infants that are formula fed because the biological value of human-milk protein is higher. Excessive protein intake should be avoided because excess protein is excreted, which imposes stress upon the kidneys. 3. (6 pts) For each of the following situations there is something that needs to be corrected, identify the issue, explain it briefly and include how to remedy it. a. Liam has been fed formula since birth and is has also been getting some solid foods since he was 6 months old. Now that he is almost 8 months, his parents noticed that he has numerous white stains or spots on his teeth. They have tried rubbing them off but that has not removed them. The white stains that are on Liam’s teeth are caused by a condition known as, fluorosis. Fluorosis is caused by an excess intake of fluoride. Fluoride levels can be higher than an infant needs when formula is mixed with fluoridated water. Fluoride cannot be removed from the enamel once fluorosis occurs, but aesthetic dentistry treatments can remove the white spotting. Un-fluoridated water should be used during the remaining months that Liam is formula fed. b. Judi recently learned that the bilirubin levels in her newborn daughter were quite high. To help with this, she has started to expose her daughter to at least 2 hours of sunlight every day. High bilirubin levels are a concern because it can result in the destruction of brain cells, which can cause brain damage and other debilitating conditions. Exposing the infant to natural sunlight is not an effective method to lower the bilirubin levels. The infant would have to be completely undressed, and it is also not safe for a naked baby to be in direct sunlight due to the risk of getting sunburned. Phototherapy is the most effective way to get rid of excess bilirubin. This therapy involves the exposure to special fluorescent lights that change the bilirubin to water-soluble products. c. Ben is 7 months old and lately seems fatigued and isn’t gaining weight very well. Since he was recently introduced to solid foods, he has certain preferences. He loves apple juice and orange juice, but his parents limit his intake to 2-3 glasses a day. It seems as though Ben’s parents are too eager to introduce solid foods to him. Infants should lead the way in this process. An infant is usually ready for solid food when their weight has doubled since birth, they can sit upright, and can control head movement. Cereal that is fortified in iron (iron stores can be low at this point in time) is usually the first solid food that is introduced to an infant. Overall, Ben’s parents should be patient because Ben will soon become more tolerant to solid food. Ben should also be limited to 4-6 oz of juice because further intake can result in diarrhea, which is very dehydrating. Overfeeding an infant with juice can also result in non-organic FTT, which can be a major cause of decreased growth and developmental delays. 4. (8 pts) For the last part of this assignment, I wanted you to do something completely different. I have attached a brief dietary profile (next page) for an infant named Mason. I would like you to read this through and identify four separate issues that are going on with this child. Identify the issue and provide a very brief explanation why it is a problem. (I like to do this exercise because too many times when students work with people’s diets, they get so hung up on the nutrient amounts that they often overlook other obvious and important issues. I am trying to make you more aware of the whole picture) Dietary Profile Mason Age = 6 months Length = 26 inches Weight = 15 lbs Mason is the first child for Jeanette and Jeff and they want to do everything right for their son, who is the light of their lives. For the first four months, Mason was breastfed but when Jeanette went back to work she found it too difficult to pump her milk due to her irregular hours so they switched Mason to formula. At his four month checkup, his length was 25 inches and he weighed 15.5 lbs. About a two weeks ago, Mason starting eating baby food. Jeff and Jeanette are so excited about feeding him food and they have been trying all kinds of foods to see what he likes and already this week they have tried five new foods. Mason definitely seems to have some favorites but he also seems to not like a few foods. In fact, there are a couple of foods that he eats that makes him uncomfortable and he sometimes gets a red, blotchy skin but since the foods are good for him, his parents continue to feed these foods to him, but only in small amounts. Mason has been getting a little fussy lately, is not always eating well and has difficulty falling asleep at night. His parents have found if they give him a bottle with some juice mixed with water to take with him to bed, it comforts him and now he quickly falls asleep. Foods Commonly Consumed In the morning, Mason is fed wheat cereal or scrambled eggs, some baby food fruit and then he drinks some of a bottle of formula. Usually, his parents will mix up a batch of formula from powder, put it in a large container and use it as their supply for the week. This saves a lot of time as they both have to get ready for work in the morning as well as dropping Mason off at a daycare center. When he gets hungry later in the morning at the daycare, they usually give him about 5oz of apple juice. At lunch time, he eats baby food from a jar, often a vegetable and some more fruit. Later in the day he has some more fruit juice. For dinner, he usually has a couple of bites of jarred baby foods including vegetables, meats or combination dinners and fruit. He sips some formula along with his dinner. He goes to sleep around 8pm, and although sometimes he falls asleep easily, often they have to give him a bottle to fall asleep with. 1. Mason’s parents should stop giving him foods that induce red blotchy skin. Although these foods may be good for him, this is an indication of an allergic reaction. This skin rash could potentially result in a more severe response in the future. 2. Mason’s parents should also avoid giving him a bottle to take with him to bed. The formula or juice can pool around the teeth, which can cause tooth decay that is induced by an influx of bacteria. This is commonly known as, baby bottle tooth decay. 3. Mason’s parents should not prepare the formula for the entire week in advance. This can result in the growth of harmful bacteria due to contamination throughout the week. Preparing formula is a simple process that can be done rather quickly so preparation in advance is not necessary. 4. Mason’s parents should focus on certain foods to repeatedly expose to him to because it was mentioned that he has been fussy lately. Repeated exposure will increase his acceptance and give him time to adjust to the new taste. Although mason’s parents may want to encourage a wide palette by exposing him to many new foods each week, it is more important that mason finds a firm set of foods that he enjoys so that growth proceeds to occur and he remains healthy. Broadening mason’s palette is something that can be focused on later in his development.
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