Chapter 5 (Sept 25th---Sept 30th)
Chapter 5 (Sept 25th---Sept 30th) PSYC-1000-01
Popular in Intro to Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha R on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-1000-01 at Tulane University taught by Fabian, Melinda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
Reviews for Chapter 5 (Sept 25th---Sept 30th)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/02/15
Developing Through The Life Span Sunday September 27 Z 15 942 PM Developmental Issues Prenatal Development amp the Newborn 0 Developmental Psychology39s Major Issues Developmental Psychology A branch of psychology that studies physical cognitive amp social change throughout the lifespan 0 Nature amp Nurture L Kohlllaerg Moral Preconventional Morality Conventional Morality nuity amp Stages 0 Conti I Stage theories contribute a developmental perspective on the whole life span by suggesting how E Eiriksorll 39 r r Psychological Mme V quotm V l emu people one age think amp act differently when they arrive a later age ib hage39t Sensorimotm Preoperatimal Concrete 16mg Mm I To the right are some of the prominent stage theories in psychology W Dperatim nal39 7 7 7 7 7 0 Stability amp Change l l l l l l l l l l l l l l I As we grow older our personalities tend to stabilize Birth 1 2 3 4 5 5 39r39 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 I Some traits such as temperament is much more stable while our social attitudes tend to change as we age I This balance of stability amp change gives us our identity stability while it also gives us the potential to adapt amp change I Prenatal Development amp the Newborn o Conception Sperm makes contact with the egg 0 Prenatal Development I CI The zygote enters a of rapid cell division amp develops into an embryo El Week 1 100 identical cells produced El Week 2 in structure amp function I Embryo The developing human organism 29 weeks after conception D Ex Alcohol 9 In severe cases signs include a small outofproportion head amp abnormal facial features 0 Has an epigenetic effect El 39 Weeks 39 heart begins to beat I Fetus The developing human organism 9 weeks after conceptionbirth El 6th Month 9 enough to give the fetus a good chance of survival if born prematurely 0 El 7th Month 9 amp can recall the soundvibration o Stress 9 Stress hormones can create a survival threat amp produce an early delivery 9 Substantial prenatal stress puts a child at increased risk for 0 Hypertension 0 Heart Disease 0 Obesity 0 Psychiatric Disorders 0 The Competent Newborn I that aid in their survival Ex Feeding pulling back limbs if in pain etc El As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a stimulus their interest wanes amp they look away sooner I Newborns are attracted to sights amp signals that facilitate social responsiveness I Newborns have been imprinted with the smell of their mother39s body within days after birth El This preference stays with us even as toddlers Infancy amp Childhood O 0 Physical Development 0 Overview ofthe Brain Still underdeveloped I Branching neural networks enabled you to talk walk amp remember I Age 36 your rational planning experience rapid growth I The thinking memory amp language are the I Fiber pathways supporting agility language amp selfcontrol proliferate into puberty I Pruningshutting down of unused synapses 0 Motor development I El These abilities are El 50 of babies walk within a week of their 1st birthday 25 by 11 months 90 by 15 months I Neural amp muscular maturation produces other skills such as bowel amp bladder control El Neither pleading nor punishment will produce successful potty training 0 Brain Maturation amp Infant Memory I Our earliest conscious memory seldom predates our 3rd birthday I The brain areas underlying memory such as the hippocampus amp frontal lobes continue to mature throughout adolescence 0 Cognitive Development Chapter 5 Page 1 Death Children reason differently than adults 0 Piaget39s Theory amp Current Thinking I Intellectual progression reflects an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences I Children construct their understanding of the world while interacting with it El Maturing brains build schemas 9 Schema A conceptframework that organizes amp interpret information 9 Assimilation Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas 9 Accommodation Adapting our current understandings schemas to incorporate new information I 4 Major Stages 0 An Alternative Viewpoint El Sensorimotor Stage Birth gt2 Years 0 O 0 This develops during this stage El Preoperational Stage 2 gt7 Years 0 O O 0 The child assumes that other people see hear and feel exactly the same as the child does 0 Children with autism spectrum disorder experience great difficulty in understanding concept El Concrete Operational Stage 7 gt11 Years 0 O Understands conservation amp mathematical transformation El Formal Operational Stage 12 gtDeath o 0 Potential for mature moral reasoning I Emphasized how the I Claimed that El Piaget focused on physical environment El By internalizing their culture39s language amp relying on inner speech El Mentally or verbally speaking to themselves help children control their behavior amp emotion amp master new skills El Think of the power of language exhibited in 1984 The more sophisticated the vocabulary the more sophisticated the thoughts amp vice versa 0 Reflecting on Piaget39s Theory nvnnnnnnnnnn American children are diagnosed by age 8 El This increase in ASD diagnosis is offset by a decrease in the number of children diagnosed with quotcognitive disabilityquot or quotlearning disabilityquot 9 Suggesting a relabeling of children39s disorders I ASD is caused by many different genes 0 Social Development El Begins 8 months of age 0 Human Bonding El Young children seek closeness to their caregiver amp showing distress when separated by I In a study with monkeys they placed a robotic figure in the room with a feeding bottle as well as a figure covered in comfy cloth no bottle The monkeys preferred contact with the cloth quotmotherquot theml even while feeding from the mother who offered them nourishment I Familiarity El o Attachments are likely to form based on familiarity during this period 0 b While this does not occur in children they still show a fondness for familiarity for it resembles safety 0 Attachment Differences I 60 of infants show explore their environment happily in the presence of their mother El Other infants with I showed anxiety or avoided trusting relationships are 9 Common with unresponsive mothers El Both show distress when the caregiver departs I Parental Presence III are experienced if a child is separated from one of their parents 9 Anxiety over separation peaks around 13 months Chapter 5 Page 2 J Piaget Ability amp used them to solve problems Concrete Sensorimotor Preoperatlonal erl39l39l39luill uipyaiviriagtugil Dperatliclinall Birth 1 2 3 4 5 l5 7 S B 10 11 12 13 14 Death CONSERVATION THEORY OEMND39 A J 39 I 393 1C 1 1 31 Trig IS Sally This IS Anr39e A A 393 l 7 V le Si Iy39 out r UI bowl I I39w ch acutemo I i I I It il fl 1 39 In llx TIP35 n P quoti Il39 E 39 I t H Arma menes irz on in the ham rut3m T 39 11 1 l391 39here will Sally can for PIE39 ball El Studies show that those who had more involved fathers tended to achieve more in school I Attachment Styles amp Later Relationships El 9 Formed during infancy by appropriate experiences amp responsive caregivers El 0 Deprivation of attachment I I Child Abuse Victims El their own children 4x the average person El Many have higher activity in threatdetecting areas of the brain El for psychological disorders health problems substance abuse amp criminality O 84 experience psych disorders El 8 of population undergoes physical abuse before age 18 o SelfConcept I By age 12 most have developed a selfconcept I 0 Parenting Styles I 3Types El El El I Correlation does not indicate causation El A child39s traits may influence parenting Adolescence O 0 Physical Development 0 0 quotEarly Vs Latequot Maturing What are the pros amp cons o The Teenage Brain I Frontal lobe continues to develop gtimproved judgement impulse control amp longterm planning El Frontal lobe maturation lags behind maturation of the limbic system emotion I Juvenile delinquents show more immaturity in the frontal lobes 0 Cognitive Development 0 Developing Reasoning Power I Piaget referred to this intellectual summit as the formal operations I Ability to debate morality amp values amp fairness 0 Developing Morality Moral Intuition amp Moral Action I 3 Levels of Moral Thinking El Preconventional Morality 9 Focus Obey rules to avoid punishmentget rewarded El Conventional Morality 0 Focus maintain social order by upholding rules El Postconventional Morality 9 Focus Actions reflect belief in basic rights ampr I El This concept fosters success 0 Social Development 0 Erikson39s Stages of Psychosocial Development Elmtscm39s Succs or Psvcuosocmt Dcvuormeur Stage approximate age Issue Description of Task Inlancy Trust vs mistrust It needs are dependany met infants devel to I year op a sense of basic trust Toddlerhood I to 3 years Toddlers learn to exercise their Will and do things lor themselves or they doubt their abilities Autonomy vs shame and doubt Preschool 3 to 6 years Initiative vs gurlt Preschoolers learn to Initiate tasks and carry out plans or they leel guilty about their efforts to be independent Elementary school 6 years to puberty Industry vs mleriority Children learn the pleasure ot applying themselves to tasks or they leel inferior Adolescence teen years mm 205 Identity vs role contusron Teenagers work at refining a sense 01 sell by testing roles and then integrating them to lorm a smgle identity or they become con lused about who they are Young adulthood 205 Intimacy vs to early 40 isolation Young adults struggle to form close relation ships and to gain the capacity Ior intimate love or they feel socially Isolated Middle adulthood 405 to 605 Generativity vs stagnation In middle age people discover a sense at contributing to the world usually through family and work or they may leel a lack ol purpose Late adulthood late 605 and up Reflecting on his or her life an older adult may feel a sense at satisfaction or larlure Integrity vs despair 0 Forming an Identity I El According to Erikson I SelfEsteem tends to fall during earlymid teen years I Erikson claims that following identity formation is developing a capacity for intimacy in Chapter 5 Page 3 040 r 035 030 025 020 0015 010 005 000 005 010 01 3 Impulse control bensationseekinq Age year s adulthood I 0A 0 Parent amp Peer Relationships mm I Adolescence is typically a time of 39JT39 l k l l O This period is being stretched gt quotquotquotquotquot39quot39 I Marrying later Tm I Pursuing more advanced education grad school etc I I I I I I I I I J I I I I Adulthood o o PhySical DevelOpment CELL DIVISION CHROMOSUMES 0 Changes in Middle Adulthood b I Gradual d etc AGE 25 21 5 39 b w v Iquot i 0 Changes In Late Adulthood l Life Expectancy AGE 45 a gt p 7 1H O This is accelerated by smoking obesity etc c 39 quot 1z If 1 El Death rate increases after birthdays amp big life milestones AGE 50 vkg g quot y Visual sharpness muscle strength reaction time amp stamina decrease i t y I in 39 5 W Health 6575 3f El 1 quotr IJHTECI Iii Dlvl m WI39P GENE TIC ERRL KS I Brain El Take more time to react solve problems amp recall names El Speech slows El Brain weight reduces by 5 O Cognitive Development 0 Aging amp Memory I Prospective Memory quotremember toquot El El Elderly39s prospective memory remains strong when an event helps trigger a memory I Much more variability among elderly in their learning amp memory abilities I Exercising your working memory can sharpen your mind O Neurocognitive Disorders amp Alzheimer39s Disease I In older adults these were formerly referred to as dementia El 9 Commonality ltgt 3 of population by age 75 amp percentage doubles with every 5 year age increase 0 Often with an onset after age 80 9 Symptoms amp Functions 0 Causes progressive decline in memory amp other cognitive capabilities D After 520 years Person becomes emotionally flat gtdiscontent gtdisinhibited gtincontinent gtmentally vacant 0 Loss of brain cells amp gt F Acetylcholine is vital to memory and thinking l A Social Development Normal Mild cognitive Alzheimer s 0 Ages amp Stages impairment disease El Studies show anytime during the midlife time range O Commitments I 2 basic aspects of our lives dominate adult hood El El I Love El Adult bonds of love are most satisfying amp enduring when marked by a similarity of interests amp values a sharing of emotional amp material support amp intimate selfdisclosure El Heightened divorce rates reflect increased female economic independence El Children can lead to decline in spousal relationship 0 WellBeing Across the Life Span F39I Hr w I By midlife you have strengthened your sense of identity confidence amp selfesteem quotquot 39quot I I General happiness tends to remain the same level throughout life I Adults tend to have a relatively I II with Age I With age we become more stable amp accepting HAHA quotoookkkkquot El Brain scans of older adults shows the amygdala center for emotion 3939I ll I I Brainwave reactions to negative images also diminish Chapter 5 Page 4 Biological In uences Psychological influences no genetic propensity 0 optimistic outlook tor Mzheimei s dementla physlcnltyand mentally or other diseases ldM 39 0 mental changes that hindei negative thinking appiomidlely meeting nutritional needs 1 Succeoslul aging Socialccultural ln unncn support from lumin and lrlends access to meaningtut work 0 activities positive expectations 0 the suivounding culture stable and sale living conditions 0 Death amp Dying I Typically the El 67 more likely to be hospitalized 3 El Terminally ill people do not go through identical predictable stages anger denial etc El Those who openly grieve amp those who grieve privately adjust to their experience at the same pace El Those who don39t express as much grief stay strong don39t get over things faster Chapter 5 Page 5
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'