BIO 20C Notes
BIO 20C Notes BIOE 20C - 01
Popular in Ecology & Evolution
Popular in Department
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalia Khodayari on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOE 20C - 01 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Marinovic,B.B. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 428 views.
Reviews for BIO 20C Notes
Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/02/15
BIO 20C Baldo Marinovic TBA 4592471 bbmarinoucscedu MSI 92415 Bio 20C MSI times are TBA IntroScience Before Darwin Historical Perspective Science Before Darwin Evolution a transformative process 0 Has transformed life on earth from earliest forms to the most diverse forms of the past to present explains complex relationships between living organisms Central Theme of Biolog LINKS ALL DISCIPLES Acceptance of Evolution as a Theory 2014 Gallup Survey reveals interesting results with results to public acceptance of evolution theory Resu s Natural Process 19 With Guidance 31 Existed in Present Form 42 Evolution is Change through Time Both terms offer insights into the history of evolutionary thinking View of change changed with time View of time changes with time Eidos Early Western Culture Species xed amp eternal Possibility of change not considered essential5m all species had perfect essence Variation was seen as failure to achieve eidos Aristotle 384322 BC Scala Naturae BIO 20C Baldo Marinovic 4592471 bbmarinoucscedu MSI TBA The Great Chain of Beind Essentialism led to the concept of Scala Naturae great chain of being 0 Species and higher forms seen as xed rungs of the ladder 0 People began seeing cracks in this Breakthroughs of the Scienti c Revolution 0 shook belief that earth was the center of the universe 0 provided evidence that earth was much older than previously thought and provided fossils Advances in physics mathematics chemistry all undermined biblical accounts PEOPLE Nikolaus Copernicus o Mathematician and astronomer Created model that the sun was the center of the universe rather than the sun Triggered Copernican Revolution 0 Galileo Galilei o Astronomer physicist engineer philosopher and mathematician o quotfather of modern observable astronomyquot 0 quotfather of modern physicsquot 0 quotfather of modern sciencequot 0 Isaac Newton 0 Physicist and Mathematician 0 Theory of Universal Gravity o 3 laws of motion 0 Credited with Leibniz in developing calculus lames Hutton o Geologist Physician chemical manufacturer and naturalist o Uniformitarianism constant change 0 Geologic Deep Time 0 Charles Lyell o Geologist 0 Author of quotPrinciples of Geologyquot promoted Hutton s uniformitarianism views 0 Gradual geologic change BIO 20C Baldo Marinovic 4592471 bbmarinoucscedu MSI TBA Age of Exploration 0 Discovery of unique faunas ares plants owers Development of more extensive biogeographies Discovery of new fossils PEOPLE Marco Polo 0 Merchant traveller Christopher Columbus 0 Explorer navigator and colonizer 0 Completed four voyages across Atlantic Ocean Ferdinand Magellan sails around the world 0 Sailor and Naval Of cer ames Cook Circumnavigated the Earth twice 0 Explorer navigator and captain 0 Made detailed maps of Newfoundland Carl Linne Carolus Linnaeus o Botanist physician and zoologist 0 Father of modern taxonomv o Popularized Binominal System 0 Developed Hierarchical Taxonomy 0 Thomas Malthus o Studied DemographyEconomics o The Principle of Population 0 Population GrowthResource Limitation Adam Smith 0 Studied Economics 0 Capitalism 0 Competition 0 Jean Baptiste Lamarck o BotanistZoologist o Curator Paris Natural History Museum 0 Develooed First Comprehensive Theorv of Organic Evolution Mechanism of acquired characteristics 0 Viewed evolution as a force driving animals from simple to complex forms Lamarckian Evolution produces a ladder of life BIO 20C Baldo Marinovic 4592471 bbmarinoucscedu 92915 PEOPLE Robert Grant Darwin The Early Years 1827 transfers to Christ College Cambridge to become a parson o Mentored byJohn Henslow trained as a naturalist 0 Darwin was then known as quotthe one who walks with Henslowquot lohn Henslow Voyage of the Beagle Darwin graduates 1831 on track to be ordained as a minister Henslow recommends Darwin to Capt Fitzroy 0 Given command of Second Beagle Voyage 0 Searching for a naturalist amp quotgentlemen companionquot Robert Fitzrov Henslow gave Darwin a copy of Lyell s Principles of Geology as a parting gift Darwin s seasick much of the Atlantic crossing o Spends time in bed reading the book Trip lasts ve years 18311836 Darwin spend518 months on board 39 months ashore During Voyage Observed rich variety of geologic features fossils and living organisms Methodically collected and described enormous numbers of specimens Documented many geologic phenomenon which supported Lyell s views Developed comprehensive theory to explain coral atoll formation Documented biogeographic patterns that suggested common ancestry of species 0 Rheas o Mocking Birds and Finches o Tortoises Darwin39s Rising Star Throughout the Voyage Darwin sends specimens and notes back to Henslow BIO 20C Baldo Marinovic 4592471 bbmarinoucscedu Henslow publishes Darwin notes Darwin becomes the quothotquot new naturalist in town 0 quotSuch facts undermine the stability of speciesquot 0 Species evolve they are not a constant entity 0 quotSuch facts seem to me to throw some light on the origin of speciesquot 0 Clear that his ideas are already formulated Post Voyage Milestones Formulation of Natural Selection Theory largely completed by 1837 0 Mostly entered in quotsecret B notebookquot Spends the next several years working with other scientists to catalog and process specimens 0 New discoveries o Similarities in fossils to modern South American fauna 0 Con rmation of distinct Mocking Bird Finch and Tortoise species 0 By 1844 230 pages of the book were written PEOPLE Alfred Russell Wallace 0 Born in 1823 0 Worked as a collector of specimens in the Amazon Basin andlndonega o Came up with parallel conclusions to Darwin s theory with respect to Evolution via natural selection 0 Wrote Darwin about his ideas in 1858 Publication of the Theory 0 Darwin and Wallace jointly present paper on Theory of Natural Selection to Linnaean Society in 1858 0 Darwin publishes Origin of Species DarwinWallace39s Theory of Evolution The theory 0 Evolution of new species occurs via descent with modi cation of existing species and the mechanism for this natural selection 0 Natural selection s two components 0 The struggle for existence 0 The survival of the ttest Struggle for Existence BIO 20C Baldo Marinovic 4592471 bbmarinoucscedu Populations can reproduce beyond recourses needed to sustain them 0 Resources become limited 0 There is competition for those limited resources 0 Not all individuals will survive and reproduce Survival of the Fittest Members of a population show variation for heritable traits Some traits give individuals a selective advantage over others 0 These tend to leave more offspring in next generations 0 Over time the character of the population changes Another Way to Conceptualize 0 There is variation for traits within populations 0 This variation is heritable Only a subset of each generation survive to reproduce Some produce more over others Natural Selection amp Evolution 0 Evolution occurs when 0 There is differential reproductive success based on heritable traits o The character of a population changes over time 0 Population is the smallest unit capable of evolution 0 Variation Two Important Concepts 0 Fitness the ability of an individual to produce offspring relative to other individuals in the population Adaptation any traits that increases tness Evidence for Evolution 0 Species have changed through time 0 Species share common ancestors Species Change Through Time 0 Many species have gone extinct Fossil record has transitional forms 0 Vestigial traits o The human tailbone is a vestigial trait o Goose bumps are vestigial traits uff up hair for warmthto look larger Whales have femur bones BIO 20C Baldo Marinovic 4592471 bbmarinoucscedu Populations can be observed to change over time Antibiotics Resistance is a great example of change that you see 0 Pepper Moth 0 Industrial Revolution created soot and made a physical color change to moths 0 Correlation with ower size amp bumble bee pollination Ecology amp Evolution Baldo Marinovic 4592471 bbmarinoucscedu MSI Posted below MSI Begins October 5th timesdatesTA emails posted below Office Hours CHANGED Hours dates below TA s Office Hours amp Emails posted below 10115 Gene Ancestry Hemoglobin were present in earth worms and humans common gene ancestry Anything that is present in two separate species homologous Different term for genes 0 Ortholog genes in separate species that share common ancestry 0 We can distinguish between different animals because one branch will change one way and another branch will change in another 0 All of our different polypeptide genes came from an original globulin gene We are placental mammals 0 We get oxygen from our mother s blood I The fetus has a gene where the fetus will pull oxygen from the mother s blood 0 Paralog gene copies within the same species 0 Both examples of Vertical Evolution I Evolution within a lineage through time Homologous traits Similarities are inherited from a common ancestor o The genes in the HOM and the Hox complexes of fruit ies and humans have similar sequences and are in the same order on their chromosomes Horizontal Evolution If one is moving vertically you are moving through time If one is moving horizontally it is instantaneous Much rarer Involves gene transfer between species instantly Most common in bacteria Can occur in Eukaryotes Almost certainly the way eukaryotes evolved from prokaryote ancestors Two Views of Evolution Change in the character of a population Darwin 0 But the phenotype is actually changed by the genotype Change in population allele frequencies over time Ecology amp Evolution Baldo Marinovic 4592471 bbmarinoucscedu MSI Posted below Genetic Concepts m region of DNA that codes for a specific polypeptide Locus physical location of a specific gene on a chromosome Allele version of a specific gene Genetics is a shift in gene frequencies GMOS happened for millennia wild mustard created many different common vegetables Causes of change in allele frequencies Microevolutionary mechanisms Natural Selection Genetic drift Gene ow Mutation If one asks if an organism is changing one must know what these genes are today and why they wouldn t change HardyWeinberg equation Default equilibrium model Mathematical model Explains why allele frequencies don t change unless evolution is occurring Frequencies of all alleles in population add up to 1 And if you know frequencies of all alleles in current generation AND population is not evolving THEN we should be able to predict the genotype frequencies 0 You can predict frequencies of genotypes in next generation HardyWeinberg Assumptions NO natural selection NO genetic drift NO gene ow NO mutation Random mating Simple case Population has two alleles for a locus in population 0 A1 amp A2 P frequency of A1 q frequency of A2 Distribution of genotypes in next generation A1A1 p2 A1A2 2pq A2A2 q2 Frequency ofp in next generation is pquot2 12 qu Frequency of q in next generation is qquot2 122pq Q if we worked out our little toes would they remain Answer TBA If not population is evolving Ecology amp Evolution Baldo Marinovic 4592471 bbmarinoucscedu MSI Posted below 2 Extreme Cases If frequency of an allele 1 the allele is fixed 0 If frequency of and allele 0 the allele is lost Genetic diversity and relative frequency of alleles in a population Lack of genetic diversity usually decreases ability of a population to respond to environmental change Textbook LIFE 9e Figure 217 Part1 Natural Selection The environment is directly acting on the phenotype Natural Selection occurs when one phenotype has higher fitness Alleles associated with phenotype will increase in frequency Four types of natural selection 0 Directional Selection I in any population there is variation in traits I Allele frequencies change in one direction I Favors one extreme of a trait distribution I Tends to reduce genetic diversity I Ex giraffe necks moths ower size for bees TEXTBOOK LIFE 8e Figure 2212 Part 2 o Stabilizing Selection I Alleles associated wit mean trait values favored I NO CHANGE in average trait value over time I Reduction of both trait and genetic variability TEXTBOOK Left 8e Figure 2212 Part 1 o Disruptive Selection I Alleles associated with both extremes of a trait favored I Tends to increase genetic diversity I Can often result in two separate species TEXTBOOK LEFT 8e Figure 2212 Part 3 I Blackbellied Seedcracker different bills for different types of seeds in the process of becoming two different species 0 Sexual Selection I Special form of selection I Results when individuals in a population differ in their ability to attract mates I BatemanTrivers sexual selection acts more strongly on males Ecology amp Evolution Baldo Marinovic 4592471 bbmarinoucscedu MSI Posted below Fundamental asymmetry of sex 0 Ex Female kiwis lay a large egg relative to their body size Types of Sexual Selection 0 Female choice I Females respond to some aspect of male phenotype o MaleMale competition I Males compete with each other for females 0 Sexual selection leads to sexual dimorphism I Ex Widowbird w long tails zebra finches w bright orange beak which correlates to immune health Carotenoid I Nuptial gift Q elephant seals you would think that if Alpha males mate so much then wouldn t there be more alphas Answer TBA Balancing Polymorphism Maintains less fit alleles in population Two mechanisms 0 Heterozygote advantage 0 Frequency dependent selection What makes you fit is RARITY Heterozygote Advantage Heterozygotes have higher fitness in some cases Maintains less fit alleles in population Ex 0 Mating success in ying insects I For both species the proportion of heterozygous males that mates successfully was higher than the proportion of all males seeking females ying I Heterozygous Colas males have a mating advantage over homozygous males TEXTBOOK LIFE 8e Figure 2219 Part 2 o Sickle Cell Anemia I Having SCA prevents getting affected by Malaria so it is a superior gene Negative Frequency Dependent Selection Rare individuals have higher fitness Ex Scale eating fish Ecology amp Evolution Baldo Marinovic 4592471 bbmarinoucscedu MSI Posted below I Ambush parasite that hits the fish relies on not being seen I To facilitates the ambush it s mouth is angled I Allele comes in two forms left and right leaning I Lower frequency of one of those leaning fish have an advantage and the advantage keeps seesawing back and forth 0 Nonrewarding orchids I Two different colors with no nectar I See saw of different colored owers MSI Dates Times Friday 1230 140 ARC 202 tcherukuucscedu Monday 330 440pm ARC 203 ahellingucscedu Office Hours Tu 24pm at the Global Village Cafe Teaching Assistant Email Of ce hours Caroline Casey cbcaseyucscedu Tu 1012 Global Village Cafe Chris Kan chkanucscedu M 1112 W 23 EMS D410 Katherine MC Clure kmmcclurucscedu TuTh 23 Biomed 220 Shanee Stopnitzky sstopnitucscedu TuTh 1112 EMS 3rd Floor Knuckle
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'