Week 9 Notes
Week 9 Notes ART 1906
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Warren on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 1906 at East Carolina University taught by Michael Duffy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Art History Survey 1 in Art History at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/18/16
Early and High Imperial Art: Ancient Rome 3/14/16 The Arch of Titus: 81 CE Pg. 185 (Figure 6-36) Concrete and white marble, height 50 feet Commemoration of a very famous event. Symbolizes the Flavin line. Near end of Titus’s rein was being made and by younger brother it was finished. This was finished in the common error. Spoils from the temple in Jerusalem Pg. 186 (Figure 6-37) Height 6’8” made of marble This was carved very deeply into the rock. And the figures seem to be going back into space and entering the arch. The drapery follows the bodies and articulates the figures well. Elements of Architecture: Roman Vaulting Pg. 187 Succession of arches going back into space. o Buttressing was developed for support. Groin vault and these were intersecting arches and they all had the weight coming through the piers. o This allowed for huge open spaces, roman baths, and courts and ceremonial halls. Reconstruction Drawing of the Flavian Amphitheater (colosseum): 70-80 CE Pg. 187 (Figure 6-38) Amphitheater is two theaters put together= circular figure This was named after a colossal statue of Helios the sun god. Beard features of Nero the emperor that was prominent before this time. This is an example of the divine right of kingship. This was made for a public gathering. An artificial lake was built before this at this site. Then filled in and concreted over and then the colosseum was made of concrete too. Huge travertine piers were laid into the bed for support and the colosseum was built up from that point. There were barrel vaults and groin vaults used in the structure of the colosseum. People mostly gathered here for celebrations. Outer barrel, all the way around the structure and then the groins were along each outer barrel vaults. 50,000-52,000 people were able to be inside this structure at any one time. People were actually given tickets that were labeled and the seats were assigned onto a stone you were given that would show you where to go and sit. There were aisles and the levels were assigned to different classes. The lower class was the poorer who sat closer to the top and the closer to the bottom of the actual colosseum were the wealthy. Under the floor of the colosseum is a subterranean city and there were travertine blocks for support. Awnings were sent out from the rows to shelter the people from the sun. It would get very hot over 100 degrees Fahrenheit there. There was also a piece of cloth that was spread on all the steps for protection. There were stairways in the outer walls in 4 spots so that the people could get out when needed and this was a very good way to have easy leaving strategies. The building would look more massive if there was not the Tuscan order at the bottom, the ionic order in the center and Corinthian at the top of the outer wall of the colosseum. Each order becomes taller and more elegant as they wall gets taller which makes the building look lighter and it incorporated the vaults to help the structure look prettier. Proportions look lighter as going up. Young Flavian Woman: 80 CE Pg. 189 (Figure 6-40) Made of marble and height 25” In Capitolino, Rome Was probably a court figure of a wealthy woman associated with the government. The woman’s hair makes it contemporary and was fashionable at the time. The marble was drilled and it was a new technique. A new strong agar was used to create a great allusion of going into the head. This was a distinct hairstyle for the time. The face’s features were always shown in Roman time. The nose, eyes and forehead were perfected. The eyebrows were precise. The lips were idealized. The cheeks were idealized and softened and polished which goes back to hedonistic periods. By waxing and softening this marble it would cause the features to glow. The emotion is shown through the eyebrows, raising of eyes and a turn of the head. This figure has a firm chin which is distinct and the eyes were distinct too so that the person was had a distinct look. So that the piece looked like the person it was made to look like. st Middle-Aged Flavian Woman: 1 Century Pg. 189 (Figure 6-41a) Late 1 century made of marble and 9-1/2” high Bonnet in the back and could be a different class from the young woman. Could have been worth less and even a family statue. Very natural look and there was no smoothing of the features. They were rounded features and there are recesses and creases along the face. There is sagging of the flesh in certain areas and then older people usually have more expression. They look wiser, and there was emphasis on the character of the figure. Model of Imperial Rome in 324 CE Pg. 190 (Figure 6-42) Gathering place and very important in this time. Successor senator of Nerva was chosen by the last senator. 96-170 two generations =peace in the kingdom and the emperor who knew their time was up would adopt a successor who would take over. Trojans form is the largest in Rome. The colosseum is at the top of the image and then you can see the passage ways into the different forums of the area in Rome. Plan of Trajan’s forum and Market was finished in 117 by his successor 110-113 CE (Figure 6-43) Gilbert Gorski Restored Perspective View of the Central Hall, Basilica Ulpia Rome 112 CE Pg. 191 (Figure 6-44) 2 stories and columns along both sides of the south and north of the room Perpendicular to the courtyard. 2 ndstory was called the gallery, there was tress work on ceiling. Wooden beams on ceiling, and coffered squares on ceiling also. People gathered here and there was a semicircular area at one end were the important people would stand and be speaking. Instruction trainings was also done here or other administrative events. The emperor receiving would take place here also. Roman law was extremely detailed. Ulpia was the family name of Trajan Reconstruction drawing of Trajan’s Markets Pg. 192 (Figure 6-45) This was the commercial area of Rome Bigger market area than even malls now. Column of Trajan: 113-116 CE Pg. 193 (Figure 6-47) Romans crossing the Danube and building a fort: 117 CE Pg. 193 (Figure 6-48) The figures are larger on the top of the column, romans were also showing their military machinery and weapons on this column Showing areas of husbandry, agriculture. Romans interested in the natural world and wanted people to understand the region. Anonymous, Pantheon Rome 110-128 CE Pediments temple fronts in front of the niches, semi circles to triangles alternating. Pilasters were used in Rome often and column. Large composite columns out front Grouping of pediment, rectangular building behind it and then the circular dome structure behind it. Romans were masters of dome structures. Largest dome structure in the world at this time Metal plates were stuck into this articulated grid of the vaulted ceiling. This helped with the structure of the dome In order to reduce foreshortening of the light at the top the coffers got smaller as they got to the top. They are highly reflective and help articulate structure as it went up. Promoted divine kingship. Mars and Venus, seven planetary gods were worshiped in this structure. The niches were 7 too for the 7 gods. Brick was on the top of the structure and the arches were larger stone and there was an arch over each niche. Dome of the Pantheon: 110-128 CE Pg. 196-197 (Figure 6-52) Oculus is the spot at the top that lets in sunlight. With heavy rain outside there is a mist in the inside of the structure. And the light was even throughout the structure to distribute outside light. Rotunda is very large here (Circular building). The squares on bottom of floor with diagonal squares and circles that move your eye slowly, break up movement of space from one end of building to the other. Plan of Hadrian’s villa: 125-135 CE Pg. 197 (Figure 5-53) today called town of Tivoli Was Tivoli’s primary suburban building. And there was an artificial canal that would be built in this area to remind people of ancient Greece. Athenians from Athens and other buildings from the Greek period, and he made copies of some of the Greece statues and buildings. This was a copy of Greek architecture. Looked at by ancestors as a sense of perfection and grander was copies through this. The Canal (Reflecting Pool), Hadrian’s Villa 125-135 CE Pg. 198 (Figure 5-54) There was post and lintel structure used and statues all around this space. Battle of Centaurs and Wild Beasts 125 CE Pg. 198 (Figure 6-55) Mosaic made of fine stones cut into fine shapes to make this picture. Fine marble was used here in square flat stone to pave the floor of the Pantheon. They were stones of different colors used too. The Unswept Floor2 ndcentury CE variant from 2 ndcentury BCE Pg. 199 (Figure 6-56 Technique) These were made in square trays and were placed into the larger picture afterwards. Romans perfected this technique. Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius: 176 CE Pg. 200 (Figure 6-57) 11 foot 6 inches tall and was originally gilded This man was the emperor and general of this time. Was a bearded man and shows he is a philosopher type from Hellenistic Greece where this type of art with beards were first shown. Two fingers forward means he wanted to address his audience. Vanquished soldier was under the horses’ foot and was eventually removed. This statue survived because people thought it was Emperor Constantine. Balancing act between horse and rider was parallel! Their relationship was made so that they would not dominate one another. Commodus as Hercules 191-192 CE made of Marble Pg. 201 (Figure 6-58) Son (Marcus Aurelius) did not like military as much and this son here was more prone to luxury and trivial pursuits that were important to him and not the country. He claimed to be a reincarnation of Hercules. This man’s life was short lived by strangulation. There was some similar features from the equestrian statue in this statue. Showing features of Hercules, lion skin, club and head of lion is shown. Style shows he is pleasant and pleasurable, different aspect from father. A Closer Look Pg. 202 Caracalla: 3 Century Pg. 203 (Figure 6-59) Had 2 sons and they ruled as co-emperors In 2011 one of the brothers murdered the other, and then in 217 he was over ruled In this figure the pupils are drilled, hair cut short, military discipline. The rigid surpasses were noticeable and turn of head has a sense of fierceness and determination with the forehead frown and strong chin. Forehead from side is bulges to emphasis sense of force.
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