Week 5 - PHCL 2600 Notes
Week 5 - PHCL 2600 Notes PHCL2600
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHCL2600 at University of Toledo taught by Williams,F in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I in Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Lecture 14 Monday September 21 2015 1153 AM Neurophysiology l Today39s Topics 0 Nervous System 1 Overview e Reading Assignment 4 Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 1439 Edition 6 Tortoro and B Derrickson n Nervous system Chapter 12447484 Divisions of The Nervous System CN CCWWOLJ 0N9 vet Pherod Sensory and motor fibers CNS to muscles glands amp sensory Center of the nervous system Connects the nelves receptors brain and PNS 39 uripheml 5 quot 39 9 Clister of neurons nervous system Nerve fibers House inside vertebrates CNS Functions Control of voluntary movements Vouhmrl g J39h Contraction of muscles An A PHCL 2600 Page 1 has loue Mada gow book do IhVDl WW4 boom nativeCAN coorics oeki Vouhmr h39mas Ioue Mouse gow may do InVDl WW4 book mad udmdw carrKCS OLA l Process 3 not hou3 vd ampW Control of voluntary movements Contraction of muscles Control of involuntary movements Breathe D39geS on of fond MZSSCKQQC COWS ln l nVOU A OxFF rehl39 WV 2 Wrad wa ccmcr CNS Processes 3 Sends OLJK V messacsc AdmWk chcn nerve Processing of incoming sensory information E Source of thoughts emotions and memories Gal64w Peripheral Nervous System Divisions 395AMPNS a Clsbd V9 3M respohgeg OFVaLUtquot Jvoece on CJnadl evwae w WWW 7 PM gVquotquot rueh MM chant e moCNS kg 0 p second dcosiow I V Nor cornSciouxslxi accideol w 3 Ex Foucle OK bear PmraMS mgnl umquotmm Re ix 236 33193 25 nucum nonmam 3 MOs V aback ed W earl4V3 rm names EX 60 ng sleepirw Organization of the Nervous System Wmammmmmg Incoch mm OLLA VOYWOKNUCS 7 aiLhMONC gt 60mg o bOCHMOOVVL s Earned C sumac gt 9 learned Vespoh zs mrmmemmumw Cell Types of Nervous Tissue Mogq be able to remir gnawkw 39 Transmit information from one cell to another They do not divide Neuroglia or Glia Cells Provide support nourishment and protection for the neurons They divide They outnumber neurons ueppoiA39 Lek S I WWquot 394 PHCL 2600 Page 2 Parts of a Neuron Delulvilnt 7 J Nucleus Neuronal processes Extend from the soma Long and single projection Propagates nerve impulses Cell Body or Soma Metabolism and synthesis of proteins for dendrites axons and synaptic terminals 39 Receptive area for synaptic inputs Specialized organelles nucleus RER Golgi mitochondria lysosomes Nissl bodies are group ribosomes 191wa K Cellular movement from Shape and support Im Tree like structures extending from soma Expansions of cytoplasm contains some organelle Receive signals coming from other neurons cm 9cm r Major site for synapses Presence of receptors in postsynaptic membrane in F r s l 1 when It propagates nerve impulses away from soma It contains mitochondria amp cytoskeletal elements It can be wrapped with myelin use PHCL 2600 Page 3 1w KW CO DzV dhA es QMVZ cell myses Rxovx whcvc can Sands OLJC l vd o SN RPl ic Aerm u od S 39 Plouces w here mwon race Wes impact Nl bodics grouped ribosomes innle 0 lame fS impuxlsa prowe oele a er IAAJ It can be wrapped with myelin Myelln helps lmpuxlga propaSoele agtev Axcn man We m calmer Axon cytoplasineimw 1 AIM Creedeg as m elin Sheosl Plasma membrane Axon Structures Axon joins the cell body Part closest to hillock Junction where nerve impulses arise are side branches Back to soma or other cells A quot 0400 Wmlha S Terminals Form synapse with another 39quot quot neuron Mauro Wsmi l lcir 9 glared released in hc sqrwmp rlc KnOb 0 pro Gagatee impudse Very S yiaptic Knob lme taxPensions 0 moms l Site of communication Neuron to neuron or neuron effector cell Synapse consists of H l lmPorkochi Wl lnc ceH has reccgalors TOW hc hCm39lrrmSmlHtr lo bird Contains synaptic vesicles wit neurotransmitters 9 Presxp ocpHc ending quot latter h0P v in ne axon Poe Xgs noquc mendaroch ova er sqnocPsa m h dendrite snnoeprm AC Pk OOS OP h wvotraanMilto s VC a ecl hem l WaySW 0 6 plwpower accwagq Contains receptor sites for neurotransmitters Gap between presynaptic and postsynaptic cells 0 Types of Axonal Transport I cellular process responsble for mvementofcellcomponentstoudfmmthesm From soma to axon From axon terminal terminal soma uses microlubulcs tam termncu PJCIOUOUCS Axonal YrOnsood Axonal Transport Uses Microlubues PHCL 2600 Page 4 Transport to axon h Slow axonal transport 39 Moves neurofilaments microtubules 0110 mm per day Fast axonal transport Moves organelles with membranes eg synaptic vesicles mitochondria along surface of microtubules 50500 mm per day Mediated by EL 7le 17 712 4quot quot goes FVOM W 9 axon 1quot I Aw rue r 2 Transport from axon quot t r39 terminal to soma Jay W Fast axonal transport a V Moves membrane vesicles and cellular material to be degraded or recycled 03063 WOM axon 0 soma Moves substances that enter the neuron eg nerve growth factor tetanus toxin and viruses Mediated by Evenm Arrangech mar r39o W meC i ex vecdclin 5 Mandi F39lcac OMS 39 Head binds ATP and More complex than kin microtubules Multisubunit protei Tail binds cargo Accessory proteins It moves along Kihcsin Qoocs N46 H5 microtubules tubulin 0 3mmquot of has lb m39wah39 Along 1mm Inrl hm t 39 m m AD Aquot c I Iona n t 2 I M Ownein quot mcceSO pmihs O Minedum 0 danCl lh 39 needs o rlner Wing Jro Wc Hovx composed OP WW ll Cl cmxns w 1w nhH u httple uic aMclasuxbo39osbioleOncmn39kimm hm 0 Haber Commam ko mzessm FWDtellng o Q r heavy Names 040 mmim PHCL 2600 Page 5 Lecture 15 Tuesday September 22 2015 1159 AM TopHat Code 209703 Types of Neurons Neurons are classified based on structure on function Accordi to the number of esses extendi from the bod quot9 Car 2 Pm pi quot9 Y Multipolaru bipo or and unipo ar neurons Based on the direction of the nerve impulse with respect to the CNS w One long axon Multiple short dendrites Neurons 39 Motor neurons Neurons in the brain Neurons in the spinal cord Coll Denomos oooy Tnggolzona T4piCO WP 0 th Myem sham I Axon erw tomnu J quot v 39 K I 5 l x a Mumpoiar neuron Two main processes One axon One main dendrite Axon and dendrite are on opposite sides of some Location TW 0 Often sensory neurons Retinal neurom eyes Auditory neurons ear Olfactory neurons nose d F r h pokes loi polars PHCL 2600 Page 1 39 Cell body lies to one side W One process divided in two 0mm T I W branches quot 939 like 0 proHMSlon Anon Axon and dendrites are continuous and extend in opposite directions Sensory neurons in PNS 39 Skin 39 Muscles 6i joints Internal organs cthookrneuror Can oooy wean sheath 4 Sensor A Gereh 4 where iiLFo comes iw gt npukl MOl39Dl E F cr r v where info 3065 cud OLJCVPLL39l 39 Ihicrhcwons gt Moxie associach on blob hc Sangerx ihpucl 2 modor ovum WCWOHS Neurons Functional Classification Sensory impulses from receptors Sensory or or sense orggns to the brain CNS A QFw39crchr r Sensex Memos m Most are unipolar neurons 7 39 a A A Comect sensory newon and h In motor newons Locmd mainly in the ms In lcrhcmns Multipolar neurons V 39139 Motor or efferqn 7 Nanon quot l j if j Carryinfo fromCNStoperiphery E Effectors are uncles and glands Multipolar neurons E FFCVW Motor NW inl c voetcs Moior ouck viers Wod broqn is ying to cudpud 0 Paviphcry l39r lt wr 39 Q w W I In the cerebellum Motor function Pyramidshaped soma In the cerebral cortex 1 and hi pocarn 5 m m J AA P MPjiAL 5amp4 ma PHCL 2600 Page 2 Pyramidshaped soma In the cerebral cortex 1 and hippocampus it x 77gt Memory attention w language and thoughts Au D e in hose vol developmenl oq RSgues 5 quot39 Hard 0 ocucs QnOVl cal lam Hon 3mm Limcraaocr gealole Neuroglia do not generate or conduct nerve impulses They can divide tumors gliomas 39 WV cure con Sacred canes They support neurons by rms much 9W trade 0 Forming the Blood Brain Barrier BBB Forming the myelin sheath nerve insulation around neuronal axons Making the CSF that circulates around the brain and spinal cord Participating in phagocytosis 439 Clean up area Mira hem Types Of 39 Sou keua gt go 0 Two ccquot fypcs in 0 Four ccquot wpcs in Id 9 WM Q Ma 0hv00m Gorwx wrap gelwok m cell COQCOVK am quot Asl ro Art63 chuse o P heir praQacHorws t 39Sod39cl il C 9 NOYK 4 036Hwev on mp 0 max 0 veron eelOW mole book 39Schwcxhn quot wraps m axon levels sand was I 93mm Surouxl axons PNS o No responsibly lav myelnahnn 01 poiWm axons O PaniCipate in W process amquot away PHCL 2600 Page 3 LTC 39IM39CCS law an Cm CMU wmqovng Jv camw ma Lmom bbran we I Fun on zlmctmt Dvmm 511mm mm amu Requisit m fumequot and mowed c CU K39UWJI A1 5 39 OI isodehclmcfes Q39vallour 2 schmanCBRS MlCJO HR 9 060xVM e mm h UUOhs 0 WFOQW Semi permeable barrier Composed of blood vessels and glial cells astrocytes Astrocytes processes cover capillaries 9 wFoo IJ process M6 W Jr agree Capillow39xe39s quotquot CClC it W 1th h0cl prom 9 Hak l dudc orws preVei so ucke Malawivi WitQ hdohellcu calls Keeps macscrlau WM Ccs BloodBrain Barrier Solid connection between the adjoining vessel wall cells Protein complexes known as tight jmctions Prevent diffusion of material between endothelial cells Special transport systems Myelination Myelination is the process of forming a myelin sheath which insulates and increases nerve impulse speed Myelin sheath 80 lipids 207 proteins and water It is formed by Oligodendrocytes in the CNS and by Schwann cells in the PNS Multiple Sclerosis result a y gyms Wyn u r39vwlmalod dun from autoimmme destruction of myelin PHCL 2600 Page 4 gt kdePihj mosV16 CNS 39 13l er haclquot onlq ampOWS car mum Awhin g vaou h CgeMipemnWecuole a g 4 0 4 0VN VC cond ULCA39KW 5 Axons no o W OKV surrounded b mqelin gt when bun a 0 4 wuouuse Speed 13 I034 u 39w 1310 wuw Ll Numbwed u Multiple Sclerosis result fgom autoimmune destruction of myelin Y e 139 a Lexorxs no 0 er are suurrouxnded bl mqe n when amq 2 4 MpLJkS speed s log PHCL 2600 Page 5 movemer s Durexch Souo or do who mom 04 ow Poor per gtmmce kudox39mmwe mcasOS ne mexc SSquot Cm VCCOthi CG somCAhlng n louur mdq as bang somewer bra 33h hod needs co be degVoqu 9 immm s erem is QLKPpOWC quot D 4 rid OC hr s ha mi make wove 9cm Lecture 16 Wednesday September 232015 1153 AM M Each Schwann cell produces part of the myelin sheath surrounding an axon Wm A cell myelinates one segment of an axon Cells wrap around PNS axons Inner portion is d rher em s HH Pow Hons 44006 are nod mxiellm hsd 399 cm ed Modes 0 Radxvle Outer portion is the u waamamxn tmdsmlt nar AutumnVIII IOti Mm Ibom manqszmulu Mann so 1quot khnm onno uvwwmo quoton mega u 1m NA 3 Cu mu 1 A Inland non if none Dul n w hunt111510 HUI II Iquot flourQ sHC l Chlh 7 lon drmsl wwaaegb Each oligondendrocyte cell forms myelin sheath around as many as 40 axons in the CNS Cell bodies are small Have nodes as well PHCL 2600 Page 1 Cell bodies of oligodendrocytes do not surround the axons 39 No neurolemma is formed 39 Tip of processes is involved in forming the myelin sheath Synthesis of large amount of plasma membrane Krone LAP 39 7 Cfea heah n 39 Mammmmmnmqmm 3I No swimC Olel quot No an 39m SkaHom 39 Unmyelinated axons are a bundle of axons that are wrapped very thinly by 5cm cells ID a cuseir Facilitates the rapid conduction of nerve impulses 9 VeVH qugd Electrical impulses hop from one node to another 0 Now 1 WW6 Med 3 SONr 0 Periodic gaps in the myelin sheath jgt 44on Mpqueg com uck down an oagtltoh neutron PHCL 2600 Page 2 H Presynophc m Activation of presynaptlc neuron 39 Action potential Communication at the synapse Release of neurotransmitters Activation of postsynaptic nailon Activation of Receptors Transmission lit 9 Pow neuron Neurotransmission Production of action potential Change in membrane potential Flow of ions 39 Release of neurotransmitters at the synapse We in Neurons Like muscle fibers neurons are electrically excitable They communicate with one another using two types of electrical signals Shortdistance communication Communication over I distances wi in the body Electrical Signals in Neurons Production of electrical signals in neurons depends on A variety of ion channels that open or close in response to specific stimuli Because the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane is a good insulator ions must flow through these channels Exocx osis gt A tault36 1 0 neuvomgmi k tevs go Whipuse is rcccv dl l CVlCOJRI calwen chem COKH drive ace Hon Po l en l ioA Caugeg some rhm The existence of 0 H PHCL 2600 Page 3 Jn ha mph folAMPC QMP quotWWWquot I u guvu INSUIUIUT IONS quotIUSF IIIquot through these channels The existence of QC HOVN POAen HoA Caugeg W W h O MW CCJANSCS QM P Type of Ion Channel They are present in the plasma membrane They randome open and close They open and close in response to a stimulus 39 3 pf39m m39iquot f quot7 Ligand chemical binds 39 39 Specific ions cross the MCChOJW lCaJ 9OVC O P s 39 mmb39m quot d mmquot f gt Velmaa ea Fri M 0 Opams concentration gradient higher to lower 9amp0 Sl hod needs 0 be bow o he Shamel 39g 2 liqWinn WowquotMound W Iiimanna EWWW Imam Permeability to ion is high They alternate between open and close position quot Vahdom 39 Present in all cells In neurons they are in dendrites cell bodies and axons W I 5W m Mm mow Cytosol u u I Binding of a ligand stimulates the channel neurotransmitter hormones and ions 39 Iquot damn f sensory quoteuroquot f TellS W NevaOMS Nhod l o do In dendrites and cell bodies of interneurons and V motor neurons mainly concentrated at the Oh PCS rng P HC Ce synapse atheroc res mpudsc PHCL 2600 Page 4 W I Eurcolu M Ploun mamn Cytood 39 vibration touch pressure and tissue stretching In auditory receptors receptors in internal 9 i organs and skin receptors slam W5 0lON LAS l o F burh sewageH ons W EIB MWM gammamow CY M Open in respond to a change in membrane potential p mainly located along the neuronal axon v depolcun Zodl39cm pokoquM i im Generation and conduction of action potential in axons Present on unmyelinated axons Node of Ranvier myelinated axons and axon hillock Na K and Caz channels Model for VoltageGated Na Channels Example Na channel Both activation and inactivation gates need to 5 be open for ion to pass through At rest the activation gate is closed and the inactivation gate is open Voltagegated K channels has a only single gate PHCL 2600 Page 5 Lecture 17 Monday September 28 2015 1154 AM i I Iiilm R 39 we 5 MP ls med d at r Extracelulerlluld PIasma membrane Cv osol neuron is not conducting a nerve impulse L Buildup of equal numbers 4 V of negative and positive ions in opposite side of n in lwllnzlimimlm L l 1 r l n U V up i 1quot mm aquot Him umhiu39uimmil i v 9539 95 71347135 Buildup of charge occurs only very close to the 39 1 membrane 39 39 a Distribution ol charges that pvoduoe the resting CYfoso sewme in n membrane potential olaneuron cell is electrically neutral quot39 r e 1 I n Resting Membrane Potential Ibifferentlmconcentra onsacmstheplaunam d Winnem depends mlntyonx39andNa39 Ned05 eat 06mm LAN Ml us Mfg Fahd e InsidettlenetmK39lslighchugeisbelncebynegothely chagedluumdprotelm C a 2 are M C0 powkoavl t39oo WMMNaWs Na isbalance Ci39 w quotW De pends on Mod a C mos Ha 0 Na is begocnced m Cl C by A y 3 1320713 N Membrane Potential i lu iimr ui L lynx A L m s a 3953 9 uisia a U 1 5 393 i l39n39vtvln39nllle In k39 1 mm lm Concentration of ions an both sides is not equal of K Electrical potential is generated No electrical potential will be measured across PM ons move a lower Mm meme WIMWO39U 39 Equilibrlum I qmckly f cOCth O Equal concentration of K39 on Why an Electrical Potential is Generated gidc is C MampU C 14 lean3939 Side 2 is 0 Wage Kquot 7st Elsa tricoq poteh HOJ opposes 0 QO PHCL 2600 Page 1 K stops diffusing when electrical potential is equal to the force of concentration gradient 4 Why an Electrical Potential is Generated a 39 A 1 1 539 ab tea3 l 2quot can K39 maves from side 1 to side 2 taking its positive charge 39 Creation of a negatrve potential on side 1 Side 2 becomes positive relative to snde 1 Separation of charges creates an electrical potential Electrical potential opposes K39 diffusion out of the cell l 39enr not aid the opposng electrical gradient Equilibrium potential electrochemical potential generated at equilibrium can be predicted by the Nernst Equation cmsm M I mi H I H Eequiibrium potential mv R universal gas constant 831 Jmol x quotK F Faraday 96500 Coulombsmole charge T Temperature of solution 310 K I valence electrical charge 1 Simplified equation I I H I H Calculation of Equilibrium Potential Numbers represent the membrane potential at which each ion comes to equilibrium equilibrium potential for the ions for a Specific Ion Cum39mlmtimi li on intracellular Lrirarrllular Mammalian neuron l39uhhulll n Kquot 151 q Satum 1 39l l EC Uilundc IL 1 39 Q 2 5 61541 x lug mo 1 1501 90 quotiv K 1 Eh 6L5 I logquot 50o 5I 6quot HIV 9 N03 Eu6l5 I xliiglu125o 1 m39o lll39 gt Ci Many Ions Contribute to Membrane Potential It mainly depends on distribution of K39 Cl 6 Na is used to describe the membrane potential It considers concentrations of ion insideoutside cell a rmeability p of membrane to each ion PHCL 2600 Page 2 9 N05 2 Kquot cure di F eien l39 Wmugg GP 03 roe Hos gidc is I mogu c K4 leave Side 2 is 0 Wow Kquot en VS Elsatrim parish Had opposes diFmgm 16 Know hiS 1A Thesc we he PMH l icdS Cow 6L eepwmreol ion a 04 ALL ionS lrpryed W31 5 m C on PMqu mse ions Vial144 le AA ltiuA39a r3 Rule The membrane potential at any time is closest in value to the equilibrium potential for the ions to ITII UUIIIIY UI quotKHIUIWK IU CUBquot IUquot which the membrane is most permeable u H pllww w Mse ions relayViv AA sixvulgar quot MeaSW le5 Ct ox Measurement of Membrane Potential All cells in the relaxed state have a resting membrane potential lb Hananname Miaq mane tunerhm I la mum E skeletal muscle 9O mv En neuron 7O mv EmURBC 7mvto 14mv Akb cell have 0 lePCVewt eh 0 9 scamHas CV ou l ed volt6 56 Pmszu3 0 de rMiM What Do We Need to Maintain RMP Voltagegated channels are in a resting state i Emumuw tun a Paw PmllM i C ytma P 39 O 5 393 n IO a62 Okra in reg mg stock ANY domH com iA ro pCL omW ChahheAS woticing mm e cell SQ Vest How is the Resting Membrane At 70 mv resting potential K39 leaks out of the cell Cl Na is less permeable but a small amount leak into the neuron Neuron must compensate for C02 K and Na leaks Omile Na39lK ATPase maintains the resting membrane potential Trans Potential Maintained At rest the neuron is highly permeable to K 3Na outand2 K in hydrolysis of ATP Mae i4 eogs OLA Cow poured quot19 N6gt ATPOSC W16 load where toms om rom 3 N00 in 2 K out quot399 lofc N03quot is SlON Vl0U cr39 Molecwle lF gene rades Clea rmed potewHOA 399 More Lgt om one Side II HI I PHCL 2600 Page 3 o A signal which travels the length of the neuron gt During an AP the membrane potential reverses and then eventually is restored to its resting state Exchange of ions across the membrane W 7 4 1 W I r a o v Hay I quot V V g 39 k v 39 rw mu g i one 5 39 m e z i 5 I Y 15ml Characteristics of Action Potential Action potential depends on Distribution of ions Changes in membrane permeability to ions 4 Mainly Na39 and K Cl39 to a lesser degree Action of voltagegated channels o It is a shortlasting event Caused lax ion exam 5 across mem Lkmeeli ox Fed vg M 6lha a Am across can Hra 0940 m Ohlq hodeg A CF eel Ne psimm 4 4 An action potential has two main phases 1 k Reversal of polarization Membrare potential in mullwolls mV Time in milliseconds msec ThrfShoo 55 mV goes paS lquot QMP PHCL 2600 Page 4 Resting Membrane Potential quot Resting state J that y Activation 39 at39e eldse39d 4 iue l Voltagegated Na channels are in resting state Volt gated K channels are closede Na39 amp K leak channels are involved mV 70 Time gt aluminumu new gt v 00m W A qk Mmtxar a potential in mllnvollx mV Voltagegated Na channels starting to open Depolarization needs to reach a certain level or threshold 55 mv to produce an action potential Time in rnllnocmdslrmec Depolarization is a shift from the resting membrane potential toward a more positive potential Charges change across the membrane Chas 2 p images mus t weach h VEShold 0 gW l quot55 mV ole p0 Oer i zcdi Dik Generation of Action Potential MT ll 39 Reaq Nivenc om T39mhot m nun n mw autumn punMal Action potentials will have the some amplitude Independent on stimulus intensity B slkehfylln ls VClOCl39Ed tr 44 OF APS cellDays m ampM aMPHWdQ 7 kampldct c 0 id oi ADS PHCL 2600 Page 5 tnmeuuuww After the mmbrane reaches threshold Voltagegated Na chamels open Channel activation gates open Na rushes Into the neuron Building of more positive charges inside of the cell next to menialone N r Minor 1 9 39 As Membrane potential approaches 30 rnv the inactivation gate of the voltagegated Na channels closes in most channels OQC SS WW amp MKUS COIAOl quotcuDenna nirvana l o Repolarization is the process of restoring the normal resting 3 Repolarizlng phase begins Na39 channel inactivation gates close and K39 channels open Membiane starts lo become repolanzed as some K39 ions leave neuron and law negative charges begm to build up alang inSide surlace of membrane membrane potential after depolarization Na channels inactivation gate closes quot les 14 oud brings o Hgur Awnings back PHCL 2600 Page 6
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