Diversity of Life I Week 5 Notes
Diversity of Life I Week 5 Notes 210
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Friday October 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 210 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Justine Weber in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life I in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/02/15
Wildlife Ecology and Management Notes Week 5 92915 Behaviors and Behavioral Interactions Behavioral Ecology interpreting behavior in proximate stimuli explaining it right now vs ultimate evolutionary terms Why is this adaptive What behaviors do we observe What are tness bene ts or roles of said behaviors How might changing habitats or populations alter the behaviors Expected effects Management opportunities How do we study behavior foca animal vs scan ock sampling Censusing much harder Continuous recording throughout entire time very difficult but allows for more complete description Or Discrete Radio telemetry or other tracking useful for migratory mating territory Mating Systems seecting and securing mates is essential for individuals tness determines fecunditynatality many systems to optimize tness outcomes number of genetic offspring qualitysurvival certainty of offspring being their actual genetic offspring aocation of effort towards raising young a depend on environment conditions may be shaped by adaptations resources time and space may shape secondary sexual characteristics plumage antlers differing behaviors sexual selection usually not always causes male to be fancier shaped by sex ratio see deer hunting when 1 sex is limiting the other sex must compete for them often maintenance of uneven sex ratios Mate choice evolution Direct phenotypes female s preference for male ornamentsdisplay considerable empirical support for this Sensory bias female genetic preference for male ornamentals for other reasons besides tness to female the males ashy ornamentals may indicate ample resources good habitatterritory which is selected for over generations increasing evidence some male ornaments evolved initialy through sensory bias honest vs dishonest Fisherian sexy son hypothesis having young that propagate same traits and preferences for traits selected for may lead to coevolution selfreinforcement direct testing is difficult lndicator mechanisms good genes handicap mechanisms attractive male traits re ect genetic quality survival capability in uences female preference peacock s extra long tail Genetic compatibility mechanisms alleles that complement the genome of the chooser advantageous in cases of dual parenting humans these mechanisms may not be operating alone could be working in tandem Types of Mating Systems Monogamy exclusive association with 1 member of opposite sex true genetic monogamy vs Social monogamy apparent exclusive social bond is formed pair bonds may last for 1 breeding attempt 1 breeding season or several breeding seasons seen in 90 of avian species songbirds and less than 5 in mammals advantageous when femae availability males can t pair with or defend more than 1 female arge female home range femaes are solitary Biparental care for successful rising of young prolonged development stage shaped by permanent group livinggroup structure mongoose wolves Paternity certainty secures 1 partner ties into strong parental care threat of infanticide Types of Monogamy Facultative pair forms due to lack of other mating opportunities not a lot of time with parental care seen in elephant shrews Obligate females can t rear young without help of partners in case of mammals often form family groups longterm seen in many songbirds primates with species that have more ample resources in habitat polygamy is more likely Extrapair copulations EPCs copulation with others besides matesocial partner Polygamy pair bonds with many mates Poygyny seen in deerone male has many females femaes join harem ifWhen reproductive success gt than being monogamous often relates to territorial quality Femae Defense Resource defense Scramble competition males seek to mate with as many females as possible Lek polygyny neither females are resources are defendable overdispersed but females may be predictable custered male territories gathered for purpose of display and mating no parental care promiscuity or maledominance polygyny M Alee effect Preferred habitat for display Female preference advantages gain compared to mating at solitary sites cost of searching for males is reduced better mating success better evaluation of absolute quality Hot Spots female movementdispersal determines lek formation supported for widely dispersed lekking bird species maes tend to cluster on point of highest female density or range overlap Hot shots the unattractive males will gather around the other attractive ones to jump females go along for the ride kleptoparasitism cannot be only explanation for lekking very high bias is female choice Kin selection maes genetically related should get tness bene ts Black Hole Model numbers game females have no special preferences more females will be around where large groups of male territories are present causing females to be pulled in and retained in area supported most for lekking ungulates Polyandry 1 female mates with many males very rare mating type parental care is usually by the male seen where 2 parents needed for raising offspring saddlebacked tamarins Polygyandry 2 males and bond with 2 females red foxes Promiscuity indiscriminant sexual relationships lekking usually brief Other behaviors sexua segregation may be seasonal different preferences for habitats age class segregation migration social systems predator avoidance Case Studies Wood ducks timber harvest reduced available nesting habitat tree cavities nest boxes acts as substitute when placed over open water high egg counts but low numberjuveniles Why conspeci c parasitism Relationship between nest accessibility and degree of parasitism Look at Wolves Trigger Trophic Cascade paper Mark Hebblewhite etaL2004 END OF NOTES